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  • iPad (electronic device)

    Apple Inc.: Apple refocuses on key markets: In 2010 Apple unveiled the iPad, a touch-screen device intermediate in size between a laptop computer and a smartphone with a display that measured 9.7 inches (24.6 cm) diagonally. It was about 0.5 inch (1.2 cm) thin and weighed 1.5 pounds (0.7 kg). The iPad was operated with the same…

  • Ipai (people)

    Yuman: people, the Diegue?o and the Kamia (now known as the Tipai and Ipai), lived in what are now southern California and northern Baja California. The Kiliwa and Paipai still live in northern Baja California.

  • Ipameri (Brazil)

    Ipameri, city, southeastern Goiás estado (state), south-central Brazil. Lying in rolling uplands between the Veríssimo and Corumbá rivers, tributaries of the Paranaíba River, it is primarily a cattle-shipping centre that also houses meat-processing and rice-hulling plants. Additional income is

  • Ipatieff, Vladimir Nikolayevich (Russian-American chemist)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Ipatieff, Russian-born American chemist who was one of the first to investigate high-pressure catalytic reactions of hydrocarbons and who directed research teams that developed several processes for refining petroleum into high-octane gasoline. In 1887 Ipatieff became an

  • Ipatyev, Vladimir Nikolayevich (Russian-American chemist)

    Vladimir Nikolayevich Ipatieff, Russian-born American chemist who was one of the first to investigate high-pressure catalytic reactions of hydrocarbons and who directed research teams that developed several processes for refining petroleum into high-octane gasoline. In 1887 Ipatieff became an

  • IPBES (international organization)

    biodiversity: Counting species: A 2019 report by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services noted that up to one million plant and animal species are facing extinction due to human activity. (The loss of biodiversity as a result of human activity and various methods aimed at preventing this loss are discussed…

  • IPC (herbicide)

    weed: Chemical control: acid), 2,4,5-T (2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid), and IPC (isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate), the first two selective as foliar sprays against broad-leaved weeds, the third selective against grass species when applied through the soil. The new herbicides were revolutionary in that their high toxicity allowed for effective weed control at dosage rates as low as one…

  • IPC (Iraqi company)

    Calouste Gulbenkian: (later Iraq Petroleum Co.) and became the first to exploit Iraqi oil; his 5% share made him one of the world’s richest men. From 1948 he negotiated Saudi Arabian oil concessions to U.S. firms. He amassed an outstanding art collection of some 6,000 works, now in…

  • IPCC (United Nations panel)

    Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), United Nations panel established by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) in 1988. Headquartered with the WMO in Geneva, Switzerland, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

  • Ipcress File, The (film by Furie [1965])

    The Ipcress File, British spy film, released in 1965, that was considered among the best of the genre, noted for a realism that was absent in the James Bond movies. It was the first of several films that featured Michael Caine in the lead role of Harry Palmer. Palmer, a British military

  • Ipcress File, The (novel by Deighton)

    Len Deighton: …his best-known being his first, The Ipcress File (1962), an account of deception and betrayal in an espionage agency.

  • IPEC (UN program)

    child labour: In 1992 the International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC) was created as a new department of the ILO. Through programs it operates around the world, IPEC seeks the removal of children from hazardous working conditions and the ultimate elimination of child labour.

  • ipecac (botany and medicine)

    Ipecac, dried rhizome and roots of the tropical New World plant Carapichea ipecacuanha of the madder family (Rubiaceae). It has been used since ancient times especially as a source of a drug to treat poisoning by inducing nausea and vomiting. The name also refers to the drug itself, which is also

  • ipecacuanha (botany and medicine)

    Ipecac, dried rhizome and roots of the tropical New World plant Carapichea ipecacuanha of the madder family (Rubiaceae). It has been used since ancient times especially as a source of a drug to treat poisoning by inducing nausea and vomiting. The name also refers to the drug itself, which is also

  • ípeiros (region, Greece and Albania)

    Epirus, coastal region of northwestern Greece and southern Albania. It extends from Valona Bay (Albanian: Gjiri i Vlor?s) in Albania (northwest) to the Gulf of árta (southeast); its hinterland extends eastward to the watershed of the Pindus (Modern Greek: Píndos) Mountains. The nomói (departments)

  • Ipek (Kosovo)

    Pej?, town, western Kosovo. It lies on a small tributary of the Beli Drim River, between the North Albanian Alps (Prokletije) and the Mokra Mountain Range. It is populated largely by ethnic Albanians, who are primarily Muslim. It is noted for its mosques, narrow streets, and old Turkish houses.

  • Ipet resyt (monument, Luxor, Egypt)

    Luxor: The ancient ruins: Temple of Luxor consisted of a large peristyle court and a complex of halls and chambers beyond. In one hall is a granite shrine of Alexander the Great. The great peristyle forecourt is surrounded on three sides by a double row of graceful papyrus-cluster columns,…

  • Ipet-Isut (ancient temples, Thebes, Greece)

    Karnak: …temples, called in ancient times Ipet-Isut, “Chosen of Places.” The ruins cover a considerable area and are still impressive, though nothing remains of the houses, palaces, and gardens that must have surrounded the temple precinct in ancient times. The most northerly temple is the Temple of Mont, the war god,…

  • IPF (economics)

    dirigisme: …dirigisme took the form of indicative planning, which entailed government credit policies and subsidies, developing new technologies, and the regulation of employment overseen by a special planning commission, the Commissariat au Plan. The French government also embarked on ambitious projects, encouraging the formation of national champions in large industry groups,…

  • Iphiclides marcellus (insect)

    Zebra swallowtail butterfly, (Eurytides marcellus), species of butterfly in the family Papilionidae (order Lepidoptera) that has wing patterns reminiscent of a zebra’s stripes, with a series of longitudinal black bands forming a pattern on a greenish white or white background. There are several

  • Iphicrates (Greek general)

    Iphicrates, Athenian general known chiefly for his use of lightly armed troops (peltasts); he increased the length of their weapons and improved their mobility by reducing defensive armour. Iphicrates used his peltasts skillfully in the Corinthian War (395–387), nearly annihilating a battalion of

  • Iphigeneia (Greek mythology)

    Iphigeneia, in Greek mythology, eldest daughter of Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, and his wife Clytemnestra. Her father had to sacrifice her to the goddess Artemis in order that the Achaean fleet, of which he was leader, might be delivered from the calm (or contrary winds) by which Artemis was

  • Iphigeneia en Aulidi (play by Euripides)

    Iphigenia at Aulis, tragedy by Euripides, performed about 406 bce. The story concerns the legendary sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father, Agamemnon. When the Greek fleet is becalmed at Aulis, thus preventing movement of the expeditionary force against Troy, Agamemnon is told that he must sacrifice

  • Iphigeneia en Taurois (play by Euripides)

    Iphigenia Among the Taurians, tragicomedy by Euripides, performed about 413 bce and consisting chiefly of a recognition scene followed by a clever escape. In the play Iphigenia has been saved by the goddess Artemis from sacrifice and now serves the goddess’s temple at Tauris in Thrace. Her brother

  • Iphigenia Among the Taurians (play by Euripides)

    Iphigenia Among the Taurians, tragicomedy by Euripides, performed about 413 bce and consisting chiefly of a recognition scene followed by a clever escape. In the play Iphigenia has been saved by the goddess Artemis from sacrifice and now serves the goddess’s temple at Tauris in Thrace. Her brother

  • Iphigenia at Aulis (play by Euripides)

    Iphigenia at Aulis, tragedy by Euripides, performed about 406 bce. The story concerns the legendary sacrifice of Iphigenia by her father, Agamemnon. When the Greek fleet is becalmed at Aulis, thus preventing movement of the expeditionary force against Troy, Agamemnon is told that he must sacrifice

  • Iphigenia in Tauris (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: First Weimar period (1776–86): …manner, Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), which shows the healing process he attributed to the influence of Frau von Stein in the context of an emotionally charged brother-and-sister relationship and as a profound moral and theological reeducation. Thereafter, however, he found it increasingly difficult to complete anything, and…

  • Iphigenia in Tauris (play by Euripides)

    Iphigenia Among the Taurians, tragicomedy by Euripides, performed about 413 bce and consisting chiefly of a recognition scene followed by a clever escape. In the play Iphigenia has been saved by the goddess Artemis from sacrifice and now serves the goddess’s temple at Tauris in Thrace. Her brother

  • Iphigénie (work by Racine)

    Iphigenia at Aulis: Jean Racine’s Iphigénie in the outdoor setting of a royal fête at Versailles is an adaptation of Euripides’ play, but with a love plot and a happy ending. Euripides was also the inspiration for Jean Moréas’s verse play Iphigénie à Aulide.

  • Iphigénie à Aulide (work by Moréas)

    Jean Moréas: Moréas wrote a verse play, Iphigénie à Aulide (1903), which was closely inspired by Euripides and which met with considerable success when presented in the théatre antique of Orange and subsequently on the stage of the Odéon in Paris. In Moréas’ last work, Les Stances (1899–1920; “The Stanzas”), his intellectual…

  • Iphigenie auf Tauris (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: First Weimar period (1776–86): …manner, Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), which shows the healing process he attributed to the influence of Frau von Stein in the context of an emotionally charged brother-and-sister relationship and as a profound moral and theological reeducation. Thereafter, however, he found it increasingly difficult to complete anything, and…

  • Iphigénie en Aulide (opera by Gluck)

    Christoph Willibald Gluck: The late works: …stage Gluck’s newly completed opera, Iphigénie en Aulide (the text, after Racine’s tragedy, was by Fran?ois-Louis Leblanc, bailli Du Roullet); and, as Gluck had undertaken to transform the genial Italian style to the more serious opera cultivated by French composers as well as to provide six more similar operas, he…

  • Iphigenie in Tauris (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: First Weimar period (1776–86): …manner, Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), which shows the healing process he attributed to the influence of Frau von Stein in the context of an emotionally charged brother-and-sister relationship and as a profound moral and theological reeducation. Thereafter, however, he found it increasingly difficult to complete anything, and…

  • Iphinoe trispinosa (crustacean, order Cumacea)

    Hooded shrimp, any member of the order Cumacea (superorder Peracarida), a group of small, predominantly marine crustaceans immediately recognizable by their unusual body shape. The head and thorax are wide and rounded, in sharp contrast to the slender, cylindrical, flexible abdomen from which

  • iPhone (electronic device)

    IPhone, a multipurpose handheld computing device combining mobile telephone, digital camera, music player, and personal computing technologies. After more than two years of development at Apple Inc., the device was first released in the United States in 2007. The iPhone was subsequently released in

  • iPhone 2.0 (electronic device)

    Apple Inc.: Apple refocuses on key markets: …with the release of the iPhone 3G, or iPhone 2.0, which also included support for the global positioning system (GPS). Like other “smartphones” such as the BlackBerry, from the Canadian company Research in Motion, the new iPhone included features geared toward business users. In particular, the storage memory in the…

  • iPhone 3G (electronic device)

    Apple Inc.: Apple refocuses on key markets: …with the release of the iPhone 3G, or iPhone 2.0, which also included support for the global positioning system (GPS). Like other “smartphones” such as the BlackBerry, from the Canadian company Research in Motion, the new iPhone included features geared toward business users. In particular, the storage memory in the…

  • iPhone 3G S (electronic device)

    Apple Inc.: Apple refocuses on key markets: …2009, when Apple released the iPhone 3G S, which also sold one million units in the first three days after its release, the company’s share of the smartphone market had reached about 20 percent (compared with about 55 percent for the BlackBerry line of smartphones). In addition to hardware changes…

  • iPhone 4 (electronic device)

    iPhone: …unveiled two months later, the iPhone 4 was thinner than its predecessor and offered improved battery life as well as a 5-megapixel camera. The iPhone 4 ran on iOS 4, a multiplatform operating system that allowed users to run multiple apps simultaneously. In October 2011 Apple released the iPhone 4S.…

  • iPhone 4S (electronic device)

    iPhone: …October 2011 Apple released the iPhone 4S. Among the improvements were an 8-megapixel camera and Siri, a personal assistant program that responded to spoken commands and questions. The new version of the operating system, iOS 5, contained iMessage, a messaging system that allowed conversations between any devices running iOS 5,…

  • iPhone 5C (electronic device)

    iPhone: Improved versions, the 5C and the more-expensive 5S, were released in September 2013. The 5S had a fingerprint lock system called Touch ID and a motion coprocessor, which was solely devoted to processing information from the phone’s motion sensors, thus freeing up resources on the main processor.

  • iPhone 5S (electronic device)

    iPhone: …the 5C and the more-expensive 5S, were released in September 2013. The 5S had a fingerprint lock system called Touch ID and a motion coprocessor, which was solely devoted to processing information from the phone’s motion sensors, thus freeing up resources on the main processor.

  • iPhone 6 (electronic device)

    iPhone: In September 2014 the iPhone 6 and the larger 6 Plus were unveiled. The 6 Plus was significantly thinner than previous versions (which actually made it susceptible to unintentional bending if left in a user’s pocket too long). The new operating system version, iOS 8, had such features as…

  • Ipi-Tombi (South African music)

    African theatre: South Africa: …the 1970s musicals such as Ipi-Tombi and Umabatha (a Zulu version of Macbeth by Welcome Msomi) were commercial successes in South Africa and internationally, but they were often regarded as exploitative of African artists and culture. However, Umabatha was praised by South Africa’s iconic president, Nelson Mandela, under whose encouragement…

  • Ipiales (Colombia)

    Ipiales, city, southwestern Colombia. It is located in the Andes Mountains on the banks of the Guáitara River, at 9,505 feet (2,897 metres) above sea level, and is known as the “city of the three volcanoes.” A Spanish settlement was founded there in 1585 by missionaries working among the indigenous

  • ipilimumab (antibody)

    immune system: Immunity against cancer: Known as ipilimumab (Yervoy), the antibody was approved in 2011 by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of late-stage melanoma. Likewise, the discovery of a negative immune regulatory protein known as programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1), which occurs on the surface of T…

  • ípiros (region, Greece and Albania)

    Epirus, coastal region of northwestern Greece and southern Albania. It extends from Valona Bay (Albanian: Gjiri i Vlor?s) in Albania (northwest) to the Gulf of árta (southeast); its hinterland extends eastward to the watershed of the Pindus (Modern Greek: Píndos) Mountains. The nomói (departments)

  • Ipiutak culture (Eskimo culture)

    Ipiutak culture, Eskimo culture of northwestern Alaska, probably dating from the 2nd to the 6th century ad. A Siberian origin has been suggested, based on similarities in burial practices and ceremonialism, animal carvings and designs, and some use of iron; but evidence is not conclusive. There

  • IPKF (military organization, India)

    India: Foreign policy: …and agreed to send an Indian Peace-Keeping Force (IPKF) to disarm the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) and other Tamil forces. The IPKF, however, soon found itself embroiled in fighting the Tamil Tigers. The accord had never been popular among Tamils or Sinhalese, and by 1989 the Indian…

  • IPL (computer language)

    artificial intelligence programming language: …Carnegie Mellon University developed their Information Processing Language (IPL), a computer language tailored for AI programming. At the heart of IPL was a highly flexible data structure that they called a list. A list is simply an ordered sequence of items of data. Some or all of the items in…

  • IPL (Indian cricket league)

    Indian Premier League (IPL), Indian professional Twenty20 (T20) cricket league established in 2008. The league, which is based on a round-robin group and knockout format, has teams in major Indian cities. The brainchild of the Board of Control for Cricket in India (BCCI), the IPL has developed into

  • IPN (chemistry)

    chemistry of industrial polymers: Copolymers and polymer blends: …arrangement referred to as an interpenetrating polymer network (IPN). Another strategy is to add block or graft copolymers formed from monomers of the immiscible polymers in order to improve adhesion at the boundaries between the polymer phases. In this technique interfacial adhesion is strengthened because of the natural affinity of…

  • IPNS (particle accelerator)

    Argonne National Laboratory: …Advanced Photon Source (APS), the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS), the Argonne Tandem Linear Accelerator System (ATLAS), and the High-Voltage Electron Microscope- (HVEM-) Tandem Facility—have been designated official U.S. Department of Energy National User Facilities.

  • IPO

    China: Finance: …it was the world’s largest initial public offering (IPO) to date.

  • IPO (orchestra)

    Israel Philharmonic Orchestra, Israeli symphony orchestra based in Tel Aviv–Yafo, founded in 1936 by Bronislaw Huberman as the Palestine Orchestra. Huberman assembled a professional symphony orchestra of high calibre, consisting of Europe’s most talented Jewish symphonic players. Arturo Toscanini

  • iPod (electronic device)

    IPod, portable media player developed by Apple Inc. and released in 2001 for the company’s Macintosh platform. A version for the Microsoft Corporation’s Windows operating system was released in 2002. The small, sleekly designed player, coupled with its accompanying online music store, has been one

  • Ipoh (Malaysia)

    Ipoh, city, Peninsular (West) Malaysia, on the Kinta River. Surrounded by steep hills, except to the south, it lies on a flat alluvial plain in the Kinta Valley. The name comes from a local tree, whose poisonous resin was once used by Aboriginals for hunting. The modern city dates from the 1890s,

  • Ipojuca River (river, Brazil)

    Caruaru: It is located on the Ipojuca River at 1,804 feet (550 metres) above sea level.

  • Ipomaea (plant genus)

    Ipomoea, genus of about 500 mostly warm-climate trees, shrubs, and twining and trailing herbaceous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Several species are known as morning glories and are cultivated as ornamental plants for their attractive flowers. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an

  • Ipomedon (romance by Hue de Rotelande)

    romance: The theme of separation and reunion: …variety of romances including the Ipomedon (1174–90) of Hue de Rotelande and the anonymous mid-13th-century Anglo-Norman Gui de Warewic. Finally, there are many examples of the “persecuted heroine” theme; in one variety a person having knowledge of some “corporal sign”—a birthmark or mole—on a lady wagers with her husband that…

  • Ipomoea (plant genus)

    Ipomoea, genus of about 500 mostly warm-climate trees, shrubs, and twining and trailing herbaceous plants of the family Convolvulaceae. Several species are known as morning glories and are cultivated as ornamental plants for their attractive flowers. The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is an

  • Ipomoea alba (plant, Ipomoea alba)

    Ipomoea: Major species: …the largest-flowering ipomoeas is the moonflower (tropical white morning glory; I. alba), a rampant perennial climber with 15-cm (6-inch) white, fragrant, night-blooming flowers. It contains a milky juice used for coagulating Castilla rubber.

  • Ipomoea arborescens (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: The morning glory tree (casahuate; I. arborescens) is one of several similar tropical American tree and shrub morning glories.

  • Ipomoea batatas (plant)

    Sweet potato, (Ipomoea batatas), food plant of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae), native to tropical America. The sweet potato is widely cultivated in tropical and warm temperate climates and is an important food crop in the southern United States, tropical America and the Caribbean, the

  • Ipomoea coccinea (plant)

    cypress vine: The closely related star ipomoea (I. coccinea), with crimson flowers and heart-shaped leaves, which grows wild over much the same area, is also an annual.

  • Ipomoea leptophylla (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Bush morning glory (I. leptophylla), with tuberous roots and erect branches, grows up to about 120 cm (47 inches) tall and bears 7.5-cm (3-inch) purple or pink flowers. It is native to central North America.

  • Ipomoea purga (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Jalap (I. purga), native to tropical Mexico, is an upright herb with solitary reddish flowers. Its apple-sized turnip-shaped roots are the source of an ancient purgative, still in use.

  • Ipomoea purpurea (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Common morning glory (I. purpurea), an annual vine that bears heart-shaped leaves and purple, pink, or white flowers about 7 cm (3 inches) across, has become a troublesome weed in parts of southeastern North America. It is cultivated in many places.

  • Ipomoea quamoclit (plant)

    Cypress vine, (Ipomoea quamoclit), tropical American twining climber naturalized in southern North America. It has star-shaped scarlet, pink, or white blooms amid deep green, deeply lobed leaves. It is a member of the morning glory family (Convolvulaceae) and is an annual. The closely related star

  • Ipomoea rubrocaerulea (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Heavenly blue morning glory (I. violacea)—a twining perennial vine, usually cultivated as a garden annual—bears clusters of blue to purplish, sometimes white, flowers, 12 cm (4.7 inches) across, among heart-shaped leaves. It is native to tropical America. This vine bears seeds containing the alkaloids d-lysergic…

  • Ipomoea tricolor (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Heavenly blue morning glory (I. violacea)—a twining perennial vine, usually cultivated as a garden annual—bears clusters of blue to purplish, sometimes white, flowers, 12 cm (4.7 inches) across, among heart-shaped leaves. It is native to tropical America. This vine bears seeds containing the alkaloids d-lysergic…

  • Ipomoea violacea (plant)

    Ipomoea: Major species: Heavenly blue morning glory (I. violacea)—a twining perennial vine, usually cultivated as a garden annual—bears clusters of blue to purplish, sometimes white, flowers, 12 cm (4.7 inches) across, among heart-shaped leaves. It is native to tropical America. This vine bears seeds containing the alkaloids d-lysergic…

  • IPPD (technology)

    aerospace industry: Design methods: …teams, is a method called integrated product and process development (IPPD). IPPD ensures that the needs of the users and those who bring the product to the customer through manufacturing and outside procurement are considered at the beginning of the design/build cycle. In cases in which maintenance plays a major…

  • Ippen (Japanese Buddhist monk)

    Buddhism: Pure Land: …up around the itinerant teacher Ippen. He traveled throughout Japan, advocating the chanting of Amida’s name at set intervals throughout the day; hence, his school was called the Ji (“Times”) school, or Jishū.

  • Ippen shōnin gyojo eden (Japanese art)

    Japanese art: Painting: …Hōnen shōnin eden and the Ippen shōnin gyojo eden present biographies of the priests Hōnen, founder of the Pure Land sect, and Ippen, beloved charismatic who founded an Amidist subgroup, the Ji sect. In vitality of defining brushwork, rich palette, and lavish depiction of the sundry details of contemporaneous existence,…

  • IPPF

    birth control: Family planning services: …toward creating what became the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF).

  • Ippitsusai Bunchō (Japanese artist)

    Ippitsusai Bunchō, Japanese artist in the ukiyo-e school, which depicted subjects drawn from everyday life. Ippitsusai studied with Ishikawa Yukimoto, a painter of the traditional Kanō school. He gained repute as a colourist, particularly in his painting of actors (nigeo-e, “portraits”). His main

  • Ippolitov-Ivanov, Mikhail (Russian composer)

    Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, Russian composer of orchestral works and operas, of which the most popular were influenced by Caucasian and Georgian folk music. Ippolitov-Ivanov studied under Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and in 1882 became conductor of the symphony orchestra

  • Ippolitov-Ivanov, Mikhail Mikhaylovich (Russian composer)

    Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov, Russian composer of orchestral works and operas, of which the most popular were influenced by Caucasian and Georgian folk music. Ippolitov-Ivanov studied under Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov at the St. Petersburg Conservatory and in 1882 became conductor of the symphony orchestra

  • IPPP (chemical compound)

    isoprenoid: Biosynthesis of isoprenoids: …unknown compounds, mevalonic acid and isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPPP), occur as important intermediates in the process.

  • iproniazid (drug)

    Iproniazid, the first drug of the monoamine-oxidase inhibitor series to be introduced into medicine (1958). It was employed as an antidepressant until it was found to cause liver damage. Prior to its introduction as an antidepressant, iproniazid was studied as a drug similar in function to the

  • IPS (electronics)

    liquid crystal display: Other transmissive nematic displays: For example, in-plane switching (IPS) displays operate by applying a switching voltage to electrodes on a single substrate to untwist the liquid crystal. IPS displays have a viewing angle intrinsically superior to that of TFT TNs; however, the requirement for more electrode circuitry on their substrate can…

  • IPS (agency, Paraguay)

    Paraguay: Health and welfare: The state-run Institute of Social Provision (IPS) is funded by contributions from government, employers, and employees. It offers pensions, medical care, and subsidies during illness but reaches only a small percentage of the salaried workers.

  • iPS cell (biology)

    Induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell), immature cell that is generated from an adult (mature) cell and that has regained the capacity to differentiate into any type of cell in the body. Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) differ from embryonic stem cells (ES cells), which form the inner

  • Ipsárion, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Thasos: The highest mountain, Mount Ipsárion (3,947 feet [1,203 metres]), lies near the island’s northeastern coast. The population is distributed in about 10 villages, mostly at some distance from the sea; the chief town, Thásos (formerly Limín), is on the north coast.

  • ipsative measurement (psychology)

    Ipsative measurement, type of assessment used in personality questionnaires or attitude surveys in which the respondent must choose between two or more equally socially acceptable options. Developed by American psychologist Paul Horst in the early 1950s, ipsative measurement tracks the progress or

  • Ipsen, Bodil (Danish actress)

    Bodil Ipsen, Danish actress who, with her frequent stage partner, the character actor Poul Reumert, reilluminated the dramas of Henrik Ibsen and August Strindberg. Ipsen first appeared on the stage at the Royal Theatre, Copenhagen, in 1909. She showed wide versatility, achieving success in roles

  • Ipsilanti, Alexandru (Greek prince of Walachia)

    Romania: Between Turkey and Austria: …Constantin Mavrocordat abolished serfdom, and Alexandru Ipsilanti of Walachia (reigned 1774–82) initiated extensive administrative and legal reforms. Alexandru’s enlightened reign, moreover, coincided with subtle shifts in economic and social life and with the emergence of new spiritual and intellectual aspirations that pointed to the West and to reform.

  • Ipsos, Battle of (Mesopotamian history [301 bce])

    Battle of Ipsos, (301 bce). Alexander the Great’s sudden death in Babylon in 323 bceleft his leading generals locked in decades of squabbling over the spoils of his empire. At Ipsos, Antigonus—long in the ascendant—was finally overpowered by the combined forces of his rivals, and particularly by

  • IPSP (biology)

    nervous system: Postsynaptic potential: …impulse, it is called an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP). The interaction of competing EPSPs and IPSPs at the hundreds or even thousands of synapses on a single neuron determines whether the nerve impulse arriving at the presynaptic terminals will be regenerated in the postsynaptic membrane.

  • Ipswich (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Ipswich: …Sea port town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Suffolk, England. Located at the head of the Orwell estuary, in the southeastern part of the county, Ipswich is the county town (seat) and administrative centre of Suffolk.

  • Ipswich (England, United Kingdom)

    Ipswich, North Sea port town and borough (district), administrative and historic county of Suffolk, England. Located at the head of the Orwell estuary, in the southeastern part of the county, Ipswich is the county town (seat) and administrative centre of Suffolk. Ipswich prospered as a port for the

  • Ipswich (Massachusetts, United States)

    Ipswich, town (township), Essex county, northeastern Massachusetts, U.S. It lies along the Ipswich River (there bridged since 1764), 28 miles (45 km) north-northeast of Boston. Settled in 1633 as Agawam, it was incorporated in 1634 and renamed for Ipswich, England. Lace making, the town’s first

  • Ipswich Summer School of Art (school, Ipswich, Massachusetts, United States)

    Arthur Wesley Dow: He opened the Ipswich Summer School of Art in a house once owned by writer and Transcendentalist Ralph Waldo Emerson. The school, which he ran with his wife through 1907, offered classes in photography, painting, textiles, pottery, and other media. Among the well-known artists who studied there was…

  • Ipswich, Henry Fitzroy, Viscount (British noble)

    Henry Fitzroy, 1st duke of Grafton, the second illegitimate son of Charles II of England by Barbara Villiers, Duchess of Cleveland. After some initial hesitation he was officially recognized and became “the most popular and most able of the sons of Charles II.” He was provided for by a rich

  • Ipswichian Interglacial Stage (geochronology)

    Pleistocene Epoch: Glacial records: …last interglaciation, the Eemian and Ipswichian, are correlative with oxygen-18 stage 5e, and those of the last glaciation, the Weichselian and Devensian, correlate with oxygen-18 stages 5d–a, 4, 3, and 2. As in central North America, tills and other deposits are well known only from the last part of this…

  • IPTO (United States military department)

    ARPANET: Roots of a network: …the first director of ARPA’s Information Processing Techniques Office (IPTO), the SAGE network demonstrated above all else the enormous power of interactive computing—or, as he refered to it in a seminal 1960 essay, of “man-computer symbiosis.” In his essay, one of the most important in the history of computing, Licklider…

  • IPU (international organization)

    Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU), international organization of parliaments of sovereign states established in 1889 in Paris to promote representative democracy and world peace. The Nobel Prize for Peace was awarded eight times to leading personalities of the IPU in the organization’s early years

  • Ipueira (river, Brazil)

    S?o Francisco River: Physiography: …Francisco receives the S?o Pedro, Ipueira, and Pajeú rivers—culminates in the great Paulo Afonso Falls (see photograph). At the top of the falls, the river divides suddenly and violently and cuts three successive falls through the granite rocks for a total drop of about 275 feet. Below the falls the…

  • Ipuwer (Egyptian sage)

    Ipuwer, ancient Egyptian sage who is known because of the discovery of one poorly preserved manuscript relating his speech to the king and the royal court. Ipuwer’s manuscript, often called “The Admonitions of an Egyptian Sage,” is especially valuable for its commentary on woeful contemporary

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