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  • Invention of Morel, The (novel by Bioy Casares)

    Adolfo Bioy Casares: …La invención de Morel (1940; The Invention of Morel). A carefully constructed and fantastic work, it concerns a fugitive (the narrator) who has fallen in love and strives to establish contact with a woman who is eventually revealed to be only an image created by a film projector. The novel…

  • Invention of Verity, The (treatise by Geber)

    Geber: …and De inventione veritatis (The Invention of Verity, 1678). They are the clearest expression of alchemical theory and the most important set of laboratory directions to appear before the 16th century. Accordingly, they were widely read and extremely influential in a field where mysticism, secrecy, and obscurity were the…

  • Inventionshorn (musical instrument)

    wind instrument: Trumpet-type aerophones: …German horn known as the Inventionshorn.

  • inventor

    Inventor, a person who brings ideas or objects together in a novel way to create an invention, something that did not exist before. Inventors defy definition; as a result, they are frequently defined by what they are not. For example, though there is a close relation between invention and science

  • inventory (business)

    Inventory, in business, any item of property held in stock by a firm, including finished goods ready for sale, goods in the process of production, raw materials, and goods that will be consumed in the process of producing goods to be sold. Inventories appear on a company’s balance sheet as an

  • inventory control (business)

    operations research: Inventory control: Inventories include raw materials, component parts, work in process, finished goods, packing and packaging materials, and general supplies. The control of inventories, vital to the financial strength of a firm, in general involves deciding at what points in the production system stocks shall…

  • inventory control system (computer science)

    automation: Service industries: Each transaction depletes the store’s inventory, so the item purchased must be identified for reorder. Much clerical effort is expended by the store when inventory is managed by strictly manual procedures. Computerized systems have been installed in most modern retail stores to speed sales transactions and automatically update inventory records…

  • inventory profit (accounting)

    accounting: Problems of measurement and the limitations of financial reporting: …is usually called the “inventory profit.” The implication is that this is a component of net income that is less “real” than other components because it results from the holding of inventories rather than from trading with customers.

  • Invenzioni (work by Bonporti)

    Francesco Antonio Bonporti: …notable for his highly original Invenzioni, short instrumental suites from which Johann Sebastian Bach took the title for his keyboard Inventions.

  • Inveraray (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Inveraray, royal burgh (town), Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, Scotland, on Loch Fyne on the Atlantic coast near the mouth of the River Aray. It was made a royal burgh in 1648. Inveraray was the ancestral seat of the Campbells of Argyll and was rebuilt by them in the

  • Invercargill (New Zealand)

    Invercargill, city, Southland regional council, South Island, New Zealand. Invercargill lies in the southernmost part of the South Island along the Waihopai River, near its confluence with the New River estuary. A service centre for the region’s agricultural industries, the city is situated on a

  • Inverclyde (council area, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Inverclyde, council area, west-central Scotland, lying entirely within the historic county of Renfrewshire. Inverclyde extends along the River Clyde and the Firth of Clyde on the north and encompasses an area of hills and valleys to the south. Its economy historically depended on docks,

  • Inverell (New South Wales, Australia)

    Inverell, town, northeastern New South Wales, Australia. It is situated at the junction of the Swanbrook and Macintyre rivers in the Western Slopes district. It was established in 1848 as a stock station. It was declared a town in 1858 and a municipality in 1872, when it was given its Gaelic name,

  • Invergordon (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Invergordon, small North Sea port, Highland council area, historic county of Ross-shire, historic region of Ross and Cromarty, Scotland, on the deep sheltered waters of the Cromarty Firth. Situated on one of the deepest and safest harbours in Great Britain, Invergordon served as a Royal Navy

  • Inverkelly (New Zealand)

    Invercargill, city, Southland regional council, South Island, New Zealand. Invercargill lies in the southernmost part of the South Island along the Waihopai River, near its confluence with the New River estuary. A service centre for the region’s agricultural industries, the city is situated on a

  • Invermein (New South Wales, Australia)

    Scone, town, eastern New South Wales, Australia. It lies in the upper Hunter River valley, along the New England Highway and the main northern rail line 80 miles (130 km) northwest of Newcastle. Settlers came to the site as early as 1825; they called their village Invermein, although it was also

  • Inverness (Michigan, United States)

    Cheboygan, city, seat (1853) of Cheboygan county, northern Michigan, U.S. The city lies along the Cheboygan River as it enters Lake Huron near the eastern end of the Straits of Mackinac. According to some reports, the site was a Native American camping ground until it was settled by Jacob Sammons

  • Inverness (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Inverness, royal burgh (town), Highland council area, historic county of Inverness-shire, Scotland. It is the long-established centre of the Highlands and lies at the best crossing place of the River Ness, which flows from Loch Ness at the east end of Glen Mor. Situated astride the river and the

  • Inverness-shire (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Inverness-shire, historic county of northern Scotland. It is Scotland’s largest historic county and includes a section of the central Highlands, Glen Mor, and a portion of the Highlands to the north. It also encompasses several islands of the Inner and Outer Hebrides, such as Skye, Harris (part of

  • inverse (mathematics)

    mathematics: The theory of equations: Examples of groups include the integers with * interpreted as addition and the positive rational numbers with *…

  • inverse function (mathematics)

    Inverse function, Mathematical function that undoes the effect of another function. For example, the inverse function of the formula that converts Celsius temperature to Fahrenheit temperature is the formula that converts Fahrenheit to Celsius. Applying one formula and then the other yields the

  • inverse halftone gravure (printing)

    photoengraving: Other methods: The Henderson process, sometimes referred to as “direct transfer,” or “inverse halftone,” gravure, has won some acceptance in the printing of packaging materials. Retouched continuous-tone positives are used in preparation of halftone negatives and, by a contact-printing operation, halftone positives. These positives show dot size variations…

  • inverse probability (probability)

    Bayes’s theorem, in probability theory, a means for revising predictions in light of relevant evidence, also known as conditional probability or inverse probability. The theorem was discovered among the papers of the English Presbyterian minister and mathematician Thomas Bayes and published

  • inverse psoriasis (skin disorder)

    psoriasis: psoriasis, including guttate, pustular, inverse (or flexular), and erythrodermic.

  • inverse sine (mathematics)

    trigonometry: Analytic trigonometry: …the sine function is written arcsin or sin?1, thus sin?1(sin x) = sin (sin?1 x) = x. The other trigonometric inverse functions are defined similarly.

  • inverse synthetic aperture radar (radar technology)

    radar: Radar imaging: This is called inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). Both the target and the radar can be in motion with ISAR.

  • inverse-square law (physics)

    principles of physical science: Fields: … 1/r2 as required by the inverse square law. When r is rendered in lightface, it means simply the magnitude of the vector r, without direction. The combination 4πε0 is a constant whose value is irrelevant to the present discussion. The combination q1r/4πε0r3 is called the electric field strength due to…

  • inversion (music)

    Inversion, in music, rearrangement of the top-to-bottom elements in an interval, a chord, a melody, or a group of contrapuntal lines of music. The inversion of chords and intervals is utilized for various purposes, e.g., to create a melodic bass line or (with certain chords) to modulate to a new

  • inversion (literature)

    Inversion, in literary style and rhetoric, the syntactic reversal of the normal order of the words and phrases in a sentence, as, in English, the placing of an adjective after the noun it modifies (“the form divine”), a verb before its subject (“Came the dawn”), or a noun preceding its preposition

  • inversion (chemical reaction)

    Inversion, in chemistry, the spatial rearrangement of atoms or groups of atoms in a dissymmetric molecule, giving rise to a product with a molecular configuration that is a mirror image of that of the original molecule. The reaction is usually one in which an atom or a group of atoms in the

  • inversion (business)

    Pfizer, Inc.: …introduced regulations to prevent such tax-inversion deals, and shortly thereafter the merger was called off.

  • inversion (chromosome)

    evolution: Chromosomal mutations: …of chromosomes may occur by inversion, when a chromosomal segment rotates 180 degrees within the same location; by duplication, when a segment is added; by deletion, when a segment is lost; or by translocation, when a segment changes from one location to another in the same or a different chromosome.…

  • inversion fog (meteorology)

    fog: Inversion fogs are formed as a result of a downward extension of a layer of stratus cloud, situated under the base of a low-level temperature inversion. They are particularly prevalent off western coasts in tropical regions during the summer, when the prevailing winds blow toward…

  • inversion point (physics)

    capacitor dielectric and piezoelectric ceramics: Piezoelectric ceramics: …as an inversion centre, or centre of symmetry—that is, a centre point from which the structure is virtually identical in any two opposite directions. In the case of BaTiO3, the centre of symmetry is lost owing to the transition from a cubic to a tetragonal structure, which shifts the Ti4+…

  • inversion, space (particle physics)

    Parity, in physics, property important in the quantum-mechanical description of a physical system. In most cases it relates to the symmetry of the wave function representing a system of fundamental particles. A parity transformation replaces such a system with a type of mirror image. Stated

  • Invert soap

    soap and detergent: Cationic detergents, which produce electrically positive ions in solution. Nonionic detergents, which produce electrically neutral colloidal particles in solution. Ampholytic, or amphoteric, detergents, which are capable of acting either as anionic or cationic detergents in solution depending on the pH (acidity or alkalinity) of the…

  • invert sugar

    candy: Sweeteners: Invert sugar, a mixture of glucose (dextrose) and fructose produced from sugar (sucrose) by application of heat and an acid “sugar doctor,” such as cream of tartar or citric acid, affects the sweetness, solubility, and amount of crystallization in candymaking. Invert sugar is also prepared…

  • invertase (enzyme)

    Sucrase, any member of a group of enzymes present in yeast and in the intestinal mucosa of animals that catalyze the hydrolysis of cane sugar, or sucrose, to the simple sugars glucose and fructose. Granules of sucrase localize in the brush border (a chemical barrier through which food is a

  • Invertebrata (animal)

    Invertebrate, any animal that lacks a vertebral column, or backbone, in contrast to the cartilaginous or bony vertebrates. More than 90 percent of all living animal species are invertebrates. Worldwide in distribution, they include animals as diverse as sea stars, sea urchins, earthworms, sponges,

  • invertebrate (animal)

    Invertebrate, any animal that lacks a vertebral column, or backbone, in contrast to the cartilaginous or bony vertebrates. More than 90 percent of all living animal species are invertebrates. Worldwide in distribution, they include animals as diverse as sea stars, sea urchins, earthworms, sponges,

  • invertebrate iridescent virus (infectious agent)

    colony collapse disorder: Suspected causes: …paralysis virus, deformed wing virus, invertebrate iridescent virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Nosema species, Paenibacillus larvae (American foulbrood), and sacbrood virus. Many of those pathogens are present in increased abundance in hives affected by CCD, and varroa mites are capable of transmitting deadly honeybee viruses, including black…

  • Invertebrates, The (work by Hyman)

    Libbie Henrietta Hyman: …Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (1942), and The Invertebrates, 6 vol., (1940–68), a monumental work still incomplete at the time of her death. She served as editor of Systematic Zoology (1959–63) and as president of the Society of Systematic Zoology (1959).

  • inverted dish (architecture)

    construction: Concrete structures: …a composite structure, is the inverted dome, or dish. As in the steel bicycle wheel, a concrete compression ring resting on columns at the perimeter of the structure supports radial steel cables that run inward and downward to a small steel tension ring at the centre, forming the dish shape.…

  • inverted dome (architecture)

    construction: Concrete structures: …a composite structure, is the inverted dome, or dish. As in the steel bicycle wheel, a concrete compression ring resting on columns at the perimeter of the structure supports radial steel cables that run inward and downward to a small steel tension ring at the centre, forming the dish shape.…

  • inverted microscope (instrument)

    microscope: Inverted microscopes: For some special purposes, notably the examination of cell cultures, it is more practical if the microscope is mounted upside down. In this form of microscope, the inverted microscope, the light source and condenser are situated uppermost and direct light down through the…

  • inverted siphon (instrument)

    siphon: inverted siphons are used to carry sewage or stormwater under streams, highway cuts, or other depressions in the ground. In an inverted siphon the liquid completely fills the pipe and flows under pressure, as opposed to the open-channel gravity flow that occurs in most sanitary…

  • inverted spectrum (philosophy)

    analytic philosophy: Functionalism: …what is called the “inverted spectrum.” It is entirely conceivable, according to this objection, that two humans could possess inverted color spectra without knowing it. The two may use the word red, for example, in exactly the same way, and yet the color sensations they experience when they see…

  • inverted yield curve (economics)

    yield curve: An inverted yield curve, which slopes downward, occurs when long-term interest rates fall below short-term interest rates. In that unusual situation, long-term investors are willing to settle for lower yields, possibly because they believe the economic outlook is bleak (as in the case of an imminent…

  • inverted-U function (psychology)

    motivation: The inverted-U function: The relationship between changes in arousal and motivation is often expressed as an inverted-U function (also known as the Yerkes-Dodson law). The basic concept is that, as arousal level increases, performance improves, but only to a point, beyond which increases in arousal lead…

  • inverter (electronics)

    electric motor: Induction motors for speed and position control: …by means of an electronic inverter. Using semiconductor switches, the utility supply is converted into a set of three near-sinusoidal inputs of controlled voltage and frequency to the stator windings. The speed of the motor will then approach the synchronous value of 120 f/p revolutions per minute for a controlled…

  • Investigate Un-American Activities, Committee to (United States history)

    House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC), committee of the U.S. House of Representatives, established in 1938 under Martin Dies as chairman, that conducted investigations through the 1940s and ’50s into alleged communist activities. Those investigated included many artists and entertainers,

  • Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion (film by Petri [1970])

    Elio Petri: …sopra di ogni sospetto (Investigation of a Citizen Above Suspicion). The film—a bitter parable about the degeneration of power—won an Oscar for best foreign film. He collaborated with the poet and director Nelo Risi for the television film Dedicato a Pinelli (1970; “Dedicated to Pinelli”), a moving remembrance of…

  • Investigation of Perfection, The (work by Geber)

    Geber: … 1678), De investigatione perfectionis (The Investigation of Perfection, 1678), and De inventione veritatis (The Invention of Verity, 1678). They are the clearest expression of alchemical theory and the most important set of laboratory directions to appear before the 16th century. Accordingly, they were widely read and extremely influential in…

  • Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities, An (work by Boole)

    mathematics: The foundations of mathematics: …on the subject was called An Investigation of the Laws of Thought, on Which Are Founded the Mathematical Theories of Logic and Probabilities (1854). In Germany the logician Gottlob Frege had directed keen attention to such fundamental questions as what it means to define something and what sorts of purported…

  • Investigation of the Origin of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language (work by Rask)

    Rasmus Rask: …eller Islandske Sprogs Oprindelse (1818; Investigation of the Origin of the Old Norse or Icelandic Language). It was primarily an examination and comparison of the Scandinavian languages with Latin and Greek. Rask was the first to indicate that the Celtic languages, which include Breton, Welsh, and Irish, belong to the…

  • Investigation, Bureau of (United States government agency)

    Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), principal investigative agency of the federal government of the United States. The bureau is responsible for conducting investigations in cases where federal laws may have been violated, unless another agency of the federal government has been specifically

  • Investigation, The (work by Weiss)

    Peter Weiss: Die Ermittlung (1965; The Investigation) is a documentary drama re-creating the Frankfurt trials of the men who carried out mass murders at Auschwitz; at the same time, it attacks later German hypocrisy over the existence of concentration camps and investigates the root causes of aggression. Weiss’s other plays…

  • Investigation: A Search for the Truth in Ten Acts, The (live reading of Mueller Report [2019])

    Joel Grey: …joined a star-studded cast in The Investigation: A Search for the Truth in Ten Acts, a dramatic reading of the so-called Mueller report, which documented the investigation of possible Russian interference in the U.S. presidential election of 2016. Grey portrayed Jeff Sessions, who was attorney general in 2017–18.

  • Investigational New Drug

    pharmaceutical industry: The Investigational New Drug application: Two important written documents are required from a pharmaceutical firm seeking regulatory approval from the U.S. FDA. The first is the Investigational New Drug (IND) application. The IND is required for approval to begin studies of a new drug in humans.…

  • Investigations of Space by Means of Rockets (work by Tsiolkovsky)

    Robert Goddard: Research in Massachusetts: Tsiolkovsky wrote “Investigations of Space by Means of Rockets,” which many years later was hailed by the Soviet Union as the forerunner of space flight. The other member of the pioneer space trio—Hermann Oberth of Germany—published his space–flight treatise, Die Rakete zu den Planetenr?umen, in 1923, four…

  • Investigator (ship)

    biology: Biological expeditions: …the same area in the Investigator in 1801 included the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, whose work on the plants of Australia and New Zealand became a classic; especially important were his descriptions of how certain plants adapt to different environmental conditions. Brown is also credited with discovering the cell nucleus…

  • Investigator Strait (channel, South Australia, Australia)

    Investigator Strait, channel, about 60 miles (100 km) long and nearly 30 miles (50 km) wide, between Yorke Peninsula to the north and Kangaroo Island to the south, leading eastward from the Indian Ocean into Gulf St. Vincent, South Australia. It merges (east) with the Backstairs Passage (channel),

  • investigatory phase (law)

    procedural law: The investigatory phase: When a criminal offense has been reported, the competent authority (the police, the public prosecutor, or the investigating magistrate) commences the criminal process by investigating the circumstances. In this phase, relevant evidence is collected and preserved for a possible trial. The suspect also…

  • investing ligament (anatomy)

    joint: The fibrous layer: …is referred to as the investing ligament or joint capsule. At the point where it reaches the articulating bones, it attaches to the periosteum lining the outer surface of the cortex.

  • investiture (feudalism)

    Investiture Controversy: Background: …of the 11th century as investiture. The consecration of the newly minted bishop by his ecclesiastical superior then usually followed.

  • Investiture Controversy (Roman Catholicism)

    Investiture Controversy, conflict during the late 11th and the early 12th century involving the monarchies of what would later be called the Holy Roman Empire (the union of Germany, Burgundy, and much of Italy; see Researcher’s Note), France, and England on the one hand and the revitalized papacy

  • Investiture of Ardashīr I (rock carving, Naqsh-e Rostam, Iran)

    Iranian art and architecture: Sāsānian period: …yet differently conceived, are the Investiture of Ardashīr I at Naqsh-e Rostam and the Royal Hunt relief at Tāq-e Bostān. In the first the king and his god, both mounted on horseback, are sculptured in high relief in the Roman manner but are antithetically arranged to create a typically Iranian…

  • investment (finance)

    Investment, process of exchanging income during one period of time for an asset that is expected to produce earnings in future periods. Thus, consumption in the current period is foregone in order to obtain a greater return in the future. For an economy as a whole to invest, total production must

  • investment allowance

    investment credit: Investment credits are similar to investment allowances, which permit businesses to deduct a specified percentage of certain capital costs from their taxable income.

  • investment bank

    Investment bank, firm that originates, underwrites, and distributes new security issues of corporations and government agencies. Unlike a savings bank, an investment bank is a commercial bank that does not accept deposits. The investment (or merchant) banking house operates by purchasing all of the

  • investment casting

    Investment casting, precision-casting technique for forming metal shapes. A typical process for bronze castings involves six steps: 1. A gelatin mold is formed around the solid sculptured form. 2. The mold is removed (in two or more sections) from the sculptured form, and the inside of the mold is

  • investment company (finance)

    Investment trust, financial organization that pools the funds of its shareholders and invests them in a diversified portfolio of securities. It differs from the mutual fund, or unit trust, which issues units representing the diversified holdings rather than shares in the company itself. Investment

  • investment credit

    Investment credit, tax incentive that permits businesses to deduct a specified percentage of certain investment costs from their tax liability, in addition to the normal allowances for depreciation (q.v.). Investment credits are similar to investment allowances, which permit businesses to deduct a

  • investment grant (finance)

    income tax: Investment incentives: Alternatively, an investment grant, in the form of a payment from the government to those making certain kinds of new investment, may be provided. Investment allowances, tax credits, and investment grants reduce the cost of new equipment and plants and thus make investment more attractive.

  • investment incentive (government policy)

    Investment incentive, policy implemented by government to promote the establishment of new businesses or to encourage existing businesses to expand or not to relocate elsewhere. The general aim of investment incentives is to influence the locational decisions of investors and thus to reap the

  • investment multiplier (finance)

    Multiplier, in economics, numerical coefficient showing the effect of a change in total national investment on the amount of total national income. It equals the ratio of the change in total income to the change in investment. For example, a $1 million increase in the total amount of investment in

  • investment trust (finance)

    Investment trust, financial organization that pools the funds of its shareholders and invests them in a diversified portfolio of securities. It differs from the mutual fund, or unit trust, which issues units representing the diversified holdings rather than shares in the company itself. Investment

  • investment, marginal efficiency of (economics)

    Marginal efficiency of investment, in economics, expected rates of return on investment as additional units of investment are made under specified conditions and over a stated period of time. A comparison of these rates with the going rate of interest may be used to indicate the profitability of

  • Investors Are Bullish on the Dow

    When U.S. Stock markets opened for business on March 19, 2015, the Dow Jones Industrial Average, one of the world’s most widely recognized investment measures, had a new component as technology giant Apple Inc. replaced telecommunications firm AT&T Corp., which first became a component of the index

  • Investors Overseas Services (American company)

    Robert L. Vesco: …of the Swiss-based mutual-fund empire Investors Overseas Services (IOS). The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission accused Vesco and his associates of looting the IOS of $224 million, defrauding thousands of investors by diverting assets from mutual funds. In 1973 Vesco was indicted for making illegal contributions totaling $250,000 to the…

  • Invictus (film by Eastwood [2009])

    Joost van der Westhuizen: …in the Clint Eastwood movie Invictus (2009).

  • Invictus (poem by Henley)

    William Ernest Henley: …is his most popular poem, “Invictus” (1875), which concludes with the lines “I am the master of my fate; / I am the captain of my soul.” Subsequent volumes of verse include London Voluntaries (1893), Poems (1898), Hawthorn and Lavender (1899), and For England’s Sake (1900).

  • Invictus Games (international sporting competition)

    Prince Harry, duke of Sussex: Social activism and the Invictus Games: …and veterans, Harry founded the Invictus Games, an international sporting competition for injured and sick veterans and servicepeople. The competition, which debuted in London in 2014, took its name from William Ernest Henley’s inspirational poem “Invictus.” Initial funding was provided by the Royal Foundation created by William and his wife,…

  • Invincible (British aircraft carrier)

    naval ship: Light carriers: …built three such ships, HMS Invincible, Illustrious, and Ark Royal. These 20,000-ton ships carried eight Sea Harriers and about a dozen antisubmarine helicopters. They also incorporated a further British contribution to aircraft carrier design: an upward-sloping “ski jump” at the end of the short (170-metre, or 558-foot) flight deck to…

  • Invincible (British battleship)

    John Arbuthnot Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher: …also created the lightly armoured Invincible-type battle cruisers, which carried heavy armaments but relied on speed for their protection. In war these proved, however, to be outclassed by the heavily armoured German battle cruisers.

  • Invincible Armada (Spanish naval fleet)

    Spanish Armada, the great fleet sent by King Philip II of Spain in 1588 to invade England in conjunction with a Spanish army from Flanders. England’s attempts to repel this fleet involved the first naval battles to be fought entirely with heavy guns, and the failure of Spain’s enterprise saved

  • Invincibles (Irish secret society)

    Lord Frederick Charles Cavendish: …a secret society called the Invincibles, were betrayed and hanged in 1883; several others were sentenced to long prison terms. (See Phoenix Park murders.)

  • Invisible (novel by Auster)

    Paul Auster: …biography of the protagonist of Invisible (2009), for example, closely resembles Auster’s own, but the high drama of the plot—which delves into murder and incest—is clearly fictional. Though expressly nonfiction, the pointedly unstudied and fragmentary Winter Journal (2012) was written in the second person and comprised self-reflective meditations interspersed with…

  • invisible (economics)

    Invisible trade, in economics, the exchange of physically intangible items between countries. Invisible trade can be distinguished from visible trade, which involves the export, import, and reexport of physically tangible goods. Basic categories of invisible trade include services (receipts and

  • Invisible Circus, The (novel by Egan)

    Jennifer Egan: …reflected in her first novel, The Invisible Circus (1995; film 2001), which tells the story of a girl who travels through Europe, tracing the footsteps of her dead sister. Her short-story collection Emerald City (1996) was also inspired by her European travels.

  • Invisible Cities (novel by Calvino)

    Invisible Cities, novel by Italo Calvino, published in 1972 in Italian as Le città invisibili. It consists of a conversation between Marco Polo and Kublai Khan in which the former describes a series of wondrous, surreal cities in the khan’s domain. Each city is characterized by a unique quality or

  • invisible drought (meteorology)

    drought: Invisible drought can also be recognized: in summer, when high temperatures induce high rates of evaporation and transpiration, even frequent showers may not supply enough water to restore the amount lost; the result is a borderline water deficiency that diminishes crop yields.

  • invisible earnings (economics)

    Invisible trade, in economics, the exchange of physically intangible items between countries. Invisible trade can be distinguished from visible trade, which involves the export, import, and reexport of physically tangible goods. Basic categories of invisible trade include services (receipts and

  • Invisible Girl (comic-book character)

    Fantastic Four: Origins: Reed Richards, a pompous scientist; Sue Storm, his lovely and somewhat reserved fiancée; Sue’s hotheaded teenaged brother Johnny Storm; and Richards’s beefy longtime friend pilot Ben Grimm. The foursome commandeered an untested spaceship of Richards’s design from the U.S. military in a frantic but unsanctioned effort to beat the Soviets…

  • invisible hand (economics)

    Invisible hand, metaphor, introduced by the 18th-century Scottish philosopher and economist Adam Smith, that characterizes the mechanisms through which beneficial social and economic outcomes may arise from the accumulated self-interested actions of individuals, none of whom intends to bring about

  • Invisible Life (novel by Harris)

    E. Lynn Harris: He wrote his first novel—Invisible Life (1994; self-published in 1991), based on his own experiences—after having worked for 13 years as a salesman for IBM and other computer companies. In the book, he revealed an until-then little-publicized practice of life “on the down-low,” a reference to men who have…

  • Invisible Man (novel by Ellison)

    Invisible Man, novel by Ralph Ellison, published in 1952. SUMMARY: The narrator of Invisible Man is a nameless young black man who moves in a 20th-century United States where reality is surreal and who can survive only through pretense. Because the people he encounters "see only my surroundings,

  • Invisible Man, The (novel by Wells)

    The Invisible Man, science-fiction novel by H.G. Wells, published in 1897. The story concerns the life and death of a scientist named Griffin who has gone mad. Having learned how to make himself invisible, Griffin begins to use his invisibility for nefarious purposes, including murder. When he is

  • Invisible Man, The (film by Whale [1933])

    The Invisible Man, American horror film, released in 1933, that is considered one of the classics of that genre, especially noted for its groundbreaking visual effects and for featuring Claude Rains in his first American screen role. Based on H.G. Wells’s science-fiction novel of the same name, The

  • Invisible Ray, The (film by Hillyer [1936])

    Bela Lugosi: … (1934), The Raven (1935), and The Invisible Ray (1936), and he appeared occasionally in non-horror films, such as the Paramount Pictures all-star comedy International House (1933) and Ernst Lubitsch’s Ninotchka (1939).

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