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  • InterAcademy Council (international organization)

    Bruce Alberts: Alberts was cochair of the InterAcademy Council (2000–09), a body composed of the presidents of many major scientific organizations from around the world. The council advised both government bodies and private companies on issues related to science. Alberts resigned as NAS president in 2005, having served for two terms. He…

  • interaction gap (electronics)

    electron tube: Klystrons: …is referred to as the interaction space, or gap. When the electrons traverse this space, they are subjected to RF potentials at a frequency determined by the resonant frequency of the buncher cavity and the input-signal frequency. The amplitude of the RF voltage between the grids is determined by the…

  • interaction region (physics)

    particle accelerator: Colliding-beam storage rings: The rings intersect at “interaction regions,” where the beams collide. In other cases the two beams are composed of particles of opposite charge (e.g., electrons and positrons, or protons and antiprotons). Such beams circulate in opposite directions in the same vacuum chamber, guided by the same magnets. The particles…

  • interaction space (electronics)

    electron tube: Klystrons: …is referred to as the interaction space, or gap. When the electrons traverse this space, they are subjected to RF potentials at a frequency determined by the resonant frequency of the buncher cavity and the input-signal frequency. The amplitude of the RF voltage between the grids is determined by the…

  • interaction theory (social process)

    animal social behaviour: Social behaviour is defined by interaction, not by how organisms are distributed in space. Clumping of individuals is not a requirement for social behaviour, although it does increase opportunities for interaction. When a lone female moth emits a bouquet of pheromones to attract male potential mates, she is engaging in…

  • interaction, biotic (biology)

    community ecology: Guilds and interaction webs: Most communities contain groups of species known as guilds, which exploit the same kinds of resources in comparable ways. The name “guild” emphasizes the fact that these groups are like associations of craftsmen who employ similar techniques in plying their trade. Guilds may…

  • interaction, drug (pharmacology)

    pharmaceutical industry: Drug interactions: Drug interactions occur when one drug alters the pharmacological effect of another drug. The pharmacological effect of one or both drugs may be increased or decreased, or a new and unanticipated adverse effect may be produced. Drug interactions may result from pharmacokinetic interactions…

  • interaction, fundamental (physics)

    Fundamental interaction, in physics, any of the four basic forces—gravitational, electromagnetic, strong, and weak—that govern how objects or particles interact and how certain particles decay. All the known forces of nature can be traced to these fundamental interactions. The fundamental

  • interaction, social (social process)

    animal social behaviour: Social behaviour is defined by interaction, not by how organisms are distributed in space. Clumping of individuals is not a requirement for social behaviour, although it does increase opportunities for interaction. When a lone female moth emits a bouquet of pheromones to attract male potential mates, she is engaging in…

  • interactionism (philosophy)

    Interactionism, in Cartesian philosophy and the philosophy of mind, those dualistic theories that hold that mind and body, though separate and distinct substances, causally interact. Interactionists assert that a mental event, as when John Doe wills to kick a brick wall, can be the cause of a

  • interactive computing (computing)

    computer: Time-sharing from Project MAC to UNIX: …to promote the idea of interactive computing as an alternative to batch processing. Batch processing was the normal mode of operating computers at the time: a user handed a deck of punched cards to an operator, who fed them to the machine, and an hour or more later the printed…

  • interactive fiction (gaming narrative)

    electronic game: Interactive fiction: …of games, usually called “interactive fiction,” that boasted a new narrative structure. Such games shaped the player’s experience with descriptions of rooms, characters, and items and a story that evolved in response to the player’s choices. In Adventure this meant wandering through a dungeon to collect items and defeat…

  • Interactive Graphics and Retrieval System (database)

    Michael Stonebraker: …tenure at Berkeley, he invented INGRES (Interactive Graphics and Retrieval System) in 1974 and Postgres (Post INGRES) in 1986. INGRES was among the first relational databases (collections of information in which data are represented in tabular form and individual records are stored as one row of the table). Postgres improved…

  • interactive media

    Interactive media, any computer-delivered electronic system that allows the user to control, combine, and manipulate different types of media, such as text, sound, video, computer graphics, and animation. Interactive media integrate computer, memory storage, digital (binary) data, telephone,

  • interactive mode (computing)

    computer: Time-sharing from Project MAC to UNIX: …to promote the idea of interactive computing as an alternative to batch processing. Batch processing was the normal mode of operating computers at the time: a user handed a deck of punched cards to an operator, who fed them to the machine, and an hour or more later the printed…

  • interactive multimedia

    Interactive media, any computer-delivered electronic system that allows the user to control, combine, and manipulate different types of media, such as text, sound, video, computer graphics, and animation. Interactive media integrate computer, memory storage, digital (binary) data, telephone,

  • interactive television

    e-health: E-health technologies: Interactive TV, also known as polycom, provides both audio and visual transfer of a variety of information between two or more individuals at two or more locations in real time. Kiosks, which are freestanding devices (usually computers), are used in e-health to provide interactive information…

  • interactomics (biochemistry)

    bioinformatics: The data of bioinformatics: …distribution of proteins in cells; interactomics, the patterns of protein-protein and protein–nucleic acid interactions; and metabolomics, the nature and traffic patterns of transformations of small molecules by the biochemical pathways active in cells. In each case there is interest in obtaining comprehensive, accurate data for particular cell types and in…

  • Interahamwe (Rwandan militia group)

    Rwanda genocide of 1994: Genocide: …militia groups known as the Interahamwe (“Those Who Attack Together”) and Impuzamugambi (“Those Who Have the Same Goal”) played a central role. Radio broadcasts further fueled the genocide by encouraging Hutu civilians to kill their Tutsi neighbours, who were referred to as “cockroaches” who needed to be exterminated. It is…

  • interalveolar septum (anatomy)

    human respiratory system: The gas-exchange region: The alveolar wall, called the interalveolar septum, is common to two adjacent alveoli. It contains a dense network of capillaries, the smallest of the blood vessels, and a skeleton of connective tissue fibres. The fibre system is interwoven with the capillaries and particularly reinforced at the alveolar entrance rings. The…

  • Interamerican Regional Organization of Labour (Latin American labour organization)

    Inter-American Regional Organization of Workers, , Latin-American labour union federation that was established in 1951 as a regional organization for the Latin-American members of the International Confederation of Free Trade Unions, which had been founded in 1949 primarily by the American

  • Interamnium Flavium (Spain)

    Ponferrada, city, León provincia (province), in the Castile-León comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northwestern Spain. It lies at the confluence of the Sil and Boeza rivers, west of the city of León. Identified with the Roman Interamnium Flavium, Ponferrada was refounded in the 11th

  • interannual climate variation (climatology)

    climate change: Interannual variation: Interannual climate variations, including droughts, floods, and other events, are caused by a complex array of factors and Earth system interactions. One important feature that plays a role in these variations is the periodic change of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns in the…

  • interannual variation (climatology)

    climate change: Interannual variation: Interannual climate variations, including droughts, floods, and other events, are caused by a complex array of factors and Earth system interactions. One important feature that plays a role in these variations is the periodic change of atmospheric and oceanic circulation patterns in the…

  • interarc basin (ocean basin)

    deep-sea trench: Structure: Such interarc, or backarc, basins are sites of seafloor spreading directly caused by the dynamics of subduction. They originate at the volcanic line, so that the outer bounding submarine ridge, or third arc, represents an older portion of the volcanic line that has spread away. These…

  • interatrial septum (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Chambers of the heart: …a partition known as the interatrial septum; the lower chambers, the ventricles, are separated by the interventricular septum. The atria receive blood from various parts of the body and pass it into the ventricles. The ventricles, in turn, pump blood to the lungs and to the remainder of the body.

  • interbrain (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Brainstem: …collectively referred to as the diencephalon. These structures are the epithalamus, the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the subthalamus. Directly beneath the diencephalon is the midbrain, or mesencephalon, and beneath the midbrain are the pons and medulla oblongata, often referred to as the hindbrain.

  • interbreeding (biology)

    evolution: The concept of species: People can also interbreed with one another, and so can cats with other cats, but people cannot interbreed with dogs or cats, nor can these with each other. It is clear then that, although species are usually identified by appearance, there is something basic, of great biological significance,…

  • Interbrew SA (Belgian company)

    InBev: …Américas (AmBev) and the Belgian Interbrew SA. In 2008 it acquired Anheuser-Busch, and the resulting company was named Anheuser-Busch InBev.

  • Intercalans (chronology)

    Roman republican calendar: …27 or 28 days, called Mercedonius, kept the calendar in step with the seasons. The confusion was compounded by political maneuvers. The Pontifex Maximus and the College of Pontiffs had the authority to alter the calendar, and they sometimes did so to reduce or extend the term of a particular…

  • intercalary meristem (plant anatomy)

    meristem: …vascular and cork cambia), and intercalary (at internodes, or stem regions between the places at which leaves attach, and leaf bases, especially of certain monocotyledons—e.g., grasses). Apical meristems give rise to the primary plant body and are responsible for the extension of the roots and shoots. Lateral meristems are known…

  • intercalated disc (anatomy)

    cardiac muscle: …connected end to end by intercalated disks and are organized into layers of myocardial tissue that are wrapped around the chambers of the heart. The contraction of individual cardiac muscle cells produces force and shortening in these bands of muscle, with a resultant decrease in the heart chamber size and…

  • intercalated disk (anatomy)

    cardiac muscle: …connected end to end by intercalated disks and are organized into layers of myocardial tissue that are wrapped around the chambers of the heart. The contraction of individual cardiac muscle cells produces force and shortening in these bands of muscle, with a resultant decrease in the heart chamber size and…

  • Intercalated Olympic Games (sports event, Athens, Greece [1906])

    Olympic Games: Athens, Greece, 1906: …often referred to as the Intercalated Olympic Games, introduced some important permanent Olympic customs, including the parade of the nations’ teams in ranks around the track, now the first major event at all opening ceremonies. Olympic scholars agree that, after the fiascoes of 1900 and 1904, the well-organized and highly…

  • intercalation (chronology)

    Intercalation, insertion of days or months into a calendar to bring it into line with the solar year (year of the seasons). One example is the periodic inclusion of leap-year day (February 29) in the Gregorian calendar now in general use. To keep the months of a lunar calendar (e.g., the Hindu

  • intercellular junction (biology)

    cell: Tissue and species recognition: …adhesion is carried out by cell junctions.

  • intercellular parasitism (biology)

    parasitism: …endoparasites, which may be either intercellular (inhabiting spaces in the host’s body) or intracellular (inhabiting cells in the host’s body). Intracellular parasites—such as bacteria or viruses—often rely on a third organism, known as the carrier, or vector, to transmit them to the host. Malaria, which is caused by a protozoan…

  • interception (precipitation)

    hydrosphere: Distribution of precipitation: This process is termed interception and may result in little water reaching the ground because the water may be directly evaporated from plant surfaces back into the atmosphere. If precipitation reaches the ground in the form of snow, it may remain there for some time. On the other hand,…

  • interceptor (aircraft)

    fighter aircraft: An interceptor is a fighter whose design and armament best fit it for intercepting and defeating or routing invading fighters. A night fighter is one equipped with sophisticated radar and other instruments for navigating in unfamiliar or hostile territory at night. A day fighter is an…

  • Interceptor Body Armor (body armour)

    armour: Modern body armour systems: …replaced the PASGT with the Interceptor Body Armor, or IBA, system. The IBA consists of an “outer tactical vest” made from layered Kevlar, which provides protection against shell fragments and most handgun bullets as large as 9 mm, and two ceramic “small arms protective inserts,” or SAPI plates, which can…

  • intercession (religion)

    Christianity: Concepts of life after death: …purgatory can be shortened through intercession, alms, indulgences, and benefits of the sacrifice of the mass. The Eastern Orthodox Church has no doctrine of purgatory but does practice an intercession for the dead. It assumes that, on the basis of the connection between the church of the living and that…

  • Intercession of the Virgin, Church of the (church, Suzdal, Russia)

    Western architecture: Kievan Rus and Russia: …in the Moscow Kremlin; the church of the Intercession of the Virgin on the Nerl, one of the loveliest creations of medieval Russia (1165); and the church of St. Dmitri (1194–97). These churches as a group represent the continuation of the Kievo-Byzantine tradition in their ground plan, but the old…

  • Intercession of the Virgin, Church of the (church, Fili, Russia)

    Western architecture: Russia: …example of which is the church of the Intercession of the Virgin at Fili (1693) on the estate of Boyarin Naryshkin, whose name had become identified with this phase of the Russian Baroque.

  • Intercession, Cathedral of the (church, Moscow, Russia)

    Saint Basil the Blessed, church constructed on Red Square in Moscow between 1554 and 1560 by Tsar Ivan IV (the Terrible), as a votive offering for his military victories over the khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan. The church was dedicated to the protection and intercession of the Virgin, but it came

  • Intercession, Church of the (church, Kizhi Island, Russia)

    Kizhi Island: The Pokorovskaya (Intercession) Church (1764) has 10 cupolas, and its interior is decorated with icons made locally in the 17th and 18th centuries. St. Lazarus, the oldest church (built 1390) in the Karelian republic, was transported to the open-air museum from the Murom Monastery in the…

  • interchange energy (chemistry)

    liquid: Regular solutions: …is equal to twice the interchange energy (ω), which is equal to the potential energy after mixing less one-half the sum of the potential energies before mixing, the whole multiplied by the number of immediate neighbours, called the coordination number (z), surrounding the two shifted molecules:

  • interchangeable parts (industrial engineering)

    Interchangeable parts, identical components that can be substituted one for another, particularly important in the history of manufacturing. Mass production, which transformed the organization of work, came about by the development of the machine-tool industry by a series of 19th-century

  • InterCity 125 (British passenger train)

    High Speed Train (HST), British long-distance passenger train operating nationwide since 1976, when the first service was opened between London and Bristol-South Wales. The HST introduced high-speed rail travel to the United Kingdom. Powered by two 2,250-horsepower diesel engines, the HST can reach

  • intercity bus (vehicle)

    bus: Modern buses: …bus is designed for short intercity runs and has high-back seats, luggage compartments and racks, and a single, front entrance.

  • InterCity Express (German railway system)

    railroad: Western Europe: …was the beginning of Germany’s InterCity Express (ICE) high-speed rail network, which has continued to grow as further lines have been constructed, notably between Hannover and Berlin (opened 1998) and in Germany’s most heavily trafficked corridor, Cologne–Frankfurt am Main (opened 2002).

  • Intercity railroad

    railroad: Cars for daytime service: …seating is less in an intercity car than in a short-haul commuter service car; the cars of some heavily used urban rapid-transit railroads, such as those of Japanese cities and Hong Kong, have minimal seating to maximize standing room. European cars of segregated six- or eight-seat compartments served by a…

  • intercity train

    railroad: Cars for daytime service: …seating is less in an intercity car than in a short-haul commuter service car; the cars of some heavily used urban rapid-transit railroads, such as those of Japanese cities and Hong Kong, have minimal seating to maximize standing room. European cars of segregated six- or eight-seat compartments served by a…

  • interclavicle (anatomy)

    skeleton: Pectoral girdle: …in the midline by the interclavicle. Carinate birds (those with a keeled sternum) possess a sabre-shaped scapula and a stout coracoid process, joined by ligaments at the point at which is found the glenoid cavity for articulation with the humerus. The coracoid process is joined to the sternum; at its…

  • Intercollegiate Football Association (American athletic organization)

    Walter Camp: …became a member of the Intercollegiate Football Association. From 1880 this ruling body accepted various innovations proposed by Camp: the 11-man team, the quarterback position, the scrimmage line, offensive signal calling, and the requirement that a team give up the ball after failing to advance a specified yardage in a…

  • Intercolonial Trade Union Congress (Australian organization)

    organized labour: Craft unionism in the 19th century: …in 1879, a number of Intercolonial Trade Union Congresses were held, partly with a view to encouraging the formation of parliamentary committees in each of the self-governing colonies. Such political activity certainly achieved a further clarification of the unions’ legal status. Legislation removing various remaining impediments was passed in Britain…

  • intercolumniation (architecture)

    Intercolumniation, in architecture, space between columns that supports an arch or an entablature (an assemblage of moldings and bands that forms the lowest horizontal beam of a roof). In Classical architecture and its derivatives, Renaissance and Baroque architecture, intercolumniation was

  • intercontinental ballistic missile (missile)

    ICBM, Land-based, nuclear-armed ballistic missile with a range of more than 3,500 miles (5,600 km). Only the United States, Russia, and China field land-based missiles of this range. The first ICBMs were deployed by the Soviet Union in 1958; the United States followed the next year and China some

  • interconversion (conformations)

    hydrocarbon: Cycloalkanes: …undergo rapid internal motion involving interconversion of nonplanar “puckered” conformations.

  • intercooler (engineering)

    gas-turbine engine: Intercooling, reheating, and regeneration: In aircraft gas-turbine engines attention must be paid to weight and diameter size. This does not permit the addition of more equipment to improve performance. Accordingly, commercial aircraft engines operate on the simple Brayton cycle idealized above. These limitations do not…

  • Intercosmos (Soviet space program)

    Muhammed Faris: …candidates to participate in the Intercosmos spaceflight program, which allowed cosmonauts from allied countries to participate in Soviet space missions. Faris reported to the cosmonaut training centre in Star City, Russia, for training on Sept. 30, 1985.

  • intercostal muscle (anatomy)

    Intercostalis muscle, in human physiology, any of a series of short muscles that extend between the ribs and serve to draw them together during inspiration and forced expiration or expulsive actions. A set of external and internal intercostalis muscles is found between each vertical pair of ribs

  • intercostalis muscle (anatomy)

    Intercostalis muscle, in human physiology, any of a series of short muscles that extend between the ribs and serve to draw them together during inspiration and forced expiration or expulsive actions. A set of external and internal intercostalis muscles is found between each vertical pair of ribs

  • intercourse, sexual

    Sexual intercourse, reproductive act in which the male reproductive organ (in humans and other higher animals) enters the female reproductive tract. If the reproductive act is complete, sperm cells are passed from the male body into the female, in the process fertilizing the female’s egg and

  • intercrater plain

    Mercury: Character of the surface: …relatively flat, less-cratered regions termed intercrater plains. These are similar to but much more pervasive than the light-coloured plains that occupy intercrater areas on the heavily cratered highlands of the Moon. There are also some sparsely cratered regions called smooth plains, many of which surround the most prominent impact structure…

  • intercropping (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Mulch tillage: In rainy sections, intercropping extends the protection against erosion provided by mulches. Intercrops are typically small grains or sod crops such as alfalfa or clover grown between the rows of a field crop that reach maturity shortly after the field crop has been established and furnish mulch cover…

  • Intercursus Magnus (England [1496])

    Henry VII: Foreign policy: …peace and freer trade (the Intercursus Magnus).

  • Intercursus Malus (Spain [1506])

    Philip I: …second (April 30, 1506), the Intercursus Malus, was a trade agreement disadvantageous to the Netherlands. In Castile, Philip, backed by the nobility, soon raised a strong army. He negotiated Ferdinand’s withdrawal on June 27, 1506. By that time Joan’s mental condition had deteriorated further, and Philip assumed sole control. He…

  • Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association

    Christianity: Orthodox and nondenominational missions: …societies joined together in the Interdenominational Foreign Mission Association (IFMA; 1917). Since the 1960s they have cooperated with the Evangelical Foreign Missions Association (EFMA; 1945), the missionary arm of the National Association of Evangelicals (1943), and, at the international level, with the World Evangelical Fellowship (1952). Membership in the Association…

  • interdependency (biology)

    mutualism: and termites exhibit obligative mutualism, a strict interdependency, in which the protozoans digest the wood ingested by the termites; neither partner can survive under natural conditions without the other.

  • interdict (law)

    Interdict, in Roman and civil law, a remedy granted by a magistrate on the sole basis of his authority, against a breach of civil law for which there is no stipulated remedy. Interdicts can be provisionary (opening the way for further action) or final. An exhibitory interdict, which usually

  • interdiffusion (technology)

    adhesive: Adhesion: The second, interdiffusion, results when liquid adhesive dissolves and diffuses into adherend materials. In the third mechanism, adsorption and surface reaction, bonding occurs when adhesive molecules adsorb onto a solid surface and chemically react with it. Because of the chemical reaction, this process differs in some degree…

  • interdigital infection (pathology)

    athlete's foot: Symptoms: Interdigital infections may be dry or macerated (soft from being wet). The dry type of infection is typically scaly, erythematous (red), and fissured (cracked). In the macerated type, the skin within the toe web is white, moist, peeling, and sometimes fissured. The web between the…

  • interdisciplinary museum

    museum: General museums: General museums hold collections in more than one subject and are therefore sometimes known as multidisciplinary or interdisciplinary museums. Many were founded in the 18th, 19th, or early 20th century. Most originated in earlier private collections and reflected the encyclopaedic spirit of the…

  • Interdivisional Information Unit (United States government)

    Ramsey Clark: …down when he created the Interdivisional Information Unit in 1968 to collate, store, and disseminate data on the composition and motivations of “dissident groups.” Those data were provided by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to prevent civil unrest, but he failed to provide the FBI a framework within which…

  • intereses creados, Los (play by Benavente y Martínez)

    Jacinto Benavente y Martínez: , Los intereses creados (performed 1903, published 1907; The Bonds of Interest, performed 1919), his most celebrated work, based on the Italian commedia dell’arte; Los malhechores del bien (performed 1905; The Evil Doers of Good); La noche del sábado (performed 1903; Saturday Night, performed 1926); and…

  • Interessengemeinschaft Basel (Swiss cartel)

    Novartis AG: …to form a cartel, the Interessengemeinschaft Basel (“Basel Syndicate”), or Basel IG, in order to compete with the German chemical cartel IG Farben. All three companies also established or acquired factories in various European countries and in the United States. In 1929–32 the Basel IG joined with IG Farben and…

  • Interessengemeinschaft der Deutschen Teerfarbenfabriken (German cartel)

    IG Farben: …of other firms, formed the Interessengemeinschaft der Deutschen Teerfarbenfabriken (“Syndicate of German Coal-Tar Dye Manufacturers”). This “little IG” was no more than a loose association: member companies remained independent, while dividing production and markets and sharing information. In 1925, after protracted legal and fiscal negotiations, the “big IG” was formed:…

  • Interessengemeinschaft Farbenindustrie Aktiengesellschaft (German cartel)

    IG Farben, (German: “Syndicate of Dyestuff-Industry Corporations”), world’s largest chemical concern, or cartel, from its founding in Germany in 1925 until its dissolution by the Allies after World War II. The IG (Interessengemeinschaft, “syndicate” or, literally, “community of interests”), partly

  • interest (psychology)

    Attention, in psychology, the concentration of awareness on some phenomenon to the exclusion of other stimuli. Attention is awareness of the here and now in a focal and perceptive way. For early psychologists, such as Edward Bradford Titchener, attention determined the content of consciousness and

  • interest (economics)

    Interest, the price paid for the use of credit or money. It may be expressed either in money terms or as a rate of payment. A brief treatment of interest follows. For full treatment, see capital and interest. Interest may also be viewed as the income derived from the possession of contractual

  • interest (motivation)

    interest group: Definition: The term interest rather than interest group is often used to denote broad or less-formalized political constituencies, such as the agricultural interest and the environmental interest—segments of society that may include many formal interest groups. Similarly, interest is often used when considering government entities working to influence…

  • Interest and Prices (work by Wicksell)

    Knut Wicksell: In Geldzins und Güterpreise (1898; Interest and Prices, 1936) he propounded an explanation of price-level movements by an aggregate demand–supply analysis focussed on the relations between prospective profit and interest rates. This made Wicksell a forerunner of modern monetary theory and anticipated the work of John Maynard Keynes in A…

  • interest group (political science)

    Interest group, any association of individuals or organizations, usually formally organized, that, on the basis of one or more shared concerns, attempts to influence public policy in its favour. All interest groups share a desire to affect government policy to benefit themselves or their causes.

  • Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future, The (work by Mahan)

    Alfred Thayer Mahan: In The Interest of America in Sea Power, Present and Future (1897), he sought to arouse his fellow Americans to a realization of their maritime responsibilities. Mahan served as president of the American Historical Association in 1902. His other major books included The Life of Nelson…

  • interest parity (economics)

    international payment and exchange: Forward exchange: …a comparison of the short-term interest rates in the two centres in the manner just described, the forward rate is said to be at “interest parity.”

  • interest rate (economics)

    George A. Akerlof: …countries, Akerlof’s analysis explained that interest rates were often excessive because moneylenders lacked adequate information on the borrower’s creditworthiness.

  • interest, conflict of (law)

    legal ethics: Conflict of interest: A lawyer is at times faced with the question of whether to represent two or more clients whose interests conflict. Quite aside from his ethical obligations, the legal systems of the world generally prohibit a lawyer from representing a client whose interests…

  • interest, doctrine of (Islamic doctrine)

    Pakistan: Economy: …charging interest on loans (ribā )—and mandated such traditional religious practices as the payment of zakāt (tithe) and ?ushr (land tax). Though portions of the Islamic economy have remained in place, the state began in the 1990s to privatize—in whole or in part—large sectors of the nationalized economy.

  • Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano; or, Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself, The (work by Equiano)

    Olaudah Equiano: His autobiography, The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano; or, Gustavus Vassa, the African, Written by Himself (1789), with its strong abolitionist stance and detailed description of life in Nigeria, was so popular that in his lifetime it ran through nine English editions and one…

  • interests, arbitration of (law)

    arbitration: Arbitration of interests: Arbitration of the terms of a new contract, referred to as arbitration of interests, may be instituted if management and the labour union are unable to agree on a new contract. However, in most countries, management and union are seldom inclined to…

  • interests, balance of (United States law)

    police power: …a doctrine called “balance of interests,” to determine whether a state has the right to exercise its implied police powers although that exercise may be in conflict with a federal law, either statutory or constitutional. The court has held, in these instances, that if a state does enact legislation for…

  • interface (physics)

    Interface, surface separating two phases of matter, each of which may be solid, liquid, or gaseous. An interface is not a geometric surface but a thin layer that has properties differing from those of the bulk material on either side of the interface. A common interface is that between a body of

  • interface (computing)

    computer: Peripheral interfaces: A variety of techniques have been employed in the design of interfaces to link computers and peripherals. An interface of this nature is often termed a bus. This nomenclature derives from the presence of many paths of electrical communication (e.g., wires) bundled or joined…

  • Interface Message Processor (computing)

    Robert Kahn: …group that designed the network’s Interface Message Processor, which would mediate between the network and each institution’s host computer. Second, and perhaps more important, in 1972 Kahn helped organize the first International Conference on Computer Communication, which served as the ARPANET’s public debut.

  • interfacial angle (crystallography)

    Steno's law: …the law of constancy of interfacial angles, holds for any two crystals, regardless of size, locality of occurrence, or whether they are natural or man-made.

  • interfascicular oligodendrocyte (biology)

    nervous system: Types of neuroglia: Interfascicular oligodendrocytes are aligned in rows between the nerve fibres of the white matter of the central nervous system. In gray matter, perineuronal oligodendrocytes are located in close proximity to the somata of neurons. In the peripheral nervous system, neuroglia that are equivalent to oligodendrocytes…

  • interfascicular parenchyma cell (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Stems: Ground tissue called the interfascicular parenchyma lies between the procambial strands and remains continuous with the cortex and pith. As the vascular tissue grows, xylem and phloem develop, the vascular bundles mature, the single-layered epidermis differentiates as epidermal cells, trichomes, and a few stomata, and the parenchymatous pith may…

  • interfemoral membrane (anatomy)

    bat: Anatomical specializations: …their legs (the uropatagium, or interfemoral membrane). In the midline the interfemoral membrane is usually supported, at least in part, by the tail, with the distal edges often shaped in flight by greatly elongated heel bones, or calcars. The interfemoral membrane, especially well-developed in insectivorous, carnivorous, and fish-eating bats, is…

  • interference (psychology)

    Inhibition, in psychology, conscious or unconscious constraint or curtailment of a process or behaviour, especially of impulses or desires. Inhibition serves necessary social functions, abating or preventing certain impulses from being acted on (e.g., the desire to hit someone in the heat of

  • interference (physiology)

    therapeutics: Indications for use: …presence of one drug may interfere with the absorption of another. Antacids, for example, reduce the absorption of the antibiotic tetracycline by forming insoluble complexes. Of greater importance is the interference of one drug with another. Some drugs can inhibit the metabolism of another drug, which allows the amount of…

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