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  • intermediate rock (geology)

    felsic and mafic rocks: …and 65 percent silica are intermediate; those with between 45 and 55 percent silica are mafic; and those with less than 45 percent are ultramafic. Compilations of many rock analyses show that rhyolite and granite are felsic, with an average silica content of about 72 percent; syenite, diorite, and monzonite…

  • intermediate species (ecosystem)

    secondary succession: …way to a community of intermediate species over many years before a climax community can become established. Insects and weedy plants (frequently from surrounding ecosystems) are often the first to recolonize the disturbed area, and these species are in turn replaced by hardier plants and animals. If the area remains…

  • intermediate technology (development concept)

    Intermediate technology, simple and practical tools, basic machines, and engineering systems that economically disadvantaged farmers and other rural people can purchase or construct from resources that are available locally to improve their well-being. Designed to focus on people rather than

  • Intermediate Unit 1 Center (American educational service organization)

    STEM: Development of STEM in the United States: …Mellon University (CMU) and the Intermediate Unit 1 (IU1) Center for STEM Education, noted that U.S. educators were unsure of the implications of STEM, particularly when scientific and technological literacy of all students was the goal. Educators lacked in-depth knowledge of STEM careers, and, as a consequence, they were not…

  • intermediate value theorem (mathematics)

    Brouwer's fixed point theorem: …to be equivalent to the intermediate value theorem, which is a familiar result in calculus and states that if a continuous real-valued function f defined on the closed interval [?1, 1] satisfies f(?1) < 0 and f(1) > 0, then f(x) = 0 for at least one number x between…

  • intermediate vector boson (subatomic particle)

    Intermediate vector boson, type of boson associated with the electromagnetic and weak forces in unified form. See W

  • intermediate wintergreen (plant)

    wintergreen: The pinkish globular flowers of intermediate wintergreen (P. media) grow in a rather elongated cylindrical cluster. The flowers of round-leaved wintergreen (P. americana) are white, with widely spread petals.

  • intermediate yellow fever (pathology)

    yellow fever: The course of the disease: africanus in Africa); and (3) intermediate, or savannah, yellow fever, in which transmission is from animal to person and from person to person via a number of “semidomestic” mosquitoes (e.g., A. furcifer, A. taylori).

  • intermediate, chemical (chemistry)

    Chemical intermediate, any chemical substance produced during the conversion of some reactant to a product. Most synthetic processes involve transformation of some readily available and often inexpensive substance to some desired product through a succession of steps. All the substances generated

  • intermediate-density lipoprotein (physiology)

    metabolic disease: Lipoprotein disorders: are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), low-density lipoproteins (LDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Disorders that affect lipid metabolism may be caused by defects in the structural proteins of lipoprotein particles, in the cell receptors that recognize the various types of lipoproteins, or in the enzymes that break down…

  • intermediate-range ballistic missile (military technology)

    Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty: The INF Treaty defined intermediate-range ballistic missiles (IRBMs) and ground-launched cruise missiles (GLCMs) as those having ranges of 1,000 to 5,500 km (620 to 3,400 miles) and shorter-range ballistic missiles (SRBMs) as those having ranges from 500 to 1,000 km.

  • Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (United States-Soviet Union [1987])

    Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, nuclear arms-control accord reached by the United States and the Soviet Union in 1987 in which those two nations agreed to eliminate their stocks of intermediate-range and shorter-range (or “medium-range”) land-based missiles (which could carry nuclear

  • intermediate-range nuclear weapons (warfare technology)

    Intermediate-range nuclear weapons, Class of nuclear weapons with a range of 620–3,400 mi (1,000–5,500 km). Some multiple warheads developed by the Soviet Union could strike several targets anywhere in Western Europe in less than 10 minutes. The U.S. could send a single nuclear warhead from central

  • intermediate-term financing

    business finance: Intermediate-term financing: Whereas short-term loans are repaid in a period of weeks or months, intermediate-term loans are scheduled for repayment in 1 to 15 years. Obligations due in 15 or more years are thought of as long-term debt. The major forms of intermediate-term financing include…

  • intermedin

    Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH), any of several peptides derived from a protein known as proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and secreted primarily by the pituitary gland. In most vertebrates, melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) peptides are secreted specifically by the intermediate lobe of the

  • intermedio (musical drama)

    theatre music: The Renaissance and Baroque periods: …theatre in Italy bred the intermedio, which consisted of songs and instrumental music added before or after the acts of a play. The words of the songs were generally relevant to the action of the drama, and this development—together with more extended musical settings in pastoral plays—became the direct precursor…

  • intermembral index (anatomy)

    primate: Four types of locomotion: …being strictly quantitative, is the intermembral index. Briefly, the index is a ratio expressed as percentage of arm length to leg length; an index over 100 indicates relatively long arms. This provides a model by means of which the locomotion of an early primate can be inferred by determination of…

  • intermembranous ossification (physiology)

    bone formation: This process is called intermembranous ossification. There are several ossification centres in the skull. At birth, bone formation is incomplete, and soft spots can be felt between these centres. The lines where the new bone from adjacent centres meets form cranial sutures visible on the surface of the adult…

  • intermetallic compound (chemical compound)

    Intermetallic compound, any of a class of substances composed of definite proportions of two or more elemental metals, rather than continuously variable proportions (as in solid solutions). The crystal structures and the properties of intermetallic compounds often differ markedly from those of

  • Intermezzo (film)

    Ingrid Bergman: Early life: …Swedish films as the original Intermezzo (1936) and En kvinnas ansikte (1938; A Woman’s Face). In 1939 she starred in the Hollywood version of Intermezzo, which was a box-office hit.

  • Intermezzo (work by Giraudoux)

    Jean Giraudoux: …is notable that apart from Intermezzo (1933), in which a timid ghost revolutionizes a small provincial town until a romantic little schoolteacher restores order, Giraudoux never worked on an original subject: he sought inspiration in classical or biblical tradition as in électre (1937) and Cantique des cantiques (1938; “Song of…

  • Intermezzo (opera by Strauss)

    Richard Strauss: Works: …wife is a foretaste of Intermezzo (1918–23), where the protagonists are Strauss and Pauline, thinly disguised. Arnold Schoenberg was among the first to recognize the mastery and seriousness of this opera, which was at first lightly regarded but in which Strauss perfected his conversational melodic recitative.

  • intermezzo (music and theatre)

    Intermezzo, (Italian: “interlude”) in music and theatre, an entertainment performed between the acts of a play; also a light instrumental composition. In the late 15th and 16th centuries, classical and contemporary plays were performed with intermezzi written by the finest composers of the time and

  • Intermezzo: A Love Story (film by Ratoff [1939])

    Gregory Ratoff: Films of the 1930s and ’40s: Intermezzo: A Love Story, which Ratoff made on loan to David O. Selznick, was arguably the best. It was a glossy remake of the 1936 Swedish film of the same name and had Ingrid Bergman reprising her role as a piano teacher. The romantic drama…

  • Interministerial Committee for Credit and Savings (Italian government)

    Italy: Finance: …policy is vested in the Interministerial Committee for Credit and Savings, headed by the minister for the economy and finance. In practice, the Bank of Italy enjoys wide discretionary powers (within the constraints of the Maastricht Treaty and other agreements that govern the euro zone) and plays an important role…

  • intermittent (cinematography)

    history of the motion picture: Edison and the Lumière brothers: , which incorporated a superior intermittent movement mechanism and a loop-forming device (known as the Latham loop, after its earliest promoters, Grey Latham and Otway Latham) to reduce film breakage, and in early 1896 Edison began to manufacture and market this machine as his own invention. Given its first public…

  • intermittent kiln (industry)

    brick and tile: Firing and cooling: In so-called periodic kilns the bricks are placed with sufficient air space to allow the heat from the fires to reach all surfaces. They are placed directly from the drier, and heat is gradually increased until the optimum firing temperature is reached. When they are sufficiently fired,…

  • intermittent printing (photography)

    motion-picture technology: Film processing and printing: In intermittent, or step-by-step, printing, each frame of the master film is exposed as a whole to a corresponding frame space on the raw film.

  • intermittent projector (photography)

    television: The intermittent projector: In the intermittent projector, which more nearly resembles the type used in theatre projection, each frame of film is momentarily held stationary in the projector while a brief flash of light is passed through it. The light (which passes simultaneously through all parts…

  • intermittent-combustion engine

    internal-combustion engine: The intermittent-combustion engine is characterized by periodic ignition of air and fuel and is commonly referred to as a reciprocating engine. Discrete volumes of air and fuel are processed in a cyclic manner. Gasoline piston engines and diesel engines are examples of this second group.

  • Intermix Media (American company)

    Myspace: …Internet marketing company eUniverse (later Intermix Media), created Myspace in 2003. It quickly distinguished itself from established social networking sites by allowing—and in fact encouraging—musical artists to use the site to promote themselves, earning Myspace a hip cachet and making it a favoured destination site for youth. It also developed…

  • intermodal perception (physiology)

    space perception: Perception of depth and distance: …collaboration of all senses (so-called intermodal perception).

  • intermodal transportation

    railroad: Freight cars: …cars in certain uses, notably intermodal transport. In this system a car comprises several frames or bodies (usually not more than five), which, where they adjoin, are permanently coupled and mounted on a single truck.

  • intermodulation distortion (physics)

    distortion: Intermodulation distortion is a result of nonlinearities in the system such that one frequency component tends to modulate another frequency component—e.g., a high audio frequency modulating a low audio frequency. In audio systems, the most noticeable types of distortion are amplitude, frequency, and intermodulation. In…

  • intermolecular compression (physics)

    high-pressure phenomena: Compression: …occurs by large decreases in intermolecular distances (often approaching 10 percent per GPa), in contrast to minimal intramolecular compression. Differences in the intermolecular versus intramolecular compression mechanisms lead in some cases to significantly anisotropic compression. Graphite, the low-pressure layered form of elemental carbon in which the “molecules” are continuous two-dimensional…

  • intermolecular distance (physics)

    gas: Intermolecular separation and average speed: One of the easiest properties to work out is the average distance between molecules compared to their diameter; water will be used here for this purpose. Consider 1 gram of H2O at 100° C and atmospheric pressure, which are the…

  • intermolecular forces (chemistry)

    chromatography: Retention: …normal forces existing between molecules—intermolecular forces. There are five major classes of these forces: (1) the universal, but weak, interaction between all electrons in neighbouring atoms and molecules, called dispersion forces, (2) the induction effect, by which polar molecules (those having an asymmetrical distribution of electrons) bring about a…

  • intermolecular pair potential function (physics)

    chemical bonding: Intermolecular forces: …the existence of these weak intermolecular forces is the fact that gases can be liquefied, that ordinary liquids exist and need a considerable input of energy for vaporization to a gas of independent molecules, and that many molecular compounds occur as solids. The role of weak intermolecular forces in the…

  • intermolecular reaction (chemical reaction)

    reaction mechanism: Intermolecularity and intramolecularity: The distinction between intermolecular and intramolecular processes is often useful. In intermolecular reactions, covalency changes take place in two separate molecules; in intramolecular reactions, two or more reaction sites within the same molecule are involved.

  • intermolecularity (chemical reaction)

    reaction mechanism: Intermolecularity and intramolecularity: The distinction between intermolecular and intramolecular processes is often useful. In intermolecular reactions, covalency changes take place in two separate molecules; in intramolecular reactions, two or more reaction sites within the same molecule are involved.

  • Intermontane Plateau (region, North America)

    community ecology: Specialization in grazing: …the grasslands of the upper Intermontane West (which roughly includes eastern Washington and Oregon) have never supported these large grazing herds. The Great Plains had grasses that formed sods and could withstand trampling by large-hooved mammals. These sods were so tightly interwoven that early European settlers cut them to use…

  • Intern, The (film by Meyers [2015])

    Robert De Niro: Comedies and later work: …fight, and the workplace comedy The Intern (2015), in which he was featured as the title character opposite Anne Hathaway. He took a supporting role as the embittered father of an entrepreneur (Jennifer Lawrence) in Joy (2015) and had the title role in Dirty Grandpa (2016). His other credits from…

  • Internal Affairs, Ministry of (Soviet secret police)

    MVD, former Soviet internal-affairs ministry, and one of the forerunners of the KGB

  • internal alchemy (Daoism)

    Daoism: Alchemical developments: …interest in internal alchemy (neidan), in which the language of the laboratory was used to describe operations realized within the body. This, in a sense, was nothing new. Alchemical metaphors had very early been applied to physiology; Ge Hong, for example, called semen the “yin elixir.” By Song times,…

  • internal anal sphincter (anatomy)

    anal canal: The internal sphincter is part of the inner surface of the canal; it is composed of concentric layers of circular muscle tissue and is not under voluntary control. The external sphincter is a layer of voluntary (striated) muscle encircling the outside wall of the anal canal…

  • internal audit

    auditing: Standardization of audit procedures: Internal auditing, designed to evaluate the effectiveness of a company’s accounting system, is relatively new. Perhaps the most familiar type of auditing is the administrative audit, or pre-audit, in which individual vouchers, invoices, or other documents are investigated for accuracy and proper authorization before they…

  • internal ballistics

    ballistics: Internal and external ballistics, respectively, deal with the propulsion and the flight of projectiles. The transition between these two regimes is called intermediate ballistics. Terminal ballistics concerns the impact of projectiles; a separate category encompasses the wounding of personnel.

  • internal capsule (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Cerebrum: …fan-shaped band, known as the internal capsule. The internal capsule consists of an anterior limb and a larger posterior limb and is abruptly curved, with the apex directed toward the centre of the brain; the junction is called the genu. The cerebrum also contains groups of subcortical neuronal masses known…

  • internal carotid artery (anatomy)

    carotid artery: …into an external and an internal carotid artery.

  • internal clock

    biological rhythm: …environmental stimulus is termed a biological clock. When an animal that functions according to such a clock is rapidly translocated to a geographic point where the environmental cycle is no longer synchronous with the animal’s cycle, the clock continues for a time to function synchronously with the original environmental cycle.…

  • Internal Constitution of the Stars (work by Eddington)

    Arthur Eddington: Philosophy of science: …is represented by the classic Internal Constitution of the Stars (1925) and in the public lectures published as Stars and Atoms (1927). In his well-written popular books he also set forth his scientific epistemology, which he called “selective subjectivism” and “structuralism”—i.e., the interplay of physical observations and geometry. He believed…

  • internal conversion (physics)

    gamma decay: …includes two other electromagnetic processes, internal conversion and internal pair production. In internal conversion, excess energy in a nucleus is directly transferred to one of its own orbiting electrons, thereby ejecting the electron from the atom. In internal pair production, excess energy is directly converted within the electromagnetic field of…

  • internal deformation (mechanics)

    Strain, in physical sciences and engineering, number that describes relative deformation or change in shape and size of elastic, plastic, and fluid materials under applied forces. The deformation, expressed by strain, arises throughout the material as the particles (molecules, atoms, ions) of which

  • internal distribution (ecology)

    animal social behaviour: Social interactions involving movement: The benefits of forming dispersal swarms, flocks, and coalitions are considered similar to the advantages of living in aggregations as both exploit the potential benefits of living in groups. Moving about in groups can provide additional advantages, such as the reduction in turbulence and energy savings accrued by geese…

  • internal energy (physics)

    Internal energy, in thermodynamics, the property or state function that defines the energy of a substance in the absence of effects due to capillarity and external electric, magnetic, and other fields. Like any other state function, the value of the energy depends upon the state of the substance

  • internal field theory (magnetism)

    magnetism: Role of exchange interaction: …of an effective internal, or molecular, field Hint, which is proportional in size to the magnetization M; that is, Hint = λM in which λ is an empirical parameter. The resulting magnetization M equals χp(H + λM), in which χp is the susceptibility that the substance would have in the…

  • internal fixation (medicine)

    bone disease: Therapeutic and corrective measures: Internal fixation (osteosynthesis) of bone is aimed at restoration of continuity and stability during healing of a fracture, arthrodesis, or osteotomy (see below). For this purpose a variety of metal screws, pins, plates, and wires have been developed. The metal used is either stainless steel…

  • internal friction (pedology)

    soil mechanics: …construction, depends upon six properties—internal friction (the resistance of a soil mass to sliding, inversely related to the amount of moisture in the soil and thus greater in sands and gravel than clays) and cohesion (molecular attraction between soil particles, much higher in clays than sands or silt), both…

  • internal jugular vein (anatomy)

    jugular vein: The internal jugular veins unite with the subclavian veins to form the brachiocephalic veins and drain blood from the brain, the face, and the neck.

  • internal language (logic)

    foundations of mathematics: Internal language: It turns out that each topos ?? has an internal language L(??), an intuitionistic type theory whose types are objects and whose terms are arrows of ??. Conversely, every type theory ? generates a topos T(?), by the device of turning (equivalence classes…

  • Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (Balkan revolutionary organization)

    Internal Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO), secret revolutionary society that was active in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Its many incarnations struggled with two contradictory goals: establishing Macedonia as an autonomous state on the one hand and promoting Bulgarian

  • internal market (economics)

    Quasi-market, organizationally designed and supervised markets intended to create more efficiency and choice than bureaucratic delivery systems while maintaining more equity, accessibility, and stability than conventional markets. Quasi-markets are also sometimes described as planned markets or

  • internal materials salvage

    recycling: Internal recycling is the reuse in a manufacturing process of materials that are a waste product of that process. Internal recycling is common in the metals industry, for example. The manufacture of copper tubing results in a certain amount of waste in the form of…

  • internal medicine

    Internal medicine, medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and medical, as opposed to surgical, treatment of diseases of adults. It is broadly identical with the practice of the physician, as opposed to that of the surgeon. Internal medicine, which deals with the entire patient rather than

  • internal Merge (linguistics)

    Noam Chomsky: Rule systems in Chomskyan theories of language: …“Move” and later by “internal Merge,” a variant of “external Merge,” itself a crucial basic operation that takes two elements (such as words) and makes of them a set. In the early 21st century, internal and external Merge, along with parameters and microparameters, remained at the core of Chomsky’s…

  • internal migration (human migration)

    Canada: Demographic trends: …century, the notable feature of internal migration was the movement from eastern Canada to the Prairie Provinces. Although British Columbia has continued to gain from migration since the 1930s, much of this has been at the expense of the Prairie Provinces. Alberta gained population from throughout Canada during the oil…

  • internal mixer (mechanics)

    plastic: Compounding: …and rubber industries is the internal mixer, in which heat and pressure are applied simultaneously. The Banbury mixer resembles a robust dough mixer in that two interrupted spiral rotors move in opposite directions at 30 to 40 rotations per minute. The shearing action is intense, and the power input can…

  • internal motive (behaviour)

    motivation: ” Push motives concern internal changes that have the effect of triggering specific motive states. Pull motives represent external goals that influence one’s behaviour toward them. Most motivational situations are in reality a combination of push and pull conditions. For example, hunger, in part, may be signaled by internal…

  • internal os (anatomy)

    cervix: …into the uterine cavity, the internal os. The endocervical canal transports sperm into the uterine cavity, allows the escape of blood from the uterus during menstruation, and supplies mucus (a thick lubricating protein) to the female reproductive tract. During childbirth the canal is greatly stretched (see parturition).

  • internal pair production (physics)

    Internal pair production, electromagnetic process classified as a form of gamma decay. See gamma decay; pair

  • internal pressure

    rock: Rock mechanics: …and internal (pore), due to pressure exerted by pore fluids contained in void space in the rock. Directed applied stress, such as compression, tension, and shear, is studied, as are the effects of increased temperature introduced with depth in the Earth’s crust. The effects of the duration of time and…

  • internal radiation therapy (medical procedure)

    cervical cancer: Treatment: Brachytherapy, on the other hand, uses implanted radioactive rods or pellets to focus the radiation on the cancer and greatly reduce side effects. In addition to the side effects normally associated with radiation treatment, pelvic radiation therapy may also cause premature menopause, bladder irritation, or…

  • internal realism (philosophy)

    Hilary Putnam: Realism and meaning: …“metaphysical realism,” recommending that “internal realism” be adopted in its stead (see below Varieties of realism). Internal realism, in turn, was also modified. Over the years, however, it became exceedingly clear that Putnam’s commitment to realism overrode the nuanced differences between the various versions of realism he espoused. The…

  • internal reconstruction (linguistics)

    linguistics: Internal reconstruction: …is called the method of internal reconstruction. This is based upon the existence of anomalous or irregular patterns of formation and the assumption that they must have developed, usually by sound change, from earlier regular patterns. For example, the existence of such patterns in early Latin as honos : honoris…

  • internal recycling

    recycling: Internal recycling is the reuse in a manufacturing process of materials that are a waste product of that process. Internal recycling is common in the metals industry, for example. The manufacture of copper tubing results in a certain amount of waste in the form of…

  • internal reflection (physics)

    Total internal reflection, in physics, complete reflection of a ray of light within a medium such as water or glass from the surrounding surfaces back into the medium. The phenomenon occurs if the angle of incidence is greater than a certain limiting angle, called the critical angle. In general,

  • internal relation (philosophy)

    idealism: The doctrine of internal relations and the coherence theory of truth: It seems natural to suppose, as nonidealists usually do, that the consideration of two things in their relatedness to one another can have no effect on the things themselves—i.e., that a relation is something in addition to…

  • Internal Revenue Service (United States government agency)

    Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Agency of the U.S. Department of the Treasury charged with administering and enforcing federal tax laws, except those relating to alcohol, tobacco, firearms, and explosives. It issues rulings and regulations to supplement the provisions of the Internal Revenue Code;

  • internal rhyme (poetry)

    Internal rhyme, rhyme between a word within a line and another word either at the end of the same line or within another line, as in the first and third lines of the following quatrain from the last stanza of Percy Bysshe Shelley’s “The

  • internal seich (meteorology)

    lake: Internal seiches: Internal seiching results from thermal stratification. The layers separated by the thermoclines oscillate relative to one another. Observed uninodal periods for Loch Earn, Lake Geneva, Lake Baikal, and Lake Cayuga (New York) are approximately 16, 96, 900 (binodal), and 65 hours, respectively.

  • internal sphincter (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The urinary system: …smooth muscle that forms the internal urinary sphincter. The external urinary sphincter, which works in concert with the internal sphincter, is made up of skeletal muscle controlled by motor fibres of the pudendal nerve. These fibres, arising from ventral horns of segments S2–S4, provide tonic excitation of the external sphincter.…

  • internal sty (medicine)

    sty: An internal sty results from inflammation of a meibomian gland, one of the modified sebaceous glands that lie close to the eyeball along the margin of the eyelids. It may be caused by an infectious (i.e., staphylococcal) or noninfectious process. Internal sties can be more painful…

  • internal symmetry (physics)

    physics: Conservation laws and symmetry: …time (and referred to as internal symmetries) characterize the different families of elementary particles and, by extension, their composites. Quarks, for example, have a property called baryon number, as do protons, neutrons, nuclei, and unstable quark composites. All of these except the quarks are known as baryons. A failure of…

  • internal urinary sphincter (anatomy)

    human nervous system: The urinary system: …smooth muscle that forms the internal urinary sphincter. The external urinary sphincter, which works in concert with the internal sphincter, is made up of skeletal muscle controlled by motor fibres of the pudendal nerve. These fibres, arising from ventral horns of segments S2–S4, provide tonic excitation of the external sphincter.…

  • internal wave (hydrology)

    Internal wave, a type of gravity wave that occurs on internal “surfaces” within ocean waters. These surfaces represent strata of rapidly changing water density with increasing depth, and the associated waves are called internal waves. Internal waves manifest themselves by a regular rising and

  • internal-combustion engine

    Internal-combustion engine, any of a group of devices in which the reactants of combustion (oxidizer and fuel) and the products of combustion serve as the working fluids of the engine. Such an engine gains its energy from heat released during the combustion of the nonreacted working fluids, the

  • internal-consistency method

    psychological testing: Primary characteristics of methods or instruments: Internal-consistency methods of estimating reliability require only one administration of a single form of a test. One method entails obtaining scores on separate halves of the test, usually the odd-numbered and the even-numbered items. The degree of correspondence (which is expressed numerically as a correlation…

  • International Abstracts in Operations Research (international magazine)

    operations research: History: …Operational Research Societies initiated the International Abstracts in Operations Research in 1961.

  • International Academy of Astronautics

    Theodore von Kármán: Work in the United States: …(ICAS) and, in 1960, the International Academy of Astronautics. One of the outstanding activities of the academy under his presidency was its sponsorship, in 1962, in Paris, of the First International Symposium on the Basic Environmental Problems of Man in Space, at which for the first time scientists from the…

  • International Accounting Standards Board

    accounting: The move toward international accounting standards: …1973 and succeeded by the IASB in 2001; and arms of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the European Economic Community.

  • International Accounting Standards Committee

    accounting: The move toward international accounting standards: …114 professional accounting bodies; the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC), which was founded in London in 1973 and succeeded by the IASB in 2001; and arms of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and of the European Economic Community.

  • international adoption (kinship)

    Adoption, the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child. Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity. In most ancient civilizations and in certain later

  • International Aerobatics Commission (sports organization)

    aerobatics: History of aerobatics: …basis in 1960, when the International Aerobatics Commission (CIVA) of the FAI was founded as the world governing body. Britain’s international Lockheed Trophy contests, held annually from 1955 to 1965, provided a general framework for the inaugural FAI World Aerobatic Championship, held in Bratislava, Czechoslovakia, in August 1960.

  • International Aeronautical Federation (sports organization)

    Féderátion Aéronautique Internationale (FAI), nongovernmental and nonprofit international organization that encourages and oversees the conduct of sporting aviation events throughout the world and certifies aviation world records. The FAI was founded by representatives from Belgium, France,

  • International Affairs (British periodical)

    history of publishing: Britain: …of books and bibliographical matters; International Affairs (founded 1922), the journal of Chatham House, the Royal Institute of International Affairs; and The Political Quarterly (founded 1930), for the discussion of social and political questions from a progressive but nonparty point of view. Of the weekly political reviews, the Spectator (founded…

  • International Agency for Research on Cancer (international organization)

    styrene: The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) lists styrene as possibly carcinogenic (cancer-causing) in humans. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services classifies styrene as a known carcinogen.

  • international agreement (international relations)

    International agreement, instrument by which states and other subjects of international law, such as certain international organizations, regulate matters of concern to them. The agreements assume a variety of form and style, but they are all governed by the law of treaties, which is part of

  • international aid

    Foreign aid, the international transfer of capital, goods, or services from a country or international organization for the benefit of the recipient country or its population. Aid can be economic, military, or emergency humanitarian (e.g., aid given following natural disasters). Foreign aid can

  • International AIDS Society (international organization)

    AIDS: Social, legal, and cultural aspects: Since the mid-1980s the International AIDS Society has held regular conferences at which new research and medical advances have been discussed.

  • International Air Transport Association (international cartel)

    transportation economics: Transportation regulation and deregulation: …fares are established by the International Air Transport Association (IATA), a cartel (or organization) of all the world’s air carriers. Cartels known as conferences also regulate the rates charged by ocean liners that carry cargo on a regular basis. Each conference is made up of member lines that serve certain…

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