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  • International, First (labour federation [1864])

    First International, federation of workers’ groups that, despite ideological divisions within its ranks, had a considerable influence as a unifying force for labour in Europe during the latter part of the 19th century. The First International was founded under the name of International Working

  • International, Fourth (labour federation [1938])

    Fourth International, a multinational body composed of Trotskyist organizations that was first formed in opposition to the policies of the Stalin-dominated Third International, or Comintern. The idea of a Fourth International was first presented in the late 1920s by various opponents of the Soviet

  • International, Labour and Socialist

    Labour and Socialist International (LSI), organization in existence from 1923 until the advent of World War II that defined itself in its constitution as “a union of such parties as accept the principles of the economic emancipation of the workers from capitalist domination and the establishment of

  • International, Second (labour federation and political organization [1889])

    Second International, federation of socialist parties and trade unions that greatly influenced the ideology, policy, and methods of the European labour movement from the last decade of the 19th century to the beginning of World War I. The Second International was founded at a congress in Paris in

  • International, Socialist (association of political parties [1951])

    Socialist International (SI), association of national socialist parties that advocates a democratic form of socialism. After World War II the reinstitution of an international federation of working-class parties took place in gradual stages. First, an information and liaison office was established

  • International, The (political anthem)

    L’Internationale, former official socialist and communist song. It was the anthem of the First, Second, and Third Internationals and, from 1918 to 1944, the national anthem of the Soviet Union. About 1871 a Parisian transport worker, Eugène Pottier, wrote the words (as a poem), which begin,

  • International, Third (association of political parties)

    Third International, association of national communist parties founded in 1919. Though its stated purpose was the promotion of world revolution, the Comintern functioned chiefly as an organ of Soviet control over the international communist movement. The Comintern emerged from the three-way split

  • international-system analysis (political science)

    international relations: Foreign policy and international systems: …units of the international system, international-system analysis is concerned with the structure of the system, the interactions between its units, and the implications for peace and war, or cooperation and conflict, of the existence of different types of states. The term interactions suggests challenge and response, give and take, move…

  • Internationale Filmfestspiele Berlin (German film festival)

    Berlin International Film Festival, one of the world’s largest film festivals, held annually in Berlin in February. The festival was the idea of Oscar Martay, a film officer in the U.S. military who was stationed in West Berlin after World War II. In 1950 he formed a committee that included members

  • Internationale Nederlanden Groep NV (Dutch company)

    ING Group NV, global financial institution of Dutch origin that provides services in banking, insurance, and asset management. It is the Netherlands’ largest financial services company. Headquarters are in Amsterdam. ING Group was created as Internationale Nederlanden Groep (“International

  • Internationale Repr?sentationsschaft des Kanusport

    canoeing: History: …organization was reconstituted as the International Canoe Federation in 1946.

  • Internationale Situationniste (international organization)

    Situationist International (SI), group of artists, writers, and social critics (1957–72) that aimed to eliminate capitalism through the revolutionization of everyday life. Instead of focusing on traditional sites of economic and social change, such as the factory, the Situationist International

  • Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse (Austrian journal)

    Otto Rank: …to 1924 he edited the Internationale Zeitschrift für Psychoanalyse (“International Journal of Psychoanalysis”). In 1919 he founded a publishing house devoted to the publication of psychoanalytic works and directed it until 1924.

  • Internationale, L’? (political anthem)

    L’Internationale, former official socialist and communist song. It was the anthem of the First, Second, and Third Internationals and, from 1918 to 1944, the national anthem of the Soviet Union. About 1871 a Parisian transport worker, Eugène Pottier, wrote the words (as a poem), which begin,

  • internationalism (foreign policy)

    20th-century international relations: U.S. vision of reconstruction: …reconstruction in terms of Wilsonian internationalism but were determined to avoid the mistakes that resulted after 1918 in inflation, tariffs, debts, and reparations. In 1943 the United States sponsored the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration to distribute food and medicine to the stricken

  • Internationalists, the (American organization)

    eugenics: Eugenics organizations and legislation: …to the activities of “the Internationalists,” a group of prominent American leaders in business, education, publishing, and government. One core member of this group, the New York lawyer Madison Grant, aroused considerable pro-eugenic interest through his best-selling book The Passing of the Great Race (1916). Beginning in 1920, a…

  • internationalized domain name (Internet)

    ICANN: These internationalized domain names (IDNs) initially included Chinese, Arabic, and Cyrillic characters in addition to the long-serving Latin letters A to Z, Arabic numerals 0 to 9, and punctuation symbols such as hyphens. Eventually, IDNs will recognize almost 100,000 characters in many different languages. The first…

  • Internatsional (political anthem)

    L’Internationale, former official socialist and communist song. It was the anthem of the First, Second, and Third Internationals and, from 1918 to 1944, the national anthem of the Soviet Union. About 1871 a Parisian transport worker, Eugène Pottier, wrote the words (as a poem), which begin,

  • Internet (computer network)

    Internet, a system architecture that has revolutionized communications and methods of commerce by allowing various computer networks around the world to interconnect. Sometimes referred to as a “network of networks,” the Internet emerged in the United States in the 1970s but did not become visible

  • Internet addiction (psychology)

    online gaming: From MUDs to MMOGs: …million Koreans suffered from “Internet addiction.” Game companies funded dozens of private counseling centres for addicted gamers in an effort to forestall legislation, such as that passed by China in 2005, that would force designers to impose in-game penalties for players who spent more than three consecutive hours online.

  • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority

    ICANN: …maintain ultimate stewardship of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which coordinates some of the key technical underpinnings of the Internet, such as managing the DNS root. IANA also controls specific TLDs, such as .arpa. ICANN manages IANA under contract with the DOC’s National Telecommunications and Information Administration, to which…

  • Internet blackout (technology)

    Iran: Nuclear deal falters: …was accompanied by an unprecedented Internet blackout.

  • Internet browser (computer program)

    Browser, software that allows a computer user to find and view information on the Internet. Web browsers interpret the HTML tags in downloaded documents and format the displayed data according to a set of standard style rules. When British scientist Tim Berners-Lee invented the World Wide Web, he

  • Internet bubble (stock market)

    Silicon Valley: Bursting bubbles: …the end of the “Internet bubble,” a five-year period when the paper value of publicly traded stock in Internet-based companies rose far above the real earning potential of the industry. By 2005 publicly traded Valley firms were worth roughly one-third of their market peak—a paper loss of approximately $2…

  • Internet café

    India: Media and publishing: Internet cafés can be found in many affluent areas, and millions of Indian households are connected to the Internet via telephone and cable connections. There are numerous high-technology centres in the country, and India is connected to the outside world via international cables and across…

  • Internet casino (gambling venue)

    casino: …premiered as the first “virtual” casino. Competitors, including traditional casinos, soon offered their own online gambling games, which are run by computer programs. Typically, customers must deposit accounts with the operators of such casinos in order to wager (most American credit card companies refuse to validate online gambling transactions). By…

  • Internet Chess Club (chess club)

    chess: Correspondence chess: The Internet Chess Club, founded in 1992 and incorporated in 1995, allows computer-literate chess fans worldwide to play one another at various time limits. More than 15,000 players from 55 countries had played at least one game in the first four years. On a typical day…

  • Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (international organization)

    ICANN, nonprofit private organization incorporated in California on September 18, 1998, and tasked with taking over from the U.S. government various administrative duties associated with running the Internet. ICANN’s functions include overseeing the top-level domains (TLDs; e.g., .com, .net, .org,

  • Internet Crime Complaint Center (United States task force)

    cybercrime: Internet fraud: Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) reported that more than $54 million dollars had been lost through a variety of fraud schemes; this represented a threefold increase over estimated losses of $17 million in 2001. The annual losses grew in subsequent years, reaching $125 million in…

  • Internet domain name

    Domain name, Address of a computer, organization, or other entity on a TCP/IP network such as the Internet. Domain names are typically in a three-level “server.organization.type” format. The top level, called the top-level domain, has usually denoted the type of organization, such as “com” (for

  • Internet etiquette (social behaviour)

    Netiquette, guidelines for courteous communication in the online environment. It includes proper manners for sending e-mail, conversing online, and so on. Much like traditional etiquette, which provides rules of conduct in social situations, the purpose of netiquette is to help construct and

  • Internet Explorer (Internet browser)

    Internet Explorer (IE), World Wide Web (WWW) browser and set of technologies created by Microsoft Corporation, a leading American computer software company. After being launched in 1995, Internet Explorer became one of the most popular tools for accessing the Internet. There were 11 versions

  • Internet filter (technology)

    Content filter, software that screens and blocks online content that includes particular words or images. Although the Internet was designed to make information more accessible, open access to all information can be problematic, especially when it comes to children who might view obscene or

  • Internet Movie Database (Web site)

    IMDb, Web site that provides information about millions of films and television programs as well as their cast and crew. The name is an acronym for Internet Movie Database. As a wholly owned subsidiary of Amazon.com, IMDb is based in Seattle, but the office of Col Needham, the founder and CEO,

  • Internet of Things (electronic network)

    information system: Telecommunications: A massive “Internet of things” has emerged, as sensors and actuators have been widely distributed in the physical environment and are supplying data, such as acidity of a square yard of soil, the speed of a driving vehicle, or the blood pressure of an individual. The availability…

  • Internet of Things, The

    Humans in modern times live in a highly connected world, and in 2015 more individuals were becoming aware of the Internet of Things (IoT)—a vast network of physical objects with embedded microchips, sensors, and communications capabilities that link people, machines, and entire systems through the

  • Internet outage (technology)

    Iran: Nuclear deal falters: …was accompanied by an unprecedented Internet blackout.

  • Internet Protocol address (computing)

    IP address, Number that uniquely identifies each computer on the Internet. A computer’s IP address may be permanently assigned or supplied each time that it connects to the Internet by an Internet service provider. In order to accommodate the extraordinary growth in the number of devices connected

  • Internet radio

    Rock and radio in the United States: …first decade of the 2000s, Internet radio had come of age. Long dismissed as little more than streams of music that could be heard only on computers, online stations persevered, especially as Wi-Fi technology freed them from their tethers to the computer and as they headed into automobiles, where many…

  • Internet retailing

    In 1998 Consumers could purchase virtually anything over the Internet. Books, compact discs, computers, stocks, and even new and used automobiles were widely available from World Wide Web sites that seemed to spring up almost daily. A few years earlier, skeptics had predicted that consumers

  • Internet service provider

    Internet service provider (ISP), company that provides Internet connections and services to individuals and organizations. In addition to providing access to the Internet, ISPs may also provide software packages (such as browsers), e-mail accounts, and a personal Web site or home page. ISPs can

  • Internet Society (international organization)

    Vinton Cerf: …as founding president of the Internet Society from 1992 to 1995. In 1994 Cerf returned to MCI as a senior vice president, and from 2000 to 2007 he served as chairman of the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the group that oversees the Internet’s growth and expansion.…

  • Internet telephone service (communications)

    VoIP, communications technology for carrying voice telephone traffic over a data network such as the Internet. VoIP uses the Internet Protocol (IP)—one half of the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), a global addressing system for sending and receiving packets of data over the

  • interneuron (anatomy)

    nervous system: Nervous systems: …to an adjustor, called an interneuron. (All neurons are capable of conducting an impulse, which is a brief change in the electrical charge on the cell membrane. Such an impulse can be transmitted, without loss in strength, many times along an axon until the message, or input, reaches another neuron,…

  • internment camp

    Concentration camp, internment centre for political prisoners and members of national or minority groups who are confined for reasons of state security, exploitation, or punishment, usually by executive decree or military order. Persons are placed in such camps often on the basis of identification

  • internode (plant anatomy)

    angiosperm: Stems: …changing the lengths of the internodes. Extreme shortening of the internodes results in rosette plants, such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa; Asteraceae), in which the leaves develop but the internodes between them do not elongate until the plant “bolts” when flowering. Extreme lengthening of the internodes often results in twining vines,…

  • internship (medicine)

    medical education: Postgraduate education: …has been known as an internship, but it is no longer distinguished in most hospitals from the total postgraduate period, called residency. After the first year physicians usually seek further graduate education and training to qualify themselves as specialists or to fulfill requirements for a higher academic degree. Physicians seeking…

  • internuclear distance (physics)

    spectroscopy: Energy states of real diatomic molecules: … will oscillate about an average internuclear separation. If the oscillation is harmonic, this average value will not change as the vibrational state of the molecule changes; however, for real molecules the oscillations are anharmonic. The potential for the oscillation of a molecule is the electronic energy plotted as a function…

  • internuclear separation (physics)

    spectroscopy: Energy states of real diatomic molecules: … will oscillate about an average internuclear separation. If the oscillation is harmonic, this average value will not change as the vibrational state of the molecule changes; however, for real molecules the oscillations are anharmonic. The potential for the oscillation of a molecule is the electronic energy plotted as a function…

  • internuncial nerve cell (anatomy)

    nervous system: Nervous systems: …to an adjustor, called an interneuron. (All neurons are capable of conducting an impulse, which is a brief change in the electrical charge on the cell membrane. Such an impulse can be transmitted, without loss in strength, many times along an axon until the message, or input, reaches another neuron,…

  • internuncio (diplomat)

    nuncio: An internuncio is a Vatican diplomat with the rank of minister plenipotentiary; he is accredited to a civil government and performs duties corresponding to those of a nuncio. Compare apostolic delegate.

  • interoceptor (anatomy)

    Sir Charles Scott Sherrington: …sound, odour, and tactile stimuli; interoceptive, exemplified by taste receptors; and proprioceptive, or those receptors that detect events occurring in the interior of the organism. He found—especially in his study of the maintenance of posture as a reflex activity—that the muscles’ proprioceptors and their nerve trunks play an important role…

  • interoffice signaling

    telephone: The telephone network: …another central office (requiring an interoffice call). If the call is intraoffice, the central office switch will handle the entire call process. If the call is interoffice, it will be directed either to a nearby central office or to a distant central office via a long-distance network. In the case…

  • interoperability (computer science)

    computer science: Information management: A closely related concept is interoperability, meaning the ability of the user of one member of a group of disparate systems (all having the same functionality) to work with any of the systems of the group with equal ease and via the same interface.

  • interosseous border (bone anatomy)

    radius: A ridge, the interosseous border, extends the length of the shaft and provides attachment for the interosseous membrane connecting the radius and the ulna. The projection on the lower end of the radius, the styloid process, may be felt on the outside of the wrist where it joins…

  • interpenetrating polymer network (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Copolymers and polymer blends: …arrangement referred to as an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). Another strategy is to add block or graft copolymers formed from monomers of the immiscible polymers in order to improve adhesion at the boundaries between the polymer phases. In this technique interfacial adhesion is strengthened because of the natural affinity of…

  • interpersonal psychotherapy

    mental disorder: Interpersonal psychotherapy: Interpersonal therapies help patients understand their symptoms in terms of the impact they have on others (and, in turn, on themselves); they also help patients develop interpersonal styles and communication behaviours that are more direct and effective. In this regard, interpersonal therapies are quite…

  • Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry, The (work by Sullivan)

    Harry Stack Sullivan: …fully articulated his ideas in The Interpersonal Theory of Psychiatry and The Fusion of Psychiatry and Social Science (published posthumously in 1953 and 1964, respectively), among other works. After his death Sullivan’s theory of personality and his psychotherapeutic techniques had a continually growing influence, particularly in American psychoanalytic circles.

  • interphase (chemistry)

    adhesive: Adhesion: In this zone, called the interphase, the chemical and physical properties of the adhesive may be considerably different from those in the noncontact portions. It is generally believed that the interphase composition controls the durability and strength of an adhesive joint and is primarily responsible for the transference of stress…

  • interphase (biology)

    mitosis: …completion of mitosis is called interphase.

  • interplain channel (geology)

    submarine gap: Grooves known as interplain channels exist in many submarine gaps; the sediments in these channels are continuously graded. The graded sediments, in conjunction with the gradient and the furrowed topography of the gaps, suggest that turbidity currents flow through the gaps, from the higher abyssal plain to the…

  • interplanetary coronal mass ejection (astronomy)

    coronal mass ejection: Observations and appearance: … in the solar wind, called interplanetary CMEs (or ICMEs), are often characterized by twisted magnetic fields (or magnetic flux ropes); such ICMEs are commonly referred to as magnetic clouds.

  • interplanetary dust particle (astronomy)

    Interplanetary dust particle (IDP), a small grain, generally less than a few hundred micrometres in size and composed of silicate minerals and glassy nodules but sometimes including sulfides, metals, other minerals, and carbonaceous material, in orbit around the Sun. The existence of interplanetary

  • interplanetary exploration

    space exploration: Solar system exploration: From the start of space activity, scientists recognized that spacecraft could gather scientifically valuable data about the various planets, moons, and smaller bodies in the solar system. Both the United States and the U.S.S.R. attempted to send robotic missions to the Moon…

  • Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun (Japanese spacecraft)

    Akatsuki: …not only Akatsuki but also IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun), a probe that traveled past Venus and tested solar sail technology. IKAROS was the first interplanetary spacecraft to use a solar sail for propulsion. Akatsuki arrived at Venus in December 2010, but it failed to enter…

  • interplanetary magnetic field (astronomy)

    coronal mass ejection: Observations and appearance: …the surrounding solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Those CMEs observed in situ by spacecraft in the solar wind, called interplanetary CMEs (or ICMEs), are often characterized by twisted magnetic fields (or magnetic flux ropes); such ICMEs are commonly referred to as magnetic clouds.

  • interplanetary medium (astronomy)

    Interplanetary medium, thinly scattered matter that exists between the planets and other bodies of the solar system, as well as the forces (e.g., magnetic and electric) that pervade this region of space. The material components of the interplanetary medium consist of neutral hydrogen, plasma gas

  • interpleader (law)

    joinder and impleader: impleader, in law, processes whereby additional parties or additional claims are brought into suits because addressing them is necessary or desirable for the successful adjudication of the issues.

  • Interpol (international organization)

    Interpol, intergovernmental organization that facilitates cooperation between the criminal police forces of more than 180 countries. Interpol aims to promote the widest-possible mutual assistance between criminal police forces and to establish and develop institutions likely to contribute to the

  • interpolating polynomial (mathematics)

    numerical analysis: Historical background: …a set of data (“polynomial interpolation”). Following Newton, many of the mathematical giants of the 18th and 19th centuries made major contributions to numerical analysis. Foremost among these were the Swiss Leonhard Euler (1707–1783), the French Joseph-Louis Lagrange (1736–1813), and the German Carl Friedrich Gauss (1777–1855).

  • interpolation (mathematics)

    Interpolation, in mathematics, the determination or estimation of the value of f(x), or a function of x, from certain known values of the function. If x0 < … < xn and y0 = f(x0),…, yn = f(xn) are known, and if x0 < x < xn, then the estimated value of f(x) is said to be an interpolation. If x < x0

  • interpole (motor part)

    electric motor: Direct-current commutator motors: …have additional small poles, or interpoles, placed between the main poles and have coils carrying the supply current. These poles are placed so as to generate a small voltage in each armature coil as it is shorted out by the commutator. This assists the quick reversal of current in the…

  • interpretation (psychiatry)

    mental disorder: Psychoanalytic psychotherapy: …the course of treatment is interpretation. This technique helps patients become aware of any previously repressed aspect of emotional conflict (as reflected in resistance) and to uncover the meaning of uncomfortable feelings evoked by transference. Interpretation is also used to determine the underlying psychological meaning of a patient’s dreams, which…

  • interpretation (logic)

    metalogic: Syntax and semantics: An interpretation of a formal language is determined by formulating an interpretation of the atomic sentences of the language with regard to a domain of objects—i.e., by stipulating which objects of the domain are denoted by which constants of the language and which relations and functions…

  • interpretation (linguistics)

    language: Historical attitudes toward language: …they would be unable to translate from one language to another, but they do not all inhabit a world exactly the same in all particulars, and translation is not merely a matter of substituting different but equivalent labels for the contents of the same inventory. From this stem the notorious…

  • interpretation (Jewish hermeneutics)

    pesha?: …to typological or allegorical interpretations), derash (meaning “search,” in reference to biblical study according to the middot, or rules), and sod (meaning “secret,” or mystical interpretation). The first letters (PRDS) of these four words were first used in medieval Spain as an acronym forming the word PaRaDiSe to designate a…

  • Interprétation des ‘Institutes’ de Justinien, Le (work by Pasquier)

    étienne Pasquier: …this period he also wrote L’Interprétation des “Institutes” de Justinien (1847), a work that dealt as much with French law as with Roman law. Near the end of his life he turned to biblical exegesis. He wrote some minor poetry in the style of the Pléiade and some excellent literary…

  • Interpretation of Dreams, The (work by Freud)

    Sigmund Freud: The interpretation of dreams: …to emphasize its epochal character; The Interpretation of Dreams), he presented his findings. Interspersing evidence from his own dreams with evidence from those recounted in his clinical practice, Freud contended that dreams played a fundamental role in the psychic economy. The mind’s energy—which Freud called libido and identified principally, but…

  • Interpretations of Life: A Survey of Contemporary Literature (work by Durant)

    Will Durant and Ariel Durant: In 1970 Durant published Interpretations of Life: A Survey of Contemporary Literature. This work, an expansion of the notes of a lifetime of reading modern literature, is informal and anecdotal and is aimed at the general reader.

  • Interpretations of Poetry and Religion (book by Santayana)

    George Santayana: Early life and career: …illustrated in Santayana’s next book, Interpretations of Poetry and Religion (1900), particularly in the discussion of the poetry of Robert Browning, which is a model of its kind.

  • interpretative biography (literature)

    biography: Interpretative biography: This fourth category of life writing is subjective and has no standard identity. At its best it is represented by the earlier works of Catherine Drinker Bowen, particularly her lives of Tchaikovsky, “Beloved Friend” (1937), and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Yankee from Olympus (1944).…

  • interpreter (computing)

    computer program: …from one language to another; interpreters, which execute a program sequentially, translating at each step; and debuggers, which execute a program piecemeal and monitor various circumstances, enabling the programmer to check whether the operation of the program is correct or not.

  • Interpreter of Maladies (short stories by Lahiri)

    Jhumpa Lahiri: …stories in her debut collection, Interpreter of Maladies (1999). The nine stories, some set in Calcutta and others on the U.S. East Coast, examine such subjects as the practice of arranged marriage, alienation, dislocation, and loss of culture and provide insight into the experiences of Indian immigrants as well as…

  • Interpreter, The (film by Pollack [2005])

    Sydney Pollack: Last films: …Pollack helmed his final film, The Interpreter, in 2005. The political thriller starred Nicole Kidman as a United Nations interpreter who overhears an assassination plot, and Sean Penn was the skeptical Secret Service agent investigating her claims. In 2005 Pollack also directed an episode on architect Frank Gehry for American…

  • Interpreters, The (work by Soyinka)

    Wole Soyinka: …playwright, Soyinka also wrote novels—The Interpreters (1965) and Season of Anomy (1973)—and several volumes of poetry. The latter include Idanre, and Other Poems (1967) and Poems from Prison (1969; republished as A Shuttle in the Crypt, 1972), published together as Early Poems (1998); Mandela’s Earth and Other Poems (1988);…

  • interpretive theory (sociology)

    governance: Interpretive theories: Interpretive approaches to governance often emphasize contingency. They reject the idea that patterns of rule can be properly understood in terms of a historical or social logic attached to capitalist development, functional differentiation, or even institutional settings. Instead, they emphasize the meaningful character…

  • Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (Canadian sports organization)

    Canadian Football League: …Football Union (WIFU) and the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU). Though the IRFU still referred to their sport as rugby football, the member clubs played a gridiron style of football. The WIFU and IRFU became, respectively, the Western and Eastern conferences of the new league, which changed its name to…

  • interracial adoption (kinship)

    Adoption, the act of establishing a person as parent to one who is not in fact or in law his child. Adoption is so widely recognized that it can be characterized as an almost worldwide institution with historical roots traceable to antiquity. In most ancient civilizations and in certain later

  • interracial marriage (social practice)

    Miscegenation, marriage or cohabitation by persons of different race. Theories that the anatomical disharmony of children resulted from miscegenation were discredited by 20th-century genetics and anthropology. Although it is now accepted that modern populations are the result of the continuous

  • interreges (ancient Rome)

    Interrex, in ancient Rome, a provisional ruler specially appointed for a period during which the normal constituted authority was in abeyance (the interregnum). The title originated during the period of the Roman kings when an interrex was appointed (traditionally by the Senate) to carry on the

  • Interregional and International Trade (work by Ohlin)

    Bertil Ohlin: …that won him world renown, Interregional and International Trade. In it Ohlin combined work by Heckscher with approaches formed in his own doctoral thesis. He established a theory of international trade that is now known as the Heckscher-Ohlin theory. The Heckscher-Ohlin theorem states that if two countries produce two goods…

  • interregnum (government)

    Czechoslovak history: The Hussite preponderance: …in 1439 ushered in another interregnum. In January 1440 an assembly was held to set up provincial administration for Bohemia; its composition demonstrated clearly the steady rise in the importance of the wealthy barons, who functioned as the first estate. The lesser nobility, large in number, was considered the second…

  • interrenal cell (biology)

    endocrine system: The adrenal axis: …cortex in mammals are called interrenal cells, and the cells that correspond to the adrenal medulla are called chromaffin cells. In primitive nonmammals the adrenal glands are sometimes called interrenal glands.

  • interrex (ancient Rome)

    Interrex, in ancient Rome, a provisional ruler specially appointed for a period during which the normal constituted authority was in abeyance (the interregnum). The title originated during the period of the Roman kings when an interrex was appointed (traditionally by the Senate) to carry on the

  • interrogatio (rhetoric)

    figure of speech: …I could chew nails”; the rhetorical question (asked for effect, with no answer expected), as in “How can I express my thanks to you?”; litotes (an emphasis by negation), as in “It’s no fun to be sick”; and onomatopoeia (imitation of natural sounds by words), in such words as “crunch,”…

  • interrogation

    Interrogation, in criminal law, process of questioning by which police obtain evidence. The process is largely outside the governance of law except for rules concerning the admissibility at trial of confessions obtained through interrogation and limitations on the power of police to detain

  • Interrogation II (painting by Golub)

    Leon Golub: In canvases such as Interrogation II (1981), he further challenged observers by having his sadistic figures stare out into the viewers’ space as if to make them privy to and complicit in the brutal acts portrayed.

  • Interrogation of the Old Men, The (Irish literature)

    The Interrogation of the Old Men, in Irish literature, the preeminent tale of the Old Irish Fenian cycle of heroic tales. The “old men” are the Fenian poets Oisín (Ossian) and Caoilte, who, having survived the destruction of their comrades at the Battle of Gabhra, return to Ireland from the

  • Interrogation, The (novel by Le Clézio)

    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio: …1963 of Le Procès-verbal (The Interrogation) and gained widespread acclaim as a young author when the book—which had been sent as an unsolicited manuscript to the prestigious Gallimard publishing house—was awarded the Prix Renaudot. Other publications that further enhanced Le Clézio’s reputation in France and abroad included the short-story…

  • interrogation-reply principle (technology)

    telemetry: …in 1960 of the so-called interrogation-reply principle, a highly automated arrangement in which the transmitter-receiver facility at the measuring point automatically transmits needed data only on being signalled to do so. The technique is applied extensively throughout the world in such fields as oil-pipeline monitor-control systems and oceanography, in which…

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