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  • Instant Insanity (puzzle)

    number game: Coloured squares and cubes: …of a puzzle known as Instant Insanity, consisting of four cubes, each of which has its faces painted white, red, green, and blue in a definite scheme. The puzzle is to assemble the cubes into a 1 × 1 × 4 prism such that all four colours appear on each…

  • instant messaging (communication)

    Instant messaging (IM), form of text-based communication in which two persons participate in a single conversation over their computers or mobile devices within an Internet-based chatroom. IM differs from “Chat,” in which the user participates in a more public real-time conversation within a

  • instant potato (food)

    vegetable processing: Dehydration: …most familiar dehydrated products is instant potatoes. Almost all the mashed potato dishes served in restaurants and institutions are rehydrated instant potatoes. In restaurants and institutions dehydrated potato granules are used, while dehydrated flakes are preferred for home cooking. Potato granules have high bulk density and are easy to handle…

  • instant replay (television)

    Bud Selig: …oversaw the implementation of limited instant replay—the process whereby umpires consult a video monitor to review the previous play—in order to analyze disputed home runs. The instant replay process was expanded in 2014 to allow managers to challenge one umpire’s ruling per game (plus a second if the first challenge…

  • instant runoff (political science)

    Alternative vote (AV), method of election in which voters rank candidates in order of preference. If any single candidate receives a majority of first-preference votes, that candidate is deemed elected. If no candidate clears this hurdle, the last-place candidate is eliminated and that candidate’s

  • instant tea

    tea: Instant tea: Instant teas are produced from black tea by extracting the liquor from processed leaves, tea wastes, or undried fermented leaves, concentrating the extract under low pressure, and drying the concentrate to a powder by freeze-drying, spray-drying, or vacuum-drying. Low temperatures are used to…

  • instant-picture photography

    technology of photography: History and evolution: An instant-print colour film (Polacolor) was introduced in 1963 and an integral single-sheet colour film in 1972. After the mid-1970s other manufacturers offered similar instant-print processes. In 1977 Polaroid introduced an 8-mm colour movie film, and in 1982 it introduced still transparency films that permit rapid…

  • instantaneous acceleration (physics)

    mechanics: Circular motion: …one may conclude that the instantaneous acceleration is always perpendicular to v and its magnitude is

  • instantaneous velocity (physics)

    mechanics: Circular motion: Indeed, the instantaneous velocity, found by allowing Δt to shrink to zero, is a vector v that is perpendicular to r at every instant and whose magnitude is

  • INSTAR (Cuban organization)

    Tania Bruguera: …activist who founded (2015) the Institute of Artivism/Instituto de Artivismo Hannah Arendt (INSTAR) in order to “foster civic literacy and policy change.” Her advocacy of free speech often ran afoul of the Cuban government.

  • instar (biology)

    arthropod: The exoskeleton and molting: …between molts is called an instar. Because of the frequency of molts, instars are short early in life but grow longer with increasing age. Some arthropods, such as most spiders and insects, stop molting when they reach sexual maturity; others, like lobsters and crabs, molt throughout their lives. Most of…

  • Instauratio Magna (work by Bacon)

    Francis Bacon: Fall from power: …and the developer of the Instauratio Magna (“Great Instauration”), a comprehensive plan to reorganize the sciences and to restore man to that mastery over nature that he was conceived to have lost by the fall of Adam. But Bacon had his enemies. In 1618 he fell foul of George Villiers…

  • INSTEX (international trade)

    Iran: Nuclear deal falters: …with Iran, known as the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX). The sanctions went into effect on November 5, though the United States granted exemptions to China, India, Italy, Greece, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey to continue importing oil from Iran for six months. Those exemptions expired in…

  • instinct (behaviour)

    Instinct, an inborn impulse or motivation to action typically performed in response to specific external stimuli. Today instinct is generally described as a stereotyped, apparently unlearned, genetically determined behaviour pattern. In the past the term instinct has stood for a number of distinct

  • Instinct and the Unconscious (work by Rivers)

    W. H. R. Rivers: His Instinct and the Unconscious (1920) did much to encourage a sympathetic British attitude toward psychoanalytic theory.

  • Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts, The (work by Veblen)

    Thorstein Veblen: Later works and career: In The Instinct of Workmanship and the State of the Industrial Arts (1914), he elaborated on his idea that business enterprise was in fundamental conflict with the human propensity for useful effort; too much of humankind’s energy was wasted through inefficient institutions. The outbreak of World…

  • instinctive learning (animal behaviour)

    animal behaviour: Instinctive learning: An animal adjusts its behaviour based on experience—that is, it learns—when experience at one time provides information that will be useful at a later time. Viewed in this light, learning is seen as a tool for survival and reproduction because it helps an…

  • Institut Canadien (Canadian organization)

    Institut Canadien, literary and scientific society that came into conflict with the Roman Catholic church in 19th-century French Canada. Founded in Montreal on Dec. 17, 1844, it soon became a forum for discussing the problems of the day, maintaining the largest free library in Montreal. The

  • Institut de Droit International (international organization)

    Institute of International Law, international organization founded in Ghent, Belgium, in 1873 to develop and implement international law as a codified science responsible for the legal morality and integrity of the civilized world. In 1904 the Institute of International Law was awarded the Nobel

  • Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale (botanical institute, Montreal, Quebec, Canada)

    Montreal Botanical Garden: The Plant Biology Research Institute (Institut de Recherche en Biologie Végétale) of the University of Montreal uses some of the garden’s facilities, and, together, the two institutions form an important botanical research centre.

  • Institut Géographique National (institution, France)

    Institut Géographique National (IGN), one of the foremost centres of mapmaking and geographic research in France, specializing in aerial and ground surveys and maps; it is located in Paris. Its origins can be traced to a mapmaking group organized in 1719, the Engineers and Geographers for Armies

  • Institut International de Bibliographie (international organization)

    International Federation for Information and Documentation, international library organization that was founded in 1895 as the Institut International de Bibliographie (IIB) to promote a unified and centralized approach to bibliographic classification. The IIB was founded by two Belgian lawyers,

  • Institut National (institution, France)

    Charles-Maurice de Talleyrand, prince de Bénévent: During the Directory: …taking the seat in the Institut National (a creation of the National Convention reestablishing, in a new form, the 18th-century academies, among them the Académie Fran?aise), to which he had been elected in his absence. The paper that he read there in July 1797, in which he concluded that France…

  • Institut National des Sciences et des Arts (institution, France)

    Adrien-Marie Legendre: …reopened in 1795 as the Institut Nationale des Sciences et des Arts, and Legendre was installed in the mathematics section. When Napoleon reorganized the institute in 1803, Legendre was retained in the new geometry section. In 1824 he refused to endorse the government’s candidate for the Institut and lost his…

  • Institute, The (novel by King)

    Stephen King: … (2018; TV miniseries 2020); and The Institute (2019). King published several of those works, including The Dead Zone and The Running Man, under the pseudonym Richard Bachman. A collection of the first four Bachman novels, The Bachman Books (1985), contains the essay “Why I Was Bachman.” Mr. Mercedes (2014), Finders…

  • Institutes (Roman law)

    Code of Justinian: The Institutiones, compiled and published in 533 under Tribonian’s supervision and relying on such earlier texts as those of Gaius, was an elementary textbook, or outline, of legal institutions for the use of first-year law students.

  • Institutes (treatise by Gaius)

    Gaius: …were intended to supersede Gaius’s treatise of the same name, were modeled on the older work in style and content, and numerous passages were copied verbatim.

  • Institutes of Justinian (Roman law)

    Code of Justinian: The Institutiones, compiled and published in 533 under Tribonian’s supervision and relying on such earlier texts as those of Gaius, was an elementary textbook, or outline, of legal institutions for the use of first-year law students.

  • Institutes of the Christian Religion (work by Calvin)

    Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin’s masterpiece, a summary of biblical theology that became the normative statement of the Reformed faith. It was first published in 1536 and was revised and enlarged by Calvin in several editions before the definitive edition was published in 1559.

  • Institutes of the Lawes of England (work by Coke)

    common law: The 16th-century revolution: His four volumes of Institutes of the Lawes of England, published between 1628 and 1644, dealt with the law of real property (Coke on Littleton), medieval statutes, criminal law (pleas of the crown), and jurisdiction of the courts.

  • Institutio oratoria (work by Quintilian)

    rhetoric: Ancient Greece and Rome: Quintilian’s tediously prescriptive Institutio oratoria is built on Cato’s thesis: it offers an educational program for producing generations of Ciceronian statesmen. But for all its importance and influence, the work never found its time so far as being used as a text for political leaders to follow. Quintilian’s…

  • Institutio principis Christiani (work by Erasmus)

    Erasmus: The wandering scholar: …Institutio principis Christiani (1516; The Education of a Christian Prince) and Querela pacis (1517; The Complaint of Peace). These works expressed Erasmus’s own convictions, but they also did no harm to Sauvage’s faction at court, which wanted to maintain peace with France. It was at this time too that he…

  • Institutio Theologiae Elencticae (work by Turretin)

    Calvinism: …the 17th century was the Institutio Theologiae Elencticae (1688; Institutes of Elenctic Theology) of Fran?ois Turretin, chief pastor of Geneva. Although the title of his work recalled Calvin’s masterpiece, the work itself bore little resemblance to the Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536); it was not published in the vernacular,…

  • Institutio theologica (work by Proclus)

    Proclus: …Proclus’s own Institutio theologica (Elements of Theology). Latin translations of the Elements of Theology, his most important work, and many of his other writings in Greek were made in the 13th century by the scholar William of Moerbeke and became the principal sources for medieval knowledge of Platonic philosophy.…

  • institution (political science)

    Institution, in political science, a set of formal rules (including constitutions), informal norms, or shared understandings that constrain and prescribe political actors’ interactions with one another. Institutions are generated and enforced by both state and nonstate actors, such as professional

  • institution

    social structure: Structure and social organization: …structure on the behaviour of institutions and their members. In other words, Durkheim believed that individual human behaviour is shaped by external forces. Similarly, American anthropologist George P. Murdock, in his book Social Structure (1949), examined kinship systems in preliterate societies and used social structure as a taxonomic device for…

  • Institution de la Religion Chrétienne (work by Calvin)

    Institutes of the Christian Religion, John Calvin’s masterpiece, a summary of biblical theology that became the normative statement of the Reformed faith. It was first published in 1536 and was revised and enlarged by Calvin in several editions before the definitive edition was published in 1559.

  • Institution of the Rosary (fresco by Tiepolo)

    Giovanni Battista Tiepolo: Early life: …the 1730s, Tiepolo painted the Institution of the Rosary on the large ceiling of the church of the Gesuati (or Sta. Maria del Rosario), at Zattere, covering an enormous amount of space and reviving the triumphal taste of Roman Baroque decoration.

  • institution, financial

    security: The marketing of new issues: …foreign lending by United States financial institutions and on direct foreign investment by United States corporations. As a result, a number of multinational corporations headquartered in the United States were forced to seek financing in overseas securities markets for the expanding business of their foreign subsidiaries. United States and foreign…

  • Institutional Acts (Brazilian legislation)

    Brazil: Military intervention and dictatorship: …these goals in the First Institutional Act, which greatly amended the 1946 constitution. The executive was granted temporary authority to remove elected officials from office, dismiss civil servants, and revoke for 10 years the political rights of those found guilty of subversion or misuse of public funds. Congress then followed…

  • institutional analysis (economics)

    marketing: The evolving discipline of marketing: Institutional analysis describes the types of businesses that play a prevalent role in marketing, such as wholesale or retail institutions. For instance, an institutional analysis of clothing wholesalers examines the ongoing concerns that wholesalers face in order to ensure both the correct supply for their…

  • institutional celibacy (religion)

    celibacy: Types of celibacy: Institutional celibacy for women is also typically conceived of as an aid to spiritual advancement. Virginity and celibacy are regarded as assets in the attainment of spiritual goals. Most institutional female celibates are nuns in residential cloisters—though there have been occasional solitary figures, such as…

  • institutional collective violence

    collective violence: Defining collective violence: Within the context of collective behaviour, situational collective violence…

  • institutional economics (economics)

    Institutional economics, school of economics that flourished in the United States during the 1920s and ’30s. It viewed the evolution of economic institutions as part of the broader process of cultural development. American economist and social scientist Thorstein Veblen laid the foundation for

  • institutional interest (political science)

    interest group: Types of interests and interest groups: Private and public institutional interests constitute another important category. These are not membership groups (hence, they are termed interests as opposed to interest groups) but private organizations such as businesses or public entities such as government departments. However, similar to interest groups, they attempt to affect public policy…

  • institutional performance

    Institutional performance, quality of public-service provision. The concept focuses on the performance of various types of formal organizations that formulate, implement, or regulate public-sector activities and private provision of goods for the public. Therefore, institutional performance is

  • institutional review board (United States committee)

    Institutional review board (IRB), in the United States, ethics committee that reviews proposed and ongoing research involving human subjects. The institutional review board (IRB) exists to protect the rights and safety of human subjects who participate in research studies. The need for an IRB

  • Institutional Revolutionary Party (political party, Mexico)

    Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), Mexican political party that dominated the country’s political institutions from its founding in 1929 until the end of the 20th century. Virtually all important figures in Mexican national and local politics belonged to the party, because the nomination of

  • institutionalism (economics)

    Institutional economics, school of economics that flourished in the United States during the 1920s and ’30s. It viewed the evolution of economic institutions as part of the broader process of cultural development. American economist and social scientist Thorstein Veblen laid the foundation for

  • institutionalism (social science)

    Institutionalism, in the social sciences, an approach that emphasizes the role of institutions. The study of institutions has a long pedigree. It draws insights from previous work in a wide array of disciplines, including economics, political science, sociology, anthropology, and psychology. The

  • institutionalization (social process)

    Institutionalization, process of developing or transforming rules and procedures that influence a set of human interactions. Institutionalization is a process intended to regulate societal behaviour (i.e., supra-individual behaviour) within organizations or entire societies. At least three actions

  • institutionalized bias (society)

    Institutionalized bias, practices, scripts, or procedures that work to systematically give advantage to certain groups or agendas over others. Institutionalized bias is built into the fabric of institutions. Although the concept of institutionalized bias had been discussed by scholars since at

  • Institutiones (Roman law)

    Code of Justinian: The Institutiones, compiled and published in 533 under Tribonian’s supervision and relying on such earlier texts as those of Gaius, was an elementary textbook, or outline, of legal institutions for the use of first-year law students.

  • Institutiones (treatise by Gaius)

    Gaius: …were intended to supersede Gaius’s treatise of the same name, were modeled on the older work in style and content, and numerous passages were copied verbatim.

  • Institutiones (work by Cassiodorus)

    Cassiodorus: …life after death, and the Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum, which is perhaps the most important of his works. Written for his monks, the first part discusses the study of scripture and touches on the Christian fathers and historians. The second part, widely used in the Middle Ages, gives a…

  • Institutiones calculi differentialis (work by Euler)

    Leonhard Euler: Euler’s textbooks in calculus, Institutiones calculi differentialis in 1755 and Institutiones calculi integralis in 1768–70, have served as prototypes to the present because they contain formulas of differentiation and numerous methods of indefinite integration, many of which he invented himself, for determining the work done by a force and…

  • Institutiones calculi integralis (work by Euler)

    Leonhard Euler: …calculi differentialis in 1755 and Institutiones calculi integralis in 1768–70, have served as prototypes to the present because they contain formulas of differentiation and numerous methods of indefinite integration, many of which he invented himself, for determining the work done by a force and for solving geometric problems, and he…

  • Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum (work by Cassiodorus)

    Cassiodorus: …life after death, and the Institutiones divinarum et saecularium litterarum, which is perhaps the most important of his works. Written for his monks, the first part discusses the study of scripture and touches on the Christian fathers and historians. The second part, widely used in the Middle Ages, gives a…

  • Institutiones grammaticae (work by Priscian)

    Priscian: …Latin grammarians, author of the Institutiones grammaticae, which had a profound influence on the teaching of Latin and indeed of grammar generally in Europe.

  • Institutiones Rhetoricae (work by Melanchthon)

    history of logic: The 16th century: …of 1520, built upon his Institutiones Rhetoricae of the previous year, became a popular Lutheran text. There he described his purpose as presenting “a true, pure and uncomplicated logic, just as we have received it from Aristotle and some of his judicious commentators.” Elsewhere, influential writers such as Rabalais, Petrarch,…

  • Institutiones theologicae (work by Episcopius)

    Simon Episcopius: In his Institutiones theologicae (1650–51), he attempted to provide a systematic basis for Remonstrant doctrine, asserting that God’s sovereignty and man’s free will are compatible.

  • Institutions liturgiques (work by Guéranger)

    Prosper-Louis-Pascal Guéranger: The first volume of his Institutions liturgiques—an ambitious, uncompleted project—appeared in 1840; it was effective in restoring the Roman liturgy in France. The second volume (1841) is an important history of the liturgy in France from the 17th to the 19th century; the third volume appeared in 1851. The Institutions…

  • Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis (Brazilian agency)

    Brazil: Conservation and ecology: …chief Brazilian environmental agency (Instituto Brasileiro do Meio Ambiente e dos Recursos Naturais Renováveis, or IBAMA) was created in 1989 in an attempt to reform Brazil’s conservation system. IBAMA, which operates under the Ministry of the Environment, oversees the use of renewable resources, enforces federal environmental laws, and coordinates…

  • Instituto Colombiano de Reforma Agraria (Colombian government)

    Colombia: The era of the Liberals, 1930–46: …in legislation to create the Colombian Institute of Agrarian Reform. By the mid-1970s more than 135,000 land titles had been distributed by the institute.)

  • Instituto di Correspondenza Archeologica (institution, Rome, Italy)

    classical scholarship: Developments in archaeology and art history: The foundation of the Instituto di Correspondenza Archeologica in Rome in 1829 provided an international centre for archaeological studies in Italy, which now progressed rapidly. Eduard Gerhard (1795–1867) founded the study of Greek vase painting as a scientific discipline; his report on the numerous Greek vases excavated from the…

  • Instituto Internacional de Genealogía y Heráldica, El (international organization)

    heraldry: International organizations: From these was established the International Institute of Genealogy and Heraldry, with its headquarters in Madrid.

  • Instituto Nacional Indigenista (Mexican government)
  • Instituto Universitario di Salerno (university, Salerno, Italy)

    University of Salerno, institution of higher learning in Salerno, Italy. Much of the historic interest of the university derives from an antecedent medical school in Salerno that was the earliest and one of the greatest medical schools of the Middle Ages. In fact, some scholars have called this

  • Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana (work by Agnesi)

    Maria Gaetana Agnesi: Agnesi’s best-known work, Instituzioni analitiche ad uso della gioventù italiana (1748; “Analytical Institutions for the Use of Italian Youth”), in two huge volumes, provided a remarkably comprehensive and systematic treatment of algebra and analysis, including such relatively new developments as integral and differential calculus. In this text is…

  • instruction

    Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships). Education can be thought of

  • Instruction for Merikare (ancient Egyptian text)

    ancient Egypt: The 12th dynasty (1938–c. 1756 bce): …significant of these is the Instruction for Merikare, a discourse on kingship and moral responsibility. It is often used as a source for the history of the First Intermediate period but may preserve no more than a memory of its events. Most of these texts continued to be copied in…

  • Instruction of Amenemhet, The (ancient Egyptian literature)

    Amenemhet I: The Instruction of Amenemhet, a political piece cast as an address of Amenemhet to Sesostris, described the assassination attempt and gave the new king advice concerning government. Another politically motivated work, The Story of Sinuhe, described Sesostris’s receipt of the news, his reaction, and the…

  • Instruction of Amenemope, The (work by Amenemope)

    biblical literature: Proverbs: …a piece of Egyptian writing, The Instruction of Amenemope, which has been dated within the broad limits of 1000–600 bce. The Hebrew author apparently used this work as a model—the Egyptian work comprises 30 chapters, and the Hebrew text refers to its “thirty sayings”—and as one of the sources in…

  • instruction of Lemuel (Old Testament)

    biblical literature: Proverbs: The “instruction of Lemuel” (31:1–9) is an example of the importance of maternal advice to a ruler in the ancient Near East. Lemuel seems to have been a tribal chieftain of northwest Arabia, in the region of Edom. The final section (31:10–31) is an alphabetical poem…

  • instruction-level parallelism (computing)

    computer: Central processing unit: …are two major kinds of instruction-level parallelism (ILP) in the CPU, both first used in early supercomputers. One is the pipeline, which allows the fetch-decode-execute cycle to have several instructions under way at once. While one instruction is being executed, another can obtain its operands, a third can be decoded,…

  • instructional media (pedagogy and education)

    pedagogy: Instructional media: In general, instructional media are seen by educators as aids rather than substitutions for the teacher. Teachers spend a disproportionate amount of their time in routine chores—in collecting and assigning books and materials and in marking, or grading—that could be partly obviated if…

  • Instructiones (work by Commodianus)

    Commodianus: All but two of his Instructiones—80 poems in two books—are in acrostic form, undoubtedly because the technique was a useful mnemonic device. In the work he attacked pagan deities, criticized the Jews, and admonished Christians. His verse has no poetic value and is of interest chiefly for its employment of…

  • Instructions for the Government of Armies in the Field (United States government document)

    war crime: Definition and conceptual development: …of war crimes was the Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field—also known as the “Lieber Code” after its main author, Francis Lieber—which was issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War and distributed among Union military personnel in 1863. For…

  • Instructions of Amenemhet, The (ancient Egyptian literature)

    Amenemhet I: The Instruction of Amenemhet, a political piece cast as an address of Amenemhet to Sesostris, described the assassination attempt and gave the new king advice concerning government. Another politically motivated work, The Story of Sinuhe, described Sesostris’s receipt of the news, his reaction, and the…

  • Instructions to the Double (work by Gallagher)

    Tess Gallagher: …first full-length volume of verse, Instructions to the Double (1976), is a confessional work about synthesizing her past life with her future career as a poet.

  • Instructor, The (work by Clement of Alexandria)

    Saint Clement of Alexandria: Views on wealth: From the tenor of the Paidagōgos, one can conclude that the majority of Clement’s audience came from the ranks of Alexandrian middle and upper classes, with a few intelligent poorer members coming from the Alexandrian masses. The problem of wealth was disturbing to the pistic Christians, who interpreted literally the…

  • instrument

    Musical instrument, any device for producing a musical sound. The principal types of such instruments, classified by the method of producing sound, are percussion, stringed, keyboard, wind, and electronic. Musical instruments are almost universal components of human culture: archaeology has

  • instrument flight rule (aviation)

    traffic control: Conventional control techniques: …all pilots must obey the instrument flight rule; that is, they must depend principally on the information provided by the plane’s instruments for their safety. In poor visibility and at night, instrument flight rules invariably apply. At airports, in control zones, all movements are subject to permission and instruction from…

  • Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (international trade)

    Iran: Nuclear deal falters: …with Iran, known as the Instrument in Support of Trade Exchanges (INSTEX). The sanctions went into effect on November 5, though the United States granted exemptions to China, India, Italy, Greece, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, and Turkey to continue importing oil from Iran for six months. Those exemptions expired in…

  • instrument landing system (aviation)

    Instrument landing system (ILS), electronic guidance system designed to help airline pilots align their planes with the centre of a landing strip during final approach under conditions of poor visibility. The ground equipment of the ILS consists of two directional transmitters that send out radio

  • instrument meteorological conditions

    airport: Navigational aids, lighting, and marking: …hours of darkness and under instrument meteorological conditions (IMC), when horizontal visibility is 600 metres (2,000 feet) or less and the cloud base (or “decision height”) is 60 metres (200 feet) or lower. In order to assist aircraft in approaches and takeoffs and in maneuvering on the ground, such airports…

  • Instrument of Accession to the Indian Union (Kashmir history)

    Kashmir: The Kashmir problem: …Pashtun tribesmen, he signed an Instrument of Accession to the Indian union in October 1947. This was the signal for intervention both by Pakistan, which considered the state to be a natural extension of Pakistan, and by India, which intended to confirm the act of accession. Localized warfare continued during…

  • instrumental case (grammar)

    Armenian language: Morphology and syntax: accusative, ablative, instrumental, and locative. However, many of these forms overlapped so that usually only three or four different forms existed; e.g., ?am ‘time’ was both nominative and accusative, ?amê was ablative, and ?amu was genitive, dative, instrumental, and locative. A special form of locative was very…

  • instrumental chemical analysis (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: …the second category, which is instrumental analysis. It involves the use of an instrument, other than a balance, to perform the analysis. A wide assortment of instrumentation is available to the analyst. In some cases, the instrument is used to characterize a chemical reaction between the analyte and an added…

  • instrumental conditioning (psychology)

    human behaviour: Learning theory: Instrumental, or operant, conditioning involves creating a relationship between a response and a stimulus. If the experiment described above is changed so that after the tone is heard, the infant is required to turn his or her head to the right in order to receive the sweetened…

  • instrumental ensemble (music)

    chamber music: …music, music composed for small ensembles of instrumentalists. In its original sense chamber music referred to music composed for the home, as opposed to that written for the theatre or church. Since the “home”—whether it be drawing room, reception hall, or palace chamber—may be assumed to be of limited size,…

  • instrumental learning (psychology)

    human behaviour: Learning theory: Instrumental, or operant, conditioning involves creating a relationship between a response and a stimulus. If the experiment described above is changed so that after the tone is heard, the infant is required to turn his or her head to the right in order to receive the sweetened…

  • instrumental music

    chamber music: This article discusses instrumental ensemble music written for groups of two to eight players with one player to a part, and in which stringed instruments and piano (or harpsichord) supply the principal interest.

  • Instrumental Music of the Southern Appalachians (folk music compilation album)

    Etta Baker: …the folk music compilation album Instrumental Music of the Southern Appalachians (1956). Although her performance on that album widely influenced musicians such as Bob Dylan and Taj Mahal, not until after her husband’s death and her retirement from the textile mill did she begin to appear at folk festivals and…

  • instrumental reason (philosophy)

    Emmanuel Lévinas: …a basic manifestation of “instrumental” reason—the use of reason as an instrument for determining the best or most efficient means to achieve a given end. Through its embrace of instrumental reason, Western philosophy displays a destructive and objectifying “will to domination.” Moreover, because instrumental reason does not determine the…

  • instrumental stage (psychology)
  • instrumental value (philosophy)

    axiology: …distinction is commonly made between instrumental and intrinsic value—between what is good as a means and what is good as an end. John Dewey, in Human Nature and Conduct (1922) and Theory of Valuation (1939), presented a pragmatic interpretation and tried to break down this distinction between means and ends,…

  • instrumentalism (philosophy)

    Instrumentalism, in the philosophy of science, the view that the value of scientific concepts and theories is determined not by whether they are literally true or correspond to reality in some sense but by the extent to which they help to make accurate empirical predictions or to resolve conceptual

  • instrumentalist approach (sociology)

    ethnic conflict: Theories of ethnic identity: …second approach, referred to as instrumentalist, was developed, which understands ethnicity as a device used by individuals and groups to unify, organize, and mobilize populations to achieve larger goals. Those goals are mostly of a political nature and include, among others, demands for self-governance, autonomy, access to resources and power,…

  • instrumentals (popular music)

    Instrumentals, type of popular music performed without a vocalist, in any of several genres but especially prevalent in rock and roll in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Serving primarily as dance music, rock-and-roll and rhythm-and-blues instrumentals began appearing on the pop charts in the

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