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  • Interrogations at Noon (poetry by Gioia)

    Dana Gioia: Gioia’s poetry collections included Interrogations at Noon (2001), which won the American Book Award in 2002; Pity the Beautiful (2012); and 99 Poems (2016). He became a professor of poetry and public culture at the University of Southern California in 2011, and in 2015 he was named state poet…

  • interrogative mood (grammar)

    Romance languages: Syntax: …many of the Romance languages, interrogation can be shown by inversion of the subject and verb, placing the verb, as the element on which the interrogation falls, at the beginning of the sentence (Spanish ?Vino el hombre?, Italian é venuto l’uomo? ‘Has the man come?’). In such examples, however, it…

  • interrogatory astrology

    astrology: Purposes of astrology: Interrogatory astrology provides answers to a client’s queries based on the situation of the heavens at the moment of his posing the questions. This astrological consulting service is even more remote from determinism than is catarchic astrology; it is thereby closer to divination by omens…

  • interrupt (computing)

    computer science: Operating systems: …along with mechanisms such as interrupts (to get the attention of the operating system to handle urgent tasks) and buffers (for temporary storage of data during input/output to make the transfer run more smoothly). Modern large computers interact with hundreds of users simultaneously, giving each one the perception of being…

  • interrupt signal (computing)

    computer science: Operating systems: …along with mechanisms such as interrupts (to get the attention of the operating system to handle urgent tasks) and buffers (for temporary storage of data during input/output to make the transfer run more smoothly). Modern large computers interact with hundreds of users simultaneously, giving each one the perception of being…

  • interrupted drowning (torture method)

    Waterboarding, method of torture in which water is poured into the nose and mouth of a victim who lies on his back on an inclined platform, with his feet above his head. As the victim’s sinus cavities and mouth fill with water, his gag reflex causes him to expel air from his lungs, leaving him

  • Interrupted Melody (film by Bernhardt [1955])

    Curtis Bernhardt: 1950s and ’60s: Interrupted Melody (1955) was a solid biopic about Australian Marjorie Lawrence, with Eleanor Parker in an Oscar-nominated performance as the polio-stricken opera star.

  • interrupted screw (military device)

    artillery: Breech loading: …supplanted all others was the interrupted screw, devised in France. In this system the rear end of the bore was screw-threaded, and a similarly screwed plug was used to close the gun. In order to avoid having to turn the plug several times before closure was effected, the plug had…

  • interrupter gear (aircraft gun part)

    military aircraft: Fighters: …in the form of an interrupter gear, or gun-synchronizing device, designed by the French engineer Raymond Saulnier. This regulated a machine gun’s fire so as to enable the bullets to pass between the blades of the spinning propeller. The interrupter itself was not new: a German patent had been taken…

  • interruption (zoology)

    migration: …a return journey; invasion or interruption, both of which involve the appearance and subsequent disappearance of great numbers of animals at irregular times and locations; and range expansion, which tends to enlarge the distribution of a species, particularly its breeding area.

  • Interruption of Everything, The (novel by McMillan)

    Terry McMillan: …Short (2001; TV movie 2014); The Interruption of Everything (2005); Getting to Happy (2010), a sequel to Waiting to Exhale; Who Asked You? (2013); and I Almost Forgot About You (2016). McMillan edited Breaking Ice: An Anthology of Contemporary African-American Fiction (1990). She also wrote the nonfiction work It’s OK…

  • Interscope Records (American company)
  • Intersecting Storage Rings (device)

    colliding-beam storage ring: …early collider projects—for example, the Intersecting Storage Rings (ISR) proton-proton collider, which operated at CERN in the 1970s—were built to collide beams of identical particles and so required two synchrotron rings that were interlaced to bring the beams into collision at two or more points. Two synchrotron rings are also…

  • Intersection (film by Rydell [1994])

    Mark Rydell: …spans a half century, and Intersection (1994), in which Richard Gere portrayed a man who, during a fatal car crash, reexamines his love life.

  • intersection (set theory)

    formal logic: Set theory: The intersection of x and y, symbolized as x ∩ y, is the class the members of which are the objects common to x and y—in this case the dots within the area where the arms cross—i.e., {z : z ? x · z ? y}.…

  • intersensory facilitation (physiology)

    illusion: Intersensory facilitation and rivalry: Stimulation through one sense may enhance the function of another. Seeing a boat rocked by waves may activate the sense of balance in an observer on a pier to the point at which it causes seasickness. A painting of an Arctic…

  • intersex (biology)

    Intersex, in biology, an organism having physical characteristics intermediate between a true male and a true female of its species. The condition usually results from extra chromosomes or a hormonal abnormality during embryological development. The sex mosaic, or gynandromorph, is an intersexual

  • intersexuality (biology)

    Intersex, in biology, an organism having physical characteristics intermediate between a true male and a true female of its species. The condition usually results from extra chromosomes or a hormonal abnormality during embryological development. The sex mosaic, or gynandromorph, is an intersexual

  • intersexuality, time law of (genetics)

    Richard B. Goldschmidt: …this, he developed his so-called time law of intersexuality, which stated that an intersex is an individual that begins development under the influence of one of the two sex factors but ends its development, after a turning point, under the influence of the opposite sex factor.

  • Intersindical (Portuguese labour federation)

    Portugal: Labour and taxation: One federation, the Intersindical, grew from communist roots. Formed in 1970 and reorganized in 1974, it has more than 100 affiliated organizations. The other major federation is the Uni?o Geral dos Trabalhadores (UGT; General Union of Workers), which developed out of the socialist movement. Although no official statistics…

  • interspecific association (biology)

    community ecology: Guilds and interaction webs: …resources, forging a variety of interspecific interactions. Many species also interact cooperatively to search for food or avoid predators. These and other nontrophic relationships between species are as important as food chains and food webs in shaping the organization of biological communities (see below Interspecific interactions and the organization of…

  • interspecific competition (biology)
  • interspecific interaction (biology)

    community ecology: Guilds and interaction webs: …resources, forging a variety of interspecific interactions. Many species also interact cooperatively to search for food or avoid predators. These and other nontrophic relationships between species are as important as food chains and food webs in shaping the organization of biological communities (see below Interspecific interactions and the organization of…

  • interstate commerce (United States law)

    Interstate commerce, in U.S. constitutional law, any commercial transactions or traffic that cross state boundaries or that involve more than one state. The traditional concept that the free flow of commerce between states should not be impeded has been used to effect a wide range of regulations,

  • Interstate Commerce Act (United States [1887])

    administrative law: Modification of the common-law system: …administrative tribunals began with the Interstate Commerce Act (1887), establishing the Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railways and other carriers. This law introduced a new type of federal agency, outside the framework of the executive departments and largely independent of the president. Other regulatory commissions followed: the Federal Trade Commission,…

  • Interstate Commerce Commission (United States agency)

    Interstate Commerce Commission, (1887–1996), the first regulatory agency established in the United States, and a prototype for independent government regulatory bodies. See regulatory

  • Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin (American commission)

    Delaware River: The Interstate Commission on the Delaware River Basin (Incodel) was formed in 1936 by the four states in the watershed of the river (New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, and Delaware) to control and prevent water pollution, plan the conservation of water supply for the use of…

  • Interstate Highway System (highway system, United States)

    roads and highways: The United States and Canada: Interstate Highway System (formally, the National System of Interstate and Defense Highways) developed in response to strong public pressures in the 1950s for a better road system. These pressures culminated in the establishment by President Dwight Eisenhower of the Clay Committee in 1954. Following this…

  • Interstellar (film by Nolan [2014])

    Ellen Burstyn: …pilot in the big-screen drama Interstellar. Burstyn continued to act in movies through the rest of the decade, but most of her projects, including Lucy in the Sky (2019), received mixed reviews.

  • interstellar dust (astronomy)

    Interplanetary dust particle (IDP), a small grain, generally less than a few hundred micrometres in size and composed of silicate minerals and glassy nodules but sometimes including sulfides, metals, other minerals, and carbonaceous material, in orbit around the Sun. The existence of interplanetary

  • interstellar gas (astronomy)

    chemical element: Stars and gas clouds: …to stars, the Galaxy contains interstellar gas and dust. Some of the gas is very cold, but some forms hot clouds, the gaseous nebulae, the chemical composition of which can be studied in some detail. The chemical composition of the gas seems to resemble that of young stars. This is…

  • interstellar matter (astronomy)

    astronomy: Investigations of interstellar matter: The interstellar medium, composed primarily of gas and dust, occupies the regions between the stars. On average, it contains less than one atom in each cubic centimetre, with about 1 percent of its mass in the form of minute dust grains. The gas,…

  • interstellar medium (astronomy)

    Interstellar medium, region between the stars that contains vast, diffuse clouds of gases and minute solid particles. Such tenuous matter in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way system, in which the Earth is located, accounts for about 5 percent of the Galaxy’s total mass. The interstellar

  • interstitial atom (chemistry)

    crystal: Crystal defects: …them; such atoms are called interstitials. Thermal vibrations may cause an atom to leave its original crystal site and move into a nearby interstitial site, creating a vacancy-interstitial pair. Vacancies and interstitials are the types of defects found in a pure crystal. In another defect, called an impurity, an atom…

  • interstitial carbide (chemical compound)

    carbide: Interstitial carbides: Interstitial carbides are derived primarily from relatively large transition metals that act as a host lattice for the small carbon atoms, which occupy the interstices of the close-packed metal atoms. (See crystal for a discussion of packing arrangements in solids.) Interstitial carbides are

  • interstitial cell (anatomy)

    hormone: Luteinizing hormone (interstitial-cell-stimulating hormone): …of the interstitial tissue (Leydig cells) of the testes and hence promotes secretion of the male sex hormone, testosterone. It may be associated with FSH in this function. The interrelationship of LH and FSH has made it difficult to establish with certainty that two separate hormones exist, particularly since…

  • interstitial compound (chemistry)

    carbide: Interstitial carbides: Interstitial carbides are derived primarily from relatively large transition metals that act as a host lattice for the small carbon atoms, which occupy the interstices of the close-packed metal atoms. (See crystal for a discussion of packing arrangements in solids.) Interstitial carbides are characterized by…

  • interstitial cystitis (pathology)

    cystitis: Chronic cystitis, or interstitial cystitis, is a recurrent or persistent inflammation of the bladder. No causative virus or bacterium is known. The condition may possibly arise from an autoimmune disorder, in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells of the bladder, or as a…

  • interstitial fluid (biochemistry)

    cell: The extracellular matrix: …waste products known as the interstitial fluid. The major types of protein in the matrix are structural proteins and adhesive proteins.

  • interstitial keratitis (pathology)

    keratitis: Interstitial keratitis, an inflammation deep in the cornea, may be caused by congenital syphilis, tuberculosis, herpesvirus infection, or even physical injury to the eye. Affected persons may note that their eyes are painful, tend to water, and are sensitive to light. Treatment is directed at…

  • interstitial matrix (biochemistry)

    cell: The extracellular matrix: …and fibres, known as the interstitial matrix. Connective tissue is a mesenchyme that fastens together other more highly organized tissues. The solidity of various connective tissues varies according to the consistency of their extracellular matrix, which in turn depends on the water content of the gels, the amount and type…

  • interstitial pregnancy (medicine)

    pregnancy: Ectopic pregnancy: …produces what is called an interstitial pregnancy. This occurs in approximately 4 percent of ectopic pregnancies. An interstitial pregnancy gradually stretches the wall of the uterus until—usually between the 8th and 16th week of gestation—the wall ruptures in an explosive manner and there is profuse bleeding into the abdomen.

  • interstitial solid solution (chemistry)

    metallurgy: Increasing strength: …sites (where they are called interstitial elements).

  • interstitial tissue

    human respiratory system: The gas-exchange region: …lining is occupied by the interstitium. It contains connective tissue and interstitial fluid. The connective tissue comprises a system of fibres, amorphous ground substance, and cells (mainly fibroblasts), which seem to be endowed with contractile properties. The fibroblasts are thought to control capillary blood flow or, alternatively, to prevent the…

  • interstitial-cell stimulating hormone

    Luteinizing hormone (LH), one of two gonadotropic hormones (i.e., hormones concerned with the regulation of the gonads, or sex glands) that is produced by the pituitary gland. LH is a glycoprotein and operates in conjunction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Following the release of the egg

  • interstratification (mineralogy)

    clay mineral: Interstratified clay minerals: Many clay materials are mixtures of more than one clay mineral. One such mixture involves the interstratification of the layer clay minerals where the individual component layers of two or more kinds are stacked in various ways to make up a new…

  • intersubjective (philosophy)

    Western philosophy: Recent trends: …it aims at reaching “intersubjective” understanding rather than at mastering the world through instrumental action. The process of constructing such an understanding, however, requires that each individual assume that the utterances of the other are for the most part “true” and that the other can provide reasons to support…

  • intersystem crossing (physics)

    spectroscopy: Fluorescence: …energy through interstate transfer (intersystem crossing), or (3) lose vibrational energy via molecular collisions.

  • intertestamental literature (biblical literature)

    biblical literature: Intertestamental literature: A vast amount of Jewish literature written in the intertestamental period (mainly 2nd and 1st centuries bce) and from the 1st and 2nd centuries ce was preserved, for the most part, through various Christian churches. A part of this…

  • intertidal zone (marine ecology)

    Littoral zone, marine ecological realm that experiences the effects of tidal and longshore currents and breaking waves to a depth of 5 to 10 metres (16 to 33 feet) below the low-tide level, depending on the intensity of storm waves. The zone is characterized by abundant dissolved oxygen, sunlight,

  • intertropical convergence zone (meteorology)

    Intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ), belt of converging trade winds and rising air that encircles the Earth near the Equator. The rising air produces high cloudiness, frequent thunderstorms, and heavy rainfall; the doldrums, oceanic regions of calm surface air, occur within the zone. The ITCZ

  • intertropical front (meteorology)

    Equatorial front, zone near the Equator in which the trade winds of the two hemispheres meet. The designation (about 1933) of this zone as a front was inspired by the close resemblance of its wind and weather patterns to those found along fronts in middle latitudes. Typically, the passage of a

  • Intertype (typesetting machine)

    Intertype, (trademark), typesetting machine similar to Linotype that sets type in full lines called slugs, long used to set newspaper copy. The Intertype machine incorporates a keyboard, a magazine that contains continuously reused type matrices, a casting mechanism, and a distribution system for

  • interurban railroad

    railroad: Cars for daytime service: …seating is less in an intercity car than in a short-haul commuter service car; the cars of some heavily used urban rapid-transit railroads, such as those of Japanese cities and Hong Kong, have minimal seating to maximize standing room. European cars of segregated six- or eight-seat compartments served by a…

  • interval (music)

    Interval, in music, the inclusive distance between one tone and another, whether sounded successively (melodic interval) or simultaneously (harmonic interval). In Western tonality, intervals are measured by their relationship to the diatonic scales in the major-minor system, by counting the lines

  • interval estimation (statistics)

    Interval estimation, in statistics, the evaluation of a parameter—for example, the mean (average)—of a population by computing an interval, or range of values, within which the parameter is most likely to be located. Intervals are commonly chosen such that the parameter falls within with a 95 or 99

  • interval scale

    psychological testing: Types of measurement scales: An interval scale has equal units and an arbitrarily assigned zero point; one such scale, for example, is the Fahrenheit temperature scale. Ratio scales not only provide equal units but also have absolute zero points; examples include measures of weight and distance.

  • interval training (sports)

    Interval training, method of competitive training in which rest and exercise intervals of controlled duration are alternated. Rest intervals allow time for the athlete’s pulse rate to return to near normal before beginning the next exercise period. During exercise intervals, the athlete performs

  • intervention (military operation)

    international law: Use of force: …Kosovo in 1999 or India’s intervention in East Pakistan [now Bangladesh] in 1971). Nonetheless, humanitarian interventions are deeply controversial, because they contradict the principle of nonintervention in the domestic affairs of other states.

  • Intervention of the Sabine Women, The (painting by David)

    Jacques-Louis David: Later years: 1794–1825: …with a new giant canvas, The Intervention of the Sabine Women. The picture, often mistakenly referred to as The Rape of the Sabines, represents the moment, a few years after the legendary abduction, when the women, now contented wives and mothers, halt a battle between their Roman husbands and the…

  • intervention, currency of (economics)

    international payment and exchange: The IMF system of parity (pegged) exchange rates: …it to be called a currency of “intervention.”

  • interventionism (international relations)

    Interventionism, concept that addresses the characteristics, causes, and purposes of a country’s interfering with another country’s attitudes, policies, and behaviour. Political, humanitarian, or military intrusion in another country’s affairs, regardless of the motivation, is a highly volatile

  • interventricular septum (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: Chambers of the heart: …ventricles, are separated by the interventricular septum. The atria receive blood from various parts of the body and pass it into the ventricles. The ventricles, in turn, pump blood to the lungs and to the remainder of the body.

  • interventricular sulci (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: External surface of the heart: Shallow grooves called the interventricular sulci, containing blood vessels, mark the separation between ventricles on the front and back surfaces of the heart. There are two grooves on the external surface of the heart. One, the atrioventricular groove, is along the line where the right atrium and the right…

  • interventricular sulcus (anatomy)

    human cardiovascular system: External surface of the heart: Shallow grooves called the interventricular sulci, containing blood vessels, mark the separation between ventricles on the front and back surfaces of the heart. There are two grooves on the external surface of the heart. One, the atrioventricular groove, is along the line where the right atrium and the right…

  • intervertebral disk (anatomy)

    alkaptonuria: …layers of joint cartilage and intervertebral disks (the fibrous pads between adjacent bones of the spine), causes these tissues to lose their normal resiliency and become brittle. The erosion of the abnormal cartilage leads to a progressive degenerative disease of the joints, which usually becomes manifest by the fourth decade…

  • intervertebral foramen (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Structural components of spinal nerves: … through an opening called the intervertebral foramen. The first spinal nerve (C1) exits the vertebral canal between the skull and the first cervical vertebra; consequently, spinal nerves C1–C7 exit above the correspondingly numbered vertebrae. Spinal nerve C8, however, exits between the 7th cervical and first thoracic vertebrae, so that, beginning…

  • Interview (American magazine)

    Camille Paglia: …also a contributing editor for Interview magazine and a contributor to the online magazine Salon.com.

  • interview (social science)

    personality assessment: Assessment methods: …include such assessments as the interview, rating scales, self-reports, personality inventories, projective techniques, and behavioral observation.

  • interview

    Encyclop?dia Britannica was honoured to have the opportunity to speak with Lee Teng-hui, who in March 1996 won a landslide victory in the first direct presidential elections in the Republic of China (Taiwan). The interview, which because of space considerations is printed here in a slightly

  • Interview with the Vampire (novel by Rice)

    Anne Rice: …novel in just five weeks: Interview with the Vampire (1976), which included a Michelle-like child who gains eternal life when she becomes a vampire. Interview was the first of Rice’s best-selling Vampire Chronicles; other books in the series included The Vampire Lestat (1985), The Queen of the Damned (1988), The…

  • Interview with the Vampire (film by Jordan [1994])

    Neil Jordan: …Jordan the opportunity to direct Interview with the Vampire (1994), a big-budget adaptation of Anne Rice’s popular novel. He subsequently wrote and directed Michael Collins (1996), a biopic of the Irish independence leader (played by Liam Neeson); The Butcher Boy (1998), a dark comedy about a troubled young boy; and…

  • Interview, The (film by Goldberg and Rogen [2014])

    cybercrime: Spam, steganography, and e-mail hacking: …that Sony Pictures not release The Interview, a comedy about a CIA plot to assassinate North Korean leader Kim Jong-Un, and threatened to attack theatres that showed the movie. After American movie theatre chains canceled screenings, Sony released the movie online and in limited theatrical release. E-mail hacking has even…

  • Intervista (film by Fellini [1987])

    Federico Fellini: Mature years: …Fred (1985; Ginger and Fred), Intervista (1987; “Interview”), and La voce della luna (1990; The Voice of the Moon), his last feature film. Unified only by his flair for the fantastic, the films reflect with typically Fellinian irony on a variety of postmodern topics: the role of the male in…

  • InterWorld (novel by Gaiman and Reaves)

    Neil Gaiman: InterWorld (2007; with Michael Reaves) was a young-adult novel centred on a teenager who can travel between different versions of Earth and must deal with magical forces seeking to control them. The story had initially been conceived as a television show but was never picked…

  • intestacy (law)

    Intestate succession, in the law of inheritance, succession to property that has not been disposed of by a valid last will or testament. Although laws governing intestate succession vary widely in different jurisdictions, they share the common principle that the estate should devolve upon persons

  • intestate succession (law)

    Intestate succession, in the law of inheritance, succession to property that has not been disposed of by a valid last will or testament. Although laws governing intestate succession vary widely in different jurisdictions, they share the common principle that the estate should devolve upon persons

  • intestinal amebiasis (pathology)

    dysentery: Amebic dysentery, or intestinal amebiasis, is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This form of dysentery, which traditionally occurs in the tropics, is usually much more chronic and insidious than the bacillary disease and is more difficult to treat because the causative organism occurs in…

  • intestinal amoebiasis (pathology)

    dysentery: Amebic dysentery, or intestinal amebiasis, is caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. This form of dysentery, which traditionally occurs in the tropics, is usually much more chronic and insidious than the bacillary disease and is more difficult to treat because the causative organism occurs in…

  • intestinal atresia (congenital disorder)

    Christiaan Barnard: …the first to show that intestinal atresia, a congenital gap in the small intestine, is caused by an insufficient blood supply to the fetus during pregnancy. This discovery led to the development of a surgical procedure to correct the formerly fatal defect. After completing doctoral studies at the University of…

  • intestinal blood fluke (flatworm)

    fluke: The intestinal blood fluke (S. mansoni), which lives in the veins around the large and small intestines, occurs primarily in Africa and in northern South America. The eggs pass from the host with the feces. The larva enters the body of a snail (any of several…

  • intestinal gas (biology)

    Intestinal gas, material contained within the digestive tract that consists principally of swallowed air and partly of by-products of digestion. In humans the digestive tract contains normally between 150 and 500 cubic cm (10 and 30 cubic inches) of gas. During eating, air is swallowed into the

  • intestinal glucagon (hormone)

    human digestive system: Intestinal glucagon: Secreted by the L cells in response to the presence of carbohydrate and triglycerides in the small intestine, intestinal glucagon (enteroglucagon) modulates intestinal motility and has a strong trophic influence on mucosal structures.

  • intestinal juice

    Intestinal juice, clear to pale yellow, watery secretion composed of hormones, digestive enzymes, mucus, and neutralizing substances released from the glands and mucous-membrane lining of the small and large intestines. Intestinal juice neutralizes hydrochloric acid coming from the stomach;

  • intestinal obstruction (pathology)

    Intestinal obstruction, functional or mechanical blockage of the alimentary canal. Functional blockage occurs when the muscles of the intestinal wall fail to contract normally in the wavelike sequence (peristalsis) that propels the intestinal contents. Mechanical obstructions include a narrowing of

  • intestinal schistosomiasis (disease)

    schistosomiasis: (2) Manson’s, or intestinal, schistosomiasis is caused by S. mansoni, found in Africa, the Middle East, the Caribbean, and northern South America. (3) Vesical, or urinary, schistosomiasis is caused by S. haematobium, found throughout Africa and the Middle East.

  • intestinal squeeze (medical disorder)

    Intestinal squeeze, pain and possible injury to the small or large intestine caused by expansion of trapped gases when a person, especially a pilot or underwater diver, goes from areas of greater pressure to areas of less pressure. Under normal atmospheric conditions, intestinal discomfort can be

  • intestine (anatomy)

    Intestine, tubular part of the alimentary canal that extends from the stomach to the anus. The intestine is the site of most chemical digestive processes and the place where digested food materials are either absorbed for use by the body or collected into feces for elimination. The anterior part of

  • intestinofugal neuron (physiology)

    human nervous system: Enteric nervous system: Intestinofugal neurons reside in the gut wall; their axons travel to the preaortic sympathetic ganglia and control reflex arcs that involve large portions of the gastrointestinal tract. Sensory neurons relay information regarding distention and acidity to the central nervous system. There are two types of…

  • Inthanon, Mount (mountain, Thailand)

    Mount Inthanon, mountain in northwestern Thailand that is the country’s highest peak (8,481 feet [2,585 m]). It lies southwest of Chiang Mai, in a spur of the Danen Range between the Chaem (west) and Ping (east)

  • Inthavong (king of Vientiane)

    Chao Anu: …Anu, along with his brother Inthavong, fought with the Siamese against the Burmese. His military ability and bravery won him the respect and trust of the Siamese, who chose him to succeed Inthavong as king of Vientiane in 1805. In the early years of his reign he strengthened his internal…

  • Inti (Inca Sun god)

    Inti, in Inca religion, the sun god; he was believed to be the ancestor of the Incas. Inti was at the head of the state cult, and his worship was imposed throughout the Inca empire. He was usually represented in human form, his face portrayed as a gold disk from which rays and flames extended. I

  • inti (currency)

    nuevo sol: …it was replaced by the inti. In 1991 the inti was replaced by the nuevo sol at a rate of 1 million inti to 1 nuevo sol. The Central Reserve Bank of Peru (Banco Central de Reserva del Perú) has the exclusive authority to issue banknotes and coins in the…

  • Inti Cusi Huallpa Huáscar (Inca chieftain)

    Huascar, Inca chieftain, legitimate heir to the Inca empire, who lost his inheritance and his life in rivalry with his younger half brother Atahuallpa, who in turn was defeated and executed by the Spanish conquerors under Francisco Pizarro. Huascar succeeded his father in 1525 but was given only p

  • Inti-Illimani (Chilean music group)

    nueva canción: The formative years: the late 1950s through the ’60s: …years associated with Jara, and Inti-Illimani (Aymara language: “Sun of the Illimani [a mountain in the Andes]”), formed in 1967. Both groups projected a strongly Andean image.

  • intifā?ah (Palestinian-Israeli history)

    Intifadah, either of two popular uprisings of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip aimed at ending Israel’s occupation of those territories and creating an independent Palestinian state. The first intifadah began in December 1987 and ended in September 1993 with the signing of the first

  • intifadah (Palestinian-Israeli history)

    Intifadah, either of two popular uprisings of Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza Strip aimed at ending Israel’s occupation of those territories and creating an independent Palestinian state. The first intifadah began in December 1987 and ended in September 1993 with the signing of the first

  • intifadah, first (Israeli–Palestinian history)

    intifadah: The first intifadah: The proximate causes of the first intifadah were intensified Israeli land expropriation and settlement construction in the West Bank and Gaza Strip after the electoral victory of the right-wing Likud party in 1977; increasing Israeli repression in response to heightened Palestinian protests following…

  • intifadah, second (Israeli–Palestinian history)

    intifadah: The second intifadah: The second intifadah was much more violent than the first. During the approximately five-year uprising, more than 4,300 fatalities were registered, and again the ratio of Palestinian to Israeli deaths was slightly more than 3 to 1.

  • Intihuatana (pillar, Machu Picchu, Peru)

    Machu Picchu: …the Main Plaza is the Intihuatana (Hitching Post of the Sun), a uniquely preserved ceremonial sundial consisting of a wide pillar and pedestal that were carved as a single unit and stand 6 feet (1.8 metres) tall. In 2000 this feature was damaged during the filming of a beer commercial.…

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