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  • interference (physics)

    Interference, in physics, the net effect of the combination of two or more wave trains moving on intersecting or coincident paths. The effect is that of the addition of the amplitudes of the individual waves at each point affected by more than one wave. If two of the components are of the same

  • interference (baseball)

    baseball: Getting on base: …umpire makes all hit-by-pitch and interference calls.

  • interference (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: Interference removal: …may be necessary to remove interferences from an analyte prior to an assay. An interference is a substance, other than the assayed material, that can be measured by the chosen analytical method or that can prevent the assayed material from being measured. Interferences cause erroneous analytical results. Several methods have…

  • interference competition (biology)

    community ecology: Types of competition: …interfere with one another (interference competition) by aggressively attempting to exclude one another from particular habitats.

  • interference fringe (physics)

    Interference fringe, a bright or dark band caused by beams of light that are in phase or out of phase with one another. Light waves and similar wave propagation, when superimposed, will add their crests if they meet in the same phase (the waves are both increasing or both decreasing); or the

  • interference microscope (instrument)

    microscope: Interference microscopes: Although all optical microscopes in the strict sense create images by diffraction, interference microscopy creates images using the difference between an interfering beam unmodified by the specimen and an otherwise identical beam that illuminates it. A beam splitter divides light into two paths,…

  • interference removal (chemistry)

    chemical analysis: Interference removal: Regardless of whether a classical or instrumental method is used, it may be necessary to remove interferences from an analyte prior to an assay. An interference is a substance, other than the assayed material, that can be measured by the chosen analytical method…

  • interferogram (physics)

    spectroscopy: Experimental methods: …in the production of an interferogram due to the absorption of specific components of the radiation. This interferogram (a function of signal intensity versus time) is normally digitized, stored in computer memory, and converted to an absorption spectrum by means of a Fourier transform (see also analysis: Fourier analysis). Fourier-transform…

  • interferometer (instrument)

    acoustic interferometer: >, device for measuring the velocity and absorption of sound waves in a gas or liquid. A vibrating crystal creates the waves that are radiated continuously into the fluid medium, striking a movable reflector placed accurately parallel to the crystal source. The waves are then…

  • interferon (biochemistry)

    Interferon, any of several related proteins that are produced by the body’s cells as a defensive response to viruses. They are important modulators of the immune response. Interferon was named for its ability to interfere with viral proliferation. The various forms of interferon are the body’s most

  • interflow (hydrology)

    runoff: …reach a stream but also interflow, the water that infiltrates the soil surface and travels by means of gravity toward a stream channel (always above the main groundwater level) and eventually empties into the channel. Runoff also includes groundwater that is discharged into a stream; streamflow that is composed entirely…

  • interfluve (river basin area)

    Pakistan: The Indus River plain: …forming a developed system of interfluves, known locally as doabs, in Punjab province (Persian panj āb, “five waters,” in reference to the five rivers). In the lower plain the Indus River has a Nilotic character; i.e., it forms a single large river with no significant tributaries. The plain narrows to…

  • intergalactic medium (astronomy)

    Intergalactic medium, material found between galaxies and that mostly consists of hot, tenuous hydrogen gas. At one time it was thought that large amounts of mass might exist in the form of gas clouds in the spaces between galaxies. One by one, however, the forms that this intergalactic gas might

  • intergenerational ethics

    Intergenerational ethics, branch of ethics that considers if present-day humanity has a moral obligation to future generations to aim for environmental sustainability. The long-term nature of many environmental problems has forced moral philosophy to pay closer attention to relations between

  • interglacial age (geologic time)

    climate change: Recent glacial and interglacial periods: With glacial ice restricted to high latitudes and altitudes, Earth 125,000 years ago was in an interglacial period similar to the one occurring today. During the past 125,000 years, however, the Earth system went through an entire glacial-interglacial…

  • interglacial stage (geologic time)

    climate change: Recent glacial and interglacial periods: With glacial ice restricted to high latitudes and altitudes, Earth 125,000 years ago was in an interglacial period similar to the one occurring today. During the past 125,000 years, however, the Earth system went through an entire glacial-interglacial…

  • interglaciation (geologic time)

    climate change: Recent glacial and interglacial periods: With glacial ice restricted to high latitudes and altitudes, Earth 125,000 years ago was in an interglacial period similar to the one occurring today. During the past 125,000 years, however, the Earth system went through an entire glacial-interglacial…

  • Interglossa (language)

    Lancelot Thomas Hogben: Scientist, science writer, and foe of eugenics: …creation of an artificial language, Interglossa. (In 1943 Hogben edited The Loom of Language, by Frederick Bodmer, which includes a description of Interglossa.) In 1927 Hogben accepted a chair in zoology at the University of Cape Town, South Africa. His lectures at the school led to his publication of Principles…

  • Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (international organization)

    Intergovernmental Committee on Refugees (IGCR or ICR), agency created in 1938 on the initiative of U.S. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt to administer intergovernmental efforts to resettle refugees from Nazi Germany and to prepare for the resettlement of future German emigrants, thus originating planned

  • Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (United Nations panel)

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations panel established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988. Headquartered with the WMO in Geneva, Switzerland, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (international organization)

    biodiversity: Counting species: A 2019 report by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services noted that up to one million plant and animal species are facing extinction due to human activity. (The loss of biodiversity as a result of human activity and various methods aimed at preventing this loss are discussed…

  • interhalogen compound (chemical compound)

    chemical industry: Isotope separation: …preparation of the extremely reactive interhalogen compounds such as chlorine trifluoride (ClF3), used for cutting steel, and for the preparation of sulfur hexafluoride, an extremely stable gas that has been employed as an insulator in electrical applications.

  • Interim (document by Charles V)

    Charles V: Imperialist goals, rivalry with Francis I, and fight against Protestantism: …the publication of the “Interim,” a formula conciliatory to the Protestants but retaining the Roman Catholic ritual in general. Although Charles believed that he had granted far-reaching concessions to the people and the Protestant authorities in that document, his main concern was to make the Protestants return to the…

  • Interim Agreement (United States-Soviet history)

    Strategic Arms Limitation Talks: The Interim Agreement froze each side’s number of ICBMs and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) at current levels for five years, pending negotiation of a more detailed SALT II. As an executive agreement, it did not require U.S. Senate ratification, but it was approved by Congress in…

  • Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip (Israel-Palestinian Authority [1995])

    Israel: Israeli-occupied Arab territories: …territory as part of the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and Gaza Strip, signed in September 1995, and the Wye River Memorandum of October 1998. The transfers, executed in stages, actually occurred more slowly than originally agreed, with a number of stages delayed or postponed. In 2002 Israel also…

  • Interim Committee (United States history)

    20th-century international relations: The atomic decision: ” He then formed an Interim Committee of statesmen and scientists to debate how the bomb should be employed. On May 31 and June 1 the committee received scientific briefings and held discussions on whether to share the secret with the Soviets, how long it would take other nations to…

  • Interim Constitution (Tanzania [1965])

    Tanzania: Constitutional framework: The Interim Constitution of 1965 established the United Republic of Tanzania through the merger of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, until then separate and independent countries. A permanent constitution for the United Republic was approved in 1977 and amended in 1984 to include a bill of rights.

  • Interim Upper Stage (spacecraft)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …was selected to develop the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), a two-stage payload delivery vehicle that can be taken into space by either a space shuttle or a launcher such as the Titan. In 1993 NASA selected Boeing as the prime contractor for the ISS, and two years later the company…

  • Interimsblade (Danish journal)

    Johan Ludvig Heiberg: …1830, and, under the name Interimsblade, from 1834 to 1837. In this journal he carried on many literary feuds but also featured many new talents, including S?ren Kierkegaard and Hans Christian Andersen. Even such exponents of modern realism as Georg Brandes and Henrik Ibsen acknowledged debts of inspiration owed to…

  • interindividual difference (education)

    special education: Historical background: …of individual differences: (1) “interindividual differences,” which compares one child with another, and (2) “intraindividual differences,” which compares the child’s abilities in one area with the child’s abilities in other areas. The grouping of children in special classes rests on the concept of interindividual differences, but the instructional procedures…

  • Interior at Paddington (painting by Freud)

    Lucian Freud: His Interior at Paddington (1951) exhibits many of his lifelong concerns—the human figure rendered in a realist manner and imbued with a stark and evocative psychological intensity. Freud’s many portraits of his friends and associates and of members of the British gentry extended a grand English…

  • interior ballistics

    ballistics: Internal and external ballistics, respectively, deal with the propulsion and the flight of projectiles. The transition between these two regimes is called intermediate ballistics. Terminal ballistics concerns the impact of projectiles; a separate category encompasses the wounding of personnel.

  • Interior Castle, The (work by Saint Teresa of Avila)

    Christianity: Western Catholic Christianity: …stages on the mystical path, The Interior Castle, has been used for centuries as a basic handbook. John of the Cross was perhaps the most profound and systematic of all Roman Catholic mystical thinkers. His four major works, The Dark Night of the Soul, The Ascent of Mount Carmel, The…

  • interior decoration

    Interior design, planning and design of man-made spaces, a part of environmental design and closely related to architecture. Although the desire to create a pleasant environment is as old as civilization itself, the field of interior design is relatively new. Since at least the middle of the 20th

  • interior design

    Interior design, planning and design of man-made spaces, a part of environmental design and closely related to architecture. Although the desire to create a pleasant environment is as old as civilization itself, the field of interior design is relatively new. Since at least the middle of the 20th

  • Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport (Mars lander)

    Mars: Spacecraft exploration: InSight (Interior exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy, and Heat Transport) lander touched down on Elysium Planitia in November 2018. InSight placed a seismometer on the surface that made the first detections of quakes on Mars. The lander also deployed a probe that burrowed into the…

  • interior live oak (plant)

    live oak: agrifolia) and interior live oak (Q. wislizenii), native to western North America, have holly-like leaves. They are usually shrubby but may reach 15 to 25 m or more; the California live oak is planted as an ornamental in other areas of the world for its rounded shape.

  • Interior Low Plateaus (region, United States)

    United States: The Interior Lowlands and their upland fringes: …Arkansas; on the east the Interior Low Plateaus dominate central Kentucky and Tennessee. Except for two nearly circular patches of rich limestone country—the Nashville Basin of Tennessee and the Kentucky Bluegrass region—most of both plateau regions consists of sandstone uplands, intricately dissected by streams. Local relief runs to several hundreds…

  • Interior Lowlands (region, North America)

    Interior Lowlands, the broad, generally flat areas of the central part of the North American continent. The name is used in regional geologic and physiographic descriptions of North America and the conterminous United States. From the tectonic view, the continental Interior Lowlands are areas

  • Interior Lowlands (region, Australia)

    Australia: The Interior Lowlands: The Interior Lowlands are dominated by three major basins, the Carpentaria Basin, the Eyre Basin, and the Murray Basin. The Carpentaria and Eyre basins are separated by such minute residual relief elements as Mount Brown and Mount Fort Bowen in northwestern Queensland. The Wilcannia…

  • interior monologue (literary device)

    Interior monologue, in dramatic and nondramatic fiction, narrative technique that exhibits the thoughts passing through the minds of the protagonists. These ideas may be either loosely related impressions approaching free association or more rationally structured sequences of thought and emotion.

  • Interior of the St. Cunera Church at Rhenen (painting by Saenredam)

    Pieter Saenredam: …Kerk at Haarlem (1652) and Interior of the St. Cunera Church at Rhenen (1655), which convey a majestic spaciousness and serene atmosphere characteristic of Saenredam’s paintings.

  • Interior Plains (region, North America)

    Interior Lowlands, the broad, generally flat areas of the central part of the North American continent. The name is used in regional geologic and physiographic descriptions of North America and the conterminous United States. From the tectonic view, the continental Interior Lowlands are areas

  • Interior Plateau (plateau, British Columbia, Canada)

    Fraser River: …bend southward to traverse the Interior Plateau and then the Coast Mountains. Entrenchment and gradients increase progressively downstream, and through the Coast Mountains the raging waters traverse a canyon about 5,000 feet (1,500 m) deep. Below this canyon the Fraser turns westward to flow placidly across an alluvial plain to…

  • interior point method (mathematics)

    linear programming: … discovered another polynomial-time algorithm, the interior point method, that proved competitive with the simplex method.

  • interior rhyme (poetry)

    prosody: Meaning, pace, and sound: …however, a notable example of interior rhyme, or rhyme within the line:

  • Interior Ridges (mountains, Spain)

    Pyrenees: Physiography: Thus the Interior Ridges—e.g., Mount Perdido and the massif of Collarada—are sometimes higher than the neighbouring primary axial peaks. They are followed, to the south, by a broad, pre-Pyrenean, middle depression, with a succession of marine and continental deposits of varying hardness that constitute the valleys of…

  • Interior Salish (people)

    Salish, linguistic grouping of North American Indian tribes speaking related languages and living in the upper basins of the Columbia and Fraser rivers and their tributaries in what are now the province of British Columbia, Can., and the U.S. states of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. They are

  • Interior Scroll (performance piece by Schneemann)

    Carolee Schneemann: …Schneemann’s best-known performance pieces is Interior Scroll (1975). For the piece, which she performed for the first time at the Women Here and Now exhibition in East Hampton, New York, Schneemann stood naked on a table and, in front of the audience, painted her body in dark paint, pulled a…

  • Interior, Council for the (French political body)

    France: The development of central government: The Council for Dispatches (Conseil des Dépêches), or, more loosely, the Council for the Interior, had particular responsibility for home affairs, including the activities of the intendants; the Royal Council for Finances (Conseil Royal des Finances) supervised important matters affecting financial aspects of the king’s domain…

  • Interior, Lux (American musician)

    Lux Interior, (Erick Lee Purkhiser), American punk musician (born Oct. 21, 1946, Stow, Ohio—died Feb. 4, 2009, Glendale, Calif.), fronted the legendary “psychobilly” rock band the Cramps, which he and his wife, guitarist Poison Ivy (Kristy Wallace), founded in 1976. With a style informed by B

  • Interior, U.S. Department of the (United States government)

    U.S. Department of the Interior, executive division of the U.S. federal government responsible for most of the country’s federally owned lands and natural resources, as well as reservation communities for American Indians and Alaska Natives. Created in 1849, it encompasses the Bureau of Indian

  • interior-to-Earths-orbit asteroid (astronomy)

    asteroid: Near-Earth asteroids: Asteroids that can come close to Earth are called near-Earth asteroids (NEAs), although not all NEAs actually cross Earth’s orbit. NEAs are divided into several orbital classes. Asteroids belonging to the class most distant from Earth—those asteroids that can cross the orbit of…

  • Interiors (film by Allen [1978])

    Woody Allen: The 1970s: Allen’s next film, Interiors (1978), was a carefully crafted homage to the weighty psychodramas of Ingmar Bergman. Abjuring humour, this tale of a dysfunctional family (starring Geraldine Page, Maureen Stapleton, E.G. Marshall, Mary Beth Hurt, and Keaton) received a mixed reaction from critics, some of whom saw it…

  • interlaced scanning (electronics)

    television: Interlaced lines: This is known as interlaced scanning, and it is used in all the standard television broadcast services of the world. Each set of alternate lines is known as a scanning field; the two fields together, comprising the whole scanning pattern, are known as a scanning frame. The repetition rate…

  • Interlake Formation (geological formation, North Dakota, United States)

    Silurian Period: Evaporites: …feet) thick occurs in the Interlake Formation formed during the Wenlock Epoch in North Dakota. Gypsiferous beds occur in parts of the Upper Silurian Yangadin and Holuhan formations of Siberia, as well as in comparable formations in Latvia and Lithuania. Upper Silurian evaporites from the Pridoli Epoch are characteristic of…

  • Interlaken (Switzerland)

    Interlaken, town, Bern canton, central Switzerland. It lies along the Aare River, in the Bernese Highlands. Its name is derived from its position on the flat plain (B?deli), 1,864 feet (568 m) above sea level, between Lakes (inter lacus) Brienz to the east and Thun to the west. The town grew up

  • interleukin (protein)

    Interleukin (IL), any of a group of naturally occurring proteins that mediate communication between cells. Interleukins regulate cell growth, differentiation, and motility. They are particularly important in stimulating immune responses, such as inflammation. Interleukins are a subset of a larger

  • interleukin 23 receptor (gene variation)

    inflammatory bowel disease: …variation of a gene called IL23R (interleukin 23 receptor), particularly in persons of northern European descent, has been associated with increased risk of developing Crohn disease. Variation of a gene called NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain containing 2) also has been linked to Crohn disease, and variation of a gene called…

  • interleukin-1 (protein)

    interleukin: IL-1 and IL-2 are primarily responsible for activating T and B lymphocytes (white blood cells integral to bringing about the acquired immune response), with IL-2 being a stimulant of T- and B-cell growth and maturation. IL-1, along with IL-6, is also a mediator of inflammation.…

  • interleukin-2 (protein)

    interleukin: IL-1 and IL-2 are primarily responsible for activating T and B lymphocytes (white blood cells integral to bringing about the acquired immune response), with IL-2 being a stimulant of T- and B-cell growth and maturation. IL-1, along with IL-6, is also a mediator of inflammation. IL-4 often…

  • interleukin-3 (biochemistry)

    blood: Blood cells: A master colony-stimulating factor (multi-CSF), also called interleukin-3, stimulates the most ancestral hematopoietic stem cell. Further differentiation of this stem cell into specialized descendants requires particular kinds of CSFs; for example, the CSF erythropoietin is needed for the maturation of red cells, and granulocyte CSF controls…

  • interlevee basin (river basin area)

    Pakistan: The Indus River plain: …forming a developed system of interfluves, known locally as doabs, in Punjab province (Persian panj āb, “five waters,” in reference to the five rivers). In the lower plain the Indus River has a Nilotic character; i.e., it forms a single large river with no significant tributaries. The plain narrows to…

  • interlibrary lending

    library: Interlibrary lending: The publication of bibliographies and library catalogs heightened awareness that no library could afford to be self-sufficient, and this awareness in turn stimulated interest in various forms of interlibrary cooperation. Cooperation probably originated informally, with readers referring to union catalogs to locate libraries…

  • Interlinear Glosses (work by Anselm of Laon)

    Anselm Of Laon: Anselm’s principal work was Interlinear Glosses, a commentary on the entire Vulgate Bible; it became a leading medieval authority. Some of his scriptural commentaries were ascribed to other writers, notably St. Anselm. His known works were published by J.-P. Migne in Patrologia Latina (vol. 162).

  • Interlinear to Cabeza de Vaca: His Relation of the Journey from Florida to the Pacific (work by Long)

    Haniel Long: …best known for his book Interlinear to Cabeza de Vaca: His Relation of the Journey from Florida to the Pacific (1936, republished in 1944 as The Power Within Us).

  • Interlingua (language)

    Interlingua, simplified form of Latin intended for use as an international second language. Interlingua was originally developed in 1903 by the Italian mathematician Giuseppe Peano, but lack of clarity as to what parts of Latin were to be retained and what were to be discarded led to numerous “

  • interlining (clothing)

    textile: Changing uses of fabric in apparel: …of tailored garments formerly used interlinings made of horsehair, which was later replaced by goat hair and then by resin-treated viscose rayon. Today fusible interlinings and various washable synthetics are widely used. The performance of a garment is greatly influenced by such factors as the interlining used and the sewing…

  • interlinkage (chemistry)

    aging: Cross-linking theory: …due to the formation of cross-links between or within the molecules of collagen (a fibrous protein) that give elasticity to these tissues. The “cross-linking” theory of aging assumes that similar cross-links form in other biologically important molecules, such as enzymes. These cross-links could alter the structure and shape of the…

  • interlobar artery (anatomy)

    renal capsule: …blood supply ultimately from the interlobar arteries, small vessels that branch off from the main renal arteries; these vessels travel through the cortex of the kidney and terminate in the capsule. The maximum thickness of the membrane is usually 2 to 3 millimetres (0.08–0.12 inch). The capsule surrounds the outer…

  • interlobular artery (anatomy)

    renal system: Arteries and arterioles: Many arteries, called interlobular arteries, branch off from the arcuate arteries and radiate out through the cortex to end in networks of capillaries in the region just inside the capsule. En route they give off short branches called the afferent arterioles, which carry blood to the glomeruli where…

  • Interlochen (Michigan, United States)

    Interlochen, unincorporated resort village, Grand Traverse county, northwestern Michigan, U.S., located in a fruit-growing region about 15 miles (25 km) south of Traverse City. The village (whose name means “between the lakes”) was named for its location between Lake Wahbekaness (Ottawa for “water

  • Interlochen Arts Camp (Interlochen, Michigan, United States)

    Interlochen: …as the home of the Interlochen Arts Camp. Originally a summer music camp only, it has expanded to offer programs in dance and visual and theatre arts. The music camp began as the state-sponsored Camp Interlochen, for girls, in 1918; a camp for boys was established nearby in 1922. In…

  • interlocking (music)

    African music: Interlocking: Interlocking techniques are a prominent feature of many instrumental styles in East and southeastern Africa. From regions in Tanzania and Mozambique come the ng’oma drumming of Gogo women and such log xylophone styles as the dimbila of the Makonde, the mangwilo of the Shirima,…

  • interlocking (tapestry weave)

    tapestry: Techniques: The fourth treatment—interlocking—was introduced in the Gobelins factory in the 18th century. Here wefts of juxtaposed colour segments are looped through each other between the two warps that mark, respectively, the margin of each colour. This technique produces a continuous surface of even weight that was prized…

  • interlocking (railroad signal)

    railroad: Interlocking and routing: The first attempts at interlocking switches and signals were made in France in 1855 and in Britain in 1856. Interlocking at crossings and junctions prevents the displaying of a clear signal for one route when clearance has already been given to a…

  • interlocutor (theatre)

    minstrel show: …in a semicircle, with the interlocutor in the centre and the end men—Mr. Tambo, who played the tambourine, and Mr. Bones, who rattled the bones (a pair of clappers, named after the original material from which they were made)—at the ends. The interlocutor, in whiteface, usually wore formal attire; the…

  • interlocutory decree (law)

    Interlocutory decree, generally, a judicial decision that is not final or that deals with a point other than the principal subject matter of the controversy at hand. An interlocutory decree of divorce in the United States or a decree nisi in England, for example, is a judicial decree pronouncing

  • interlude (theatre)

    Interlude, in theatre, early form of English dramatic entertainment, sometimes considered to be the transition between medieval morality plays and Tudor dramas. Interludes were performed at court or at “great houses” by professional minstrels or amateurs at intervals between some other

  • intermarriage (social practice)

    Miscegenation, marriage or cohabitation by persons of different race. Theories that the anatomical disharmony of children resulted from miscegenation were discredited by 20th-century genetics and anthropology. Although it is now accepted that modern populations are the result of the continuous

  • intermedi (musical drama)

    theatre music: The Renaissance and Baroque periods: …theatre in Italy bred the intermedio, which consisted of songs and instrumental music added before or after the acts of a play. The words of the songs were generally relevant to the action of the drama, and this development—together with more extended musical settings in pastoral plays—became the direct precursor…

  • intermediate ballistics

    ballistics: …these two regimes is called intermediate ballistics. Terminal ballistics concerns the impact of projectiles; a separate category encompasses the wounding of personnel.

  • intermediate casing (drilling technology)

    fracking: Horizontal drilling: …regulations, another pipe, called the intermediate casing, may be cemented inside the surface casing.

  • intermediate cystinosis (pathology)

    cystinosis: Intermediate cystinosis is similar to the nephropathic form but has a later onset, typically in adolescence, with complete kidney failure occurring usually between ages 15 and 25.

  • intermediate disturbance hypothesis (ecology)

    ecological disturbance: Intermediate disturbance hypothesis: Some ecologists claim that these qualitative traits—namely, the persistence of large disturbed patches and the relatively rapid recovery of smaller ones—may be synthesized through the intermediate disturbance hypothesis. This hypothesis states that a disturbance regime (or pattern of disturbances) characterized by low…

  • intermediate earthquake (geology)

    earthquake: Shallow, intermediate, and deep foci: …earthquakes, 12 percent comes from intermediate earthquakes—that is, quakes with a focal depth ranging from about 60 to 300 km. About 3 percent of total energy comes from deeper earthquakes. The frequency of occurrence falls off rapidly with increasing focal depth in the intermediate range. Below intermediate depth the distribution…

  • intermediate filament (biology)

    cell: Intermediate filaments: Intermediate filaments are so named because they are thicker than actin filaments and thinner than microtubules or muscle myosin filaments. The subunits of intermediate filaments are elongated, not globular, and are associated in an antipolar manner. As a result, the overall filament has…

  • intermediate frequency (electronics)

    superheterodyne reception: This different frequency, called the intermediate frequency (IF), is beyond the audible range (hence the original term, supersonic heterodyne reception); it can be amplified with higher gain and selectivity than can the initial higher frequency. The IF signal, retaining modulation to the same degree as the original carrier, enters a…

  • intermediate gastric gland (anatomy)

    gastric gland: …beginning of the stomach; the intermediate, or true, gastric glands in the central stomach areas; and the pyloric glands in the terminal stomach portion. Both the cardiac and pyloric glands secrete mucus, which coats the stomach and protects it from self-digestion by helping to dilute acids and enzymes.

  • intermediate goods (economics)

    Producer goods, in economics, goods manufactured and used in further manufacturing, processing, or resale. Producer goods either become part of the final product or lose their distinct identity in the manufacturing stream. The prices of producer goods are not included in the summation of a

  • intermediate haulage (mining)

    coal mining: Haulage: …active working faces; intermediate or panel haulage, which transfers the coal onto the primary or main haulage; and the main haulage system, which removes the coal from the mine. The fundamental difference between face, intermediate, and main haulages is that the last two are essentially auxiliary operations in support of…

  • intermediate host (biology)

    community ecology: Alternation among hosts: …their final host and an intermediate host, or vector, that transfers the parasite from one final host to another: the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum alternates between a final human host and an intermediate mosquito host by which the parasite is transferred from one person to another. The parasite uses the…

  • intermediate house

    greenhouse: A warm greenhouse has nighttime temperatures of 10–13 °C (50–55 °F). Begonias, gloxinias, African violets, chrysanthemums, orchids, roses

  • intermediate lever (piano)

    keyboard instrument: Invention: …and disengages itself from the intermediate lever, which then falls back, permitting the hammer to fall most of the way back to its rest position, even while the key is still depressed. This feature, called an escapement, is the heart of Cristofori’s invention; it makes possible a short free flight…

  • intermediate lobe of pituitary gland (anatomy)

    hormone: Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (intermedin): …route is characteristic of the pars intermedia region, in which neurosecretory fibres from the hypothalamus control the functioning of the secretory cells. If the pars intermedia is separated from its direct connection with the floor of the brain, for example, MSH secretion in amphibians increases, and prolonged darkening of the…

  • intermediate nerve (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Facial nerve (CN VII or 7): The intermediate nerve contains autonomic (parasympathetic) as well as general and special sensory fibres. Preganglionic autonomic fibres, classified as general visceral efferent, project from the superior salivatory nucleus in the pons. Exiting with the facial nerve, they pass to the pterygopalatine ganglion via the greater petrosal…

  • intermediate nuclear force (arms designation)

    20th-century international relations: Renewal of arms control: …to link Pershing deployment with intermediate nuclear forces (INF) talks with the U.S.S.R. Reagan tried to seize the moral high ground with his “zero-option” proposal for complete elimination of all such missiles from Europe and a call for new Strategic Arms Reduction Talks (START) to negotiate real reductions in the…

  • intermediate Population II (astronomy)

    Milky Way Galaxy: Principal population types: …than M5e) were considered “intermediate Population II,” whereas the longer period variables fell into the “older Population I” category. As dynamical properties were more thoroughly investigated, many astronomers divided the Galaxy’s stellar populations into a "thin disk," a "thick disk," and a "halo."

  • intermediate proofer (baking device)

    baking: Intermediate proofing: …through an enclosed cabinet, the intermediate proofer, for several minutes. Physical changes, other than gas accumulation, occurring during this period are not yet understood, but there are apparently alterations in the molecular structure of the dough rendering it more responsive to subsequent operations. Upon leaving the intermediate proofer, the dough…

  • intermediate reactor (nuclear reactor)

    nuclear reactor: Thermal, intermediate, and fast reactors: …thousands of electron volts (intermediate reactors) or several hundred thousand electron volts (fast reactors). Such reactors require higher concentrations of fissile material to reach criticality than do reactor designs that operate at thermal energy levels; however, they are more efficient at converting fertile material to fissile material. Fast reactors…

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