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  • Iredell, James (United States jurist)

    James Iredell, associate justice of the United States Supreme Court (1790–99). At the age of 17 Iredell was appointed comptroller of the customhouse at Edenton, N.C., to which his father, formerly a Bristol merchant, had migrated. He studied law and became active in the American cause. Although

  • Irediparra gallinacea (bird)

    jacana: …African jacana (Actophilornis africanus); the Australian lotus bird (Irediparra gallinacea) of New Guinea and the eastern Australian coast; and the pheasant-tailed jacana (Hydrophasianus chirurgus), of India and the Philippines, a handsome black, yellow, and white bird that acquires long tail feathers in breeding season.

  • Ireland

    Ireland, country of western Europe occupying five-sixths of the westernmost major island of the British Isles. The magnificent scenery of Ireland’s Atlantic coastline faces a 2,000-mile- (3,200-km-) wide expanse of ocean, and its geographic isolation has helped it to develop a rich heritage of

  • Ireland, bells of (plant)

    Bells of Ireland, (Moluccella laevis), annual plant in the mint family (Lamiaceae), grown as a garden curiosity for its green floral spikes. Bells of Ireland is native to western Asia and is commonly used in the floral industry as a fresh or dried flower. Bells of Ireland grows well in cool

  • Ireland, Church of (Irish Anglican denomination)

    Church of Ireland, independent Anglican church within both Ireland and Northern Ireland. It traces its episcopal succession from the pre-Reformation church in Ireland. Christianity was probably known in Ireland before the missionary activities of Patrick, the patron saint of the country, in the

  • Ireland, Donation of (papal bull)

    Adrian IV: …Canterbury, and granted him the Donation of Ireland (known as the bull Laudabiliter), which supposedly gave Ireland to Henry II of England. Attacked for false representation, the bull was subsequently refuted. (Even if Laudabiliter is authentic, which is doubtful, it does not grant hereditary possession of Ireland to the English…

  • Ireland, flag of

    vertically striped green-white-orange national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 1 to 2.A number of official and unofficial flags over the centuries have been flown in Ireland. One of the earliest, in use in the late 15th century, was blue with a gold harp; today it is the presidential standard of

  • Ireland, George (American coach)

    George Ireland, American basketball coach (born June 15, 1913, Madison, Wis.—died Sept. 14, 2001, Addison, Ill.), served at Loyola University (Chicago) for 24 seasons beginning in 1951 and retired with a 321–255 record. His most famous victory came in 1963, when the Loyola Ramblers won the N

  • Ireland, history of

    Ireland: History: Ireland, lying to the west of Britain, has always been to some extent cut off by it from direct contact with other European countries, especially those from Sweden to the Rhine River. Readier access has been through France, Spain, and Portugal and even

  • Ireland, John (Scottish writer)

    John Ireland, Scottish writer, theologian, and diplomatist, whose treatise The Meroure of Wyssdome is the earliest extant example of original Scots prose. Ireland left the University of St. Andrews without taking a degree and attended the University of Paris (licentiate, 1460). He lived in France

  • Ireland, John (American archbishop)

    John Ireland, first archbishop of St. Paul; head of the liberal Roman Catholic clergy who promoted the integration of predominantly immigrant parishes into the life of the U.S. church (and society as a whole)—in opposition to the separatist tendency of many ethnic groups to preserve their

  • Ireland, John (British composer)

    John Ireland, English composer known for his songs and his programmatic orchestral works. Ireland studied at the Royal College of Music in London, where he later taught composition. He was much drawn to the mysticism and fantasy in the writings of Arthur Machen; some of his compositions, such as

  • Ireland, John (American actor)

    55 Days at Peking: Cast: Assorted Referencesdiscussed in biography

  • Ireland, John Nicholson (British composer)

    John Ireland, English composer known for his songs and his programmatic orchestral works. Ireland studied at the Royal College of Music in London, where he later taught composition. He was much drawn to the mysticism and fantasy in the writings of Arthur Machen; some of his compositions, such as

  • Ireland, Northern (constituent unit, United Kingdom)

    Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, lying in the northeastern quadrant of the island of Ireland, on the western continental periphery often characterized as Atlantic Europe. Northern Ireland is sometimes referred to as Ulster, although it includes only six of the nine counties which made

  • Ireland, Republic of

    Ireland, country of western Europe occupying five-sixths of the westernmost major island of the British Isles. The magnificent scenery of Ireland’s Atlantic coastline faces a 2,000-mile- (3,200-km-) wide expanse of ocean, and its geographic isolation has helped it to develop a rich heritage of

  • Ireland, Ward Stone (American stenographer)

    shorthand: Machine shorthand: …Stenotype machine was invented by Ward Stone Ireland, an American stenographer and court reporter. At present, the Stenograph and Stenotype machines are used in offices to some extent, but they are principally employed for conference and court reporting. Both machines have keyboards of 22 keys. Because the operator uses all…

  • Ireland, William-Henry (British forger)

    William-Henry Ireland, English forger of Shakespearean works. Ireland was the son of Samuel Ireland, a respected engraver in London. The young Ireland attended schools in Kensington, Ealing, Soho, and France. As a teenager, he took up his father’s passion for William Shakespeare and antiquarian

  • Irena (bird)

    Fairy bluebird, (genus Irena), two species of birds in the family Irenidae (order Passeriformes), both of striking blue coloration and both confined to semi-deciduous forests in Asia. The blue-backed, or Asian, fairy bluebird (Irena puella) lives in the wetter parts of India, the Himalayas,

  • Irena cyanogaster (bird)

    fairy bluebird: The Philippine fairy bluebird (I. cyanogaster) is found on Luzon, Polillo, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao, Dinagat, and Basilan. The two species are notable for the very long upper and lower tail coverts that almost conceal the tail. Males are brilliant blue and black; females are a duller…

  • Irena puella (bird)

    fairy bluebird: The blue-backed, or Asian, fairy bluebird (Irena puella) lives in the wetter parts of India, the Himalayas, southwestern China, and Southeast Asia. The Philippine fairy bluebird (I. cyanogaster) is found on Luzon, Polillo, Leyte, Samar, Mindanao, Dinagat, and Basilan. The two species are notable for the…

  • Irenaeus, Saint (bishop of Lyon)

    Saint Irenaeus, ; Western feast day June 28; Eastern feast day August 23), bishop of Lugdunum (Lyon) and leading Christian theologian of the 2nd century. His work Adversus haereses (Against Heresies), written in about 180, was a refutation of Gnosticism. In the course of his writings Irenaeus

  • Irene (work by Johnson)

    Samuel Johnson: The theatre: Early in 1749 Johnson’s play Irene was at last performed. Thanks to Garrick’s production, which included expensive costumes, an excellent cast (including Garrick himself), and highly popular afterpieces for the last three performances, the tragedy ran a respectable nine nights. The audience objected to seeing the apostate Greek Christian Irene…

  • Irene (Byzantine empress [752-803])

    Irene, Byzantine ruler and saint of the Greek Orthodox Church who was instrumental in restoring the use of icons in the Eastern Roman Empire. The wife of the Byzantine emperor Leo IV, Irene became, on her husband’s death in September 780, guardian of their 10-year-old son, Constantine VI, and

  • Irène (work by Voltaire)

    Voltaire: Achievements at Ferney: …to direct the rehearsals of Irène, he made his triumphal return to the city he had not seen for 28 years on February 10. More than 300 persons called on him the day after his arrival. On March 30 he went to the Académie amid acclamations, and, when Irène was…

  • Irene (Dutch princess)

    Netherlands: The late 20th century: The unsanctioned marriage of Princess Irene to a Spanish Carlist prince had already come as a shock even to Roman Catholics, but it was less difficult politically because she lost her right of succession. Juliana’s husband and consort, Prince Bernhard, was involved in a bribery scandal and withdrew from public…

  • Irene Ducas (Byzantine empress [1066-1120])

    Irene Ducas, wife of the Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus, known from the description of her in the Alexiad of their daughter, Anna Comnena. When Alexius became emperor in April 1081 he reportedly planned to repudiate Irene and wed Mary, who had been married to the former emperors Michael VII

  • Irene, Hurricane (storm, Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean [2011])

    Hurricane Irene, tropical cyclone that brought significant wind damage to several islands in The Bahamas and torrential rains to Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, and several eastern U.S. states in late August 2011. Flash flooding generated by the storm’s relentless rainfall killed more than 50 people and

  • Irenidae (bird family)

    Irenidae, songbird family, order Passeriformes, consisting of the leafbirds, ioras, and fairy bluebirds, about 14 species of small brightly coloured birds of the forests and farms of southeastern Asia. Members range in size from 13 to 25 cm (5 to 10 inches) long. They appear to be closely related

  • Irenopolis (Bulgaria)

    Stara Zagora, town, central Bulgaria. It lies in the southern foothills of the Sredna Mountains and on the fringe of the fertile Stara Zagora plain. The town has varied industries producing cotton, textiles, chemicals, fertilizers, agricultural implements, machine tools, and cigarettes as well as

  • Iresine (plant genus)

    Amaranthaceae: the genera Alternanthera and Iresine each have several species that are cultivated as bedding plants for their attractive and colourful leaves.

  • Ireton, Henry (British statesman)

    Henry Ireton, English soldier and statesman, a leader of the Parliamentary cause during the Civil Wars between the Royalists and Parliamentarians. At the outbreak of the Civil War, Ireton joined the Parliamentary army. In November 1642 he commanded a cavalry force in the indecisive Battle of

  • IRFU (Canadian sports organization)

    Canadian Football League: …Football Union (WIFU) and the Interprovincial Rugby Football Union (IRFU). Though the IRFU still referred to their sport as rugby football, the member clubs played a gridiron style of football. The WIFU and IRFU became, respectively, the Western and Eastern conferences of the new league, which changed its name to…

  • Irglova, Marketa (Czech singer, songwriter, and actress)
  • Irgun Zvai Leumi (Jewish right-wing underground movement)

    Irgun Zvai Leumi, (Hebrew: National Military Organization) Jewish right-wing underground movement in Palestine, founded in 1931. At first supported by many nonsocialist Zionist parties, in opposition to the Haganah, it became in 1936 an instrument of the Revisionist Party, an extreme nationalist

  • IRHE (Panamanian institution)

    Panama: Resources and power: …long distributed by the state-run Institute of Hydraulic Resources and Electrification before it was privatized in 1998. Much of Panama’s electricity is generated by hydroelectric dams. The first plants were opened in 1975 at La Yeguada in Veraguas province and in 1976 on the Chepo River; the largest, at La…

  • IRI (instrument)

    HAARP: The main instrument is the Ionospheric Research Instrument (IRI), an array of 180 radio antennas spread over an area of 0.13 square kilometer (33 acres).

  • IRI (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Economic policy: …Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision. Italy thus acquired a huge, state-led industrial sector, which was…

  • Iri (South Korea)

    Iksan, city, North Ch?lla (Jeolla) do (province), western South Korea. Located about 15 miles (25 km) east of the port city of Kunsan (Gunsan), it lies in the northern part of the Honam Plain, the largest granary of South Korea. Iksan city was formed in 1995 through the merger of the city of Iri

  • Irian Barat (province, Indonesia)

    Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, spanning roughly the eastern three-fourths of the western half of the island of New Guinea as well as a number of offshore islands—notably, Sorenarwa (Yapen), Yos Sudarso (Dolak), and the Schouten Islands. Papua is bounded by the Pacific Ocean

  • Irian Djaya (province, Indonesia)

    Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, spanning roughly the eastern three-fourths of the western half of the island of New Guinea as well as a number of offshore islands—notably, Sorenarwa (Yapen), Yos Sudarso (Dolak), and the Schouten Islands. Papua is bounded by the Pacific Ocean

  • Irian Jaya (province, Indonesia)

    Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, spanning roughly the eastern three-fourths of the western half of the island of New Guinea as well as a number of offshore islands—notably, Sorenarwa (Yapen), Yos Sudarso (Dolak), and the Schouten Islands. Papua is bounded by the Pacific Ocean

  • Irian Jaya Barat (province, Indonesia)

    West Papua, propinsi (or provinsi; province) of Indonesia, including the Bomberai and Doberai (Vogelkop) peninsulas on the western end of the island of New Guinea and, to the west, the Raja Ampat Islands—most notably Salawati, Waigeo, Batanta, and Misool. The province is bounded to the north by the

  • Iriarte, Tomás de (Spanish author)

    Félix María Samaniego: …former friend and fellow fabulist Tomás de Iriarte, and, because of an anonymous attack on Iriarte that contained criticisms of the church, Samaniego was imprisoned in a monastery in 1793.

  • Iriartea deltoidea (plant species)

    palm: Ecology: …several species (Sabal palmetto and Iriartea deltoidea). Studies of pollination are difficult because of the large number of insects that are associated in some way with most palms. Few modern studies have been done, but obvious adaptations for insect pollination can be found in many palms. Bats have been found…

  • Iridaceae (plant family)

    Iridaceae, the iris family of flowering plants, belonging to the order Liliales. The family is known for ornamental genera such as Iris, Gladiolus, and Crocus. The Iridaceae contains some 80 genera and an estimated 1,700 species of mostly perennial herbs; there are a few shrubs and evergreen herbs

  • iridectomy (medicine)

    Albrecht von Gr?fe: He introduced (1857) iridectomy (surgical removal of part of the iris) for the alleviation of glaucoma, a disease resulting in opacity of the lens. He showed (1860) that blindness and visual defects connected with cerebral disorders are often traceable to optic neuritis, or inflammation of the optic nerve.…

  • iridescence (biology)

    coloration: Interference: …ultrathinly layered films, giving striking iridescence, even in diffuse light, as a result of the asynchrony between the wavelengths of visible light that enter and those that return.

  • iridescence (mineralogy)

    Iridescence, interference of light either at the surface or in the interior of a material that produces a series of colours as the angle of incidence changes. Best known are the colours seen in precious opal resulting from the interference of light by submicroscopic layers of nearly spherical

  • Iridion (play by Krasiński)

    Zygmunt Krasiński: In his second important play, Irydion (1836; Eng. trans. Irydion)—the story of a Greek named Irydion who seeks vengeance on imperial Rome—Krasiński denies the validity of hatred as a source of righteous action.

  • iridium (chemical element)

    Iridium (Ir), chemical element, one of the platinum metals of Groups 8–10 (VIIIb), Periods 5 and 6, of the periodic table. It is very dense and rare and is used in platinum alloys. A precious, silver-white metal, iridium is hard and brittle, but it becomes ductile and can be worked at a white heat,

  • Iridium 33 (communications satellite)

    space debris: …on February 10, 2009, when Iridium 33, a communications satellite owned by the American company Motorola, collided with Cosmos 2251, an inactive Russian military communications satellite, about 760 km (470 miles) above northern Siberia, shattering both satellites.

  • Iridium satellite system

    mobile telephone: Satellite-based telephone communication: …for commercial service was the Iridium system, designed by Motorola, Inc., and owned by Iridium LLC, a consortium made up of corporations and governments from around the world. The Iridium concept employed a constellation of 66 satellites orbiting in six planes around Earth. They were launched from May 1997 to…

  • iridosmine (mineral)

    Iridosmine, mineral consisting of an alloy of iridium and a smaller proportion of osmium. It occurs in gold-bearing conglomerates, as at the Witwatersrand in South Africa, and in gold sands, as in California and Oregon, U.S. Because of their hardness and resistance to corrosion, both natural and s

  • Iridoviridae (virus family)

    Iridovirus, any virus belonging to the family Iridoviridae. Iridoviruses possess large enveloped or nonenveloped virions (virus particles) that measure 120–350 nm (1 nm = 10?9 metre) in diameter. The capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids) is icosahedral and contains linear

  • Iridovirus (virus genus)

    iridovirus: …included in this family are Iridovirus, Chloriridovirus, Lymphocystivirus, Ranavirus, and Megalocytivirus. Type species of the family include invertebrate iridescent virus 6 (Iridovirus), which infects insects; lymphocystis disease virus 1 (Lymphocystivirus

  • iridovirus (virus family)

    Iridovirus, any virus belonging to the family Iridoviridae. Iridoviruses possess large enveloped or nonenveloped virions (virus particles) that measure 120–350 nm (1 nm = 10?9 metre) in diameter. The capsid (the protein shell surrounding the viral nucleic acids) is icosahedral and contains linear

  • Iriga (Philippines)

    Iriga, city, southeastern Luzon, Philippines. It is located in the central part of Bicol Peninsula, about 20 miles (30 km) southeast of Naga. Iriga is named for the extinct volcano (3,976 feet [1,212 metres]) in whose shadow it stands. The land surrounding Mount Iriga is extremely rough and

  • Iriga, Mount (volcano, Philippines)

    Iriga: The land surrounding Mount Iriga is extremely rough and suitable mainly for abaca (Manila hemp) plantations. Agriculture is the main economic activity in the area. Inc. city, 1968. Pop. (2000) 88,893; (2010) 105,919.

  • Irigaray, Luce (French linguist, psychoanalyst, and philosopher)

    Luce Irigaray, French linguist, psychoanalyst, and feminist philosopher who examined the uses and misuses of language in relation to women. Irigaray was circumspect about revealing details of her personal life or upbringing; she believed that interpreters and critics within the male-dominated

  • Irigoyen, Hipólito (president of Argentina)

    Hipólito Irigoyen, Argentine statesman who became his country’s first president elected by broad popular suffrage. He was driven from office during his second term by a military coup in 1930. Irigoyen became a lawyer, teacher, rancher, and politician and in 1896 took control of the centre-left

  • Irigwe (people)

    African dance: Work dances: …into dance patterns, and young Irigwe farmers on the Jos Plateau leap to encourage the growth of crops at festivals related to the agricultural cycle. Occupational guilds and professional organizations of experts, such as blacksmiths, hunters, or wood-carvers, have their own expressive dances.

  • Irinyi, Jànos (Hungarian chemist)

    match: In 1835 Jànos Irinyi of Hungary replaced potassium chlorate with lead oxide and obtained matches that ignited quietly and smoothly.

  • irio (food)

    Kenya: Daily life and social customs: …areas inhabited by the Kikuyu, irio, a stew of peas, corn, and potatoes, is common. The Maasai, known for their herds of livestock, avoid killing their cows and instead prefer to use products yielded by the animal while it is alive, including blood drained from nonlethal wounds. They generally drink…

  • Iris (film by Eyre [2001])

    Iris Murdoch: …(1999; adapted as the film Iris [2001]). A selection of her voluminous correspondence was published as Living on Paper: Letters from Iris Murdoch, 1934–1995 (2016).

  • Iris (Greek mythology)

    Iris, in Greek mythology, the personification of the rainbow and (in Homer’s Iliad, for example) a messenger of the gods. According to the Greek poet Hesiod, she was the daughter of Thaumas and the ocean nymph Electra. In Hesiod’s works, at least, she had the additional duty of carrying water from

  • iris (eye)

    Iris, in anatomy, the pigmented muscular curtain near the front of the eye, between the cornea and the lens, that is perforated by an opening called the pupil. The iris is located in front of the lens and ciliary body and behind the cornea. It is bathed in front and behind by a fluid known as the

  • Iris (plant genus)

    Iris, genus of about 300 species of plants in the family Iridaceae, including some of the world’s most popular and varied garden flowers, centred in the north temperate zone. Some of its most handsome species, however, are native to the Mediterranean and central Asian areas. The iris is the

  • Iris chamaeiris (plant)

    Iris: pumila and the taller I. chamaeiris, both from dry, rocky places in southern Europe.

  • iris family (plant family)

    Iridaceae, the iris family of flowering plants, belonging to the order Liliales. The family is known for ornamental genera such as Iris, Gladiolus, and Crocus. The Iridaceae contains some 80 genera and an estimated 1,700 species of mostly perennial herbs; there are a few shrubs and evergreen herbs

  • Iris florentina (plant)

    orris oil: …from the rhizomes of the Florentine iris (Iris germanica). Orris oil has a warm violetlike odour and is used in perfumes and lotions. Although the oil was once popular in candies, soft drinks, and gelatin desserts, its use in edible goods has declined because of the risk of allergic reactions…

  • Iris germanica (plant)

    Iris: variegata, purple-blue I. germanica, and perhaps other southern European species. They are hardy rhizomatous types with sturdy swordlike leaves and tall stems (to 90 cm [3 feet]) of three to many flowers. With the introduction in 1900 of taller, heavier, larger-flowered I. mesopotamica, even larger hybrids were…

  • Iris kaempferi (plant)

    Iris: …group is perhaps the water-loving Japanese iris (I. kaempferi), frequently featured in Japanese watercolours. Its almost flat flowers consist of long, somewhat drooping falls, surrounding narrower, shorter standards. The Siberian iris (I. sibirica), from grasslands in central and eastern Europe, has slender, straight stalks with clustered heads of violet-blue or…

  • Iris mesopotamica (plant)

    Iris: …1900 of taller, heavier, larger-flowered I. mesopotamica, even larger hybrids were created, many of them fragrant, in a full range of colours and combinations, often with brightly contrasting “beards” on the falls. Dwarf bearded irises, most of which flower in early spring, are for the most part varieties of the…

  • Iris pseudacorus (plant)

    Iris: The yellow, or water, flag (I. pseudacorus) is a swamp plant native to Eurasia and North Africa; the blue flag (I. versicolor) occupies similar habitats in North America.

  • Iris pumila (plant)

    Iris: …varieties of the almost stemless I. pumila and the taller I. chamaeiris, both from dry, rocky places in southern Europe.

  • Iris River (river, Greece)

    Evrótas River, nonnavigable river rising in the Ta?yetos (Modern Greek: Táygetos) Mountains in the southern Peloponnese (Pelopónnisos), Greece. The principal stream of Laconia (Lakonía), it flows south-southeast through the agricultural Laconian plain between the Ta?yetos and Párnon ranges and

  • iris shot (cinematography)

    Billy Bitzer: …close a scene; and the iris shot, in which the frame either is gradually blacked out in a shrinking circle, thereby ending a scene, or gradually opened in a widening circle, beginning a scene. He refined methods of taking close-ups and long shots and was one of the first cinematographers…

  • Iris sibirica (plant)

    Iris: The Siberian iris (I. sibirica), from grasslands in central and eastern Europe, has slender, straight stalks with clustered heads of violet-blue or white blooms. Similar but shorter and more sturdy, I. spuria has round falls, short standards, and rather lax foliage. The yellow, or water, flag…

  • Iris spuria (plant)

    Iris: …but shorter and more sturdy, I. spuria has round falls, short standards, and rather lax foliage. The yellow, or water, flag (I. pseudacorus) is a swamp plant native to Eurasia and North Africa; the blue flag (I. versicolor) occupies similar habitats in North America.

  • Iris variegata (plant)

    Iris: …pale blue Iris pallida, yellow I. variegata, purple-blue I. germanica, and perhaps other southern European species. They are hardy rhizomatous types with sturdy swordlike leaves and tall stems (to 90 cm [3 feet]) of three to many flowers. With the introduction in 1900 of taller, heavier, larger-flowered I. mesopotamica, even…

  • Iris versicolor (plant)

    Iris: …Eurasia and North Africa; the blue flag (I. versicolor) occupies similar habitats in North America.

  • Iris xiphioides (plant)

    Iris: English iris (I. xiphioides), so named because of its popularity in British horticulture, bears bright blue flowers. Dutch irises are sturdier, earlier-flowering hybrids created in the Netherlands.

  • Iris xiphium (plant)

    Iris: Spanish iris (I. xiphium), violet with yellow or yellow-spotted falls, grows in damp sandy places. English iris (I. xiphioides), so named because of its popularity in British horticulture, bears bright blue flowers. Dutch irises are sturdier, earlier-flowering hybrids created in the Netherlands.

  • Irises (painting by van Gogh)

    art market: Art as investment: …year by the sale of Irises to Australian entrepreneur Alan Bond for $53.9 million and again in 1990, when Japanese businessman Ryoei Saito purchased Portrait of Dr. Gachet for $82.5 million.

  • Irish (people)

    Montserrat: History: …was colonized in 1632 by Irish Catholics from nearby Saint Kitts (Saint Christopher), who were sent there by Sir Thomas Warner, the first British governor of Saint Kitts. More Irish immigrants subsequently arrived from Virginia. Plantations were set up to grow tobacco and indigo, followed eventually by cotton and sugar.…

  • Irish Citizen Army (Irish political organization)

    Sean O'Casey: He also joined the Irish Citizen Army, a paramilitary arm of the Irish labour unions, and drew up its constitution in 1914. At this time he became disillusioned with the Irish nationalist movement because its leaders put nationalist ideals before socialist ones. O’Casey did not take part in the…

  • Irish Civil War (Irish history)

    Irish Republican Army: The ensuing Irish civil war (1922–23) ended with the capitulation of the Irregulars; however, they neither surrendered their arms nor disbanded. While de Valera led a portion of the Irregulars into parliamentary politics with the creation of Fianna Fáil in the Irish Free State, some members remained…

  • Irish Composers, Association of (Irish organization)

    Raymond Deane: …Young Irish Composers (now the Association of Irish Composers). In 1973 he composed Embers, a string quartet that remains one of his best-known and most-important works. Between 1974 and 1977 Deane studied with Gerald Bennett at the Music Academy in Basel, Switzerland, and with Karlheinz Stockhausen at the State Academy…

  • Irish Congress of Trade Unions (Irish labour organization)

    Ireland: Labour and taxation: …unions are affiliated with the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU). The level of unionization in Ireland is fairly high, encompassing roughly one-third of the total workforce. There are also several employers’ unions (industrial organizations), organized on both a craft and a regional basis. The employers’ central negotiating organization is…

  • Irish deer (extinct mammal)

    Irish elk, (Megaloceros giganteus), extinct species of deer, characterized by immense body size and wide antlers, commonly found as fossils in Pleistocene deposits in Europe and Asia (the Pleistocene Epoch began 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). Despite its distribution

  • Irish elk (extinct mammal)

    Irish elk, (Megaloceros giganteus), extinct species of deer, characterized by immense body size and wide antlers, commonly found as fossils in Pleistocene deposits in Europe and Asia (the Pleistocene Epoch began 2.6 million years ago and ended about 11,700 years ago). Despite its distribution

  • Irish Free State

    Ireland, country of western Europe occupying five-sixths of the westernmost major island of the British Isles. The magnificent scenery of Ireland’s Atlantic coastline faces a 2,000-mile- (3,200-km-) wide expanse of ocean, and its geographic isolation has helped it to develop a rich heritage of

  • Irish Free State Army (Irish military organization)

    Irish Republican Army: …the core of the official Irish Free State Army, and the latter group, known as “Irregulars,” began to organize armed resistance against the new independent government.

  • Irish harp (musical instrument)

    Irish harp, traditional harp of medieval Ireland and Scotland, characterized by a huge soundbox carved from a solid block of wood; a heavy, curved neck; and a deeply outcurved forepillar—a form shared by the medieval Scottish harp. It was designed to bear great tension from the heavy brass strings

  • Irish Home Rule (history of Great Britain and Ireland)

    Home Rule, in British and Irish history, movement to secure internal autonomy for Ireland within the British Empire. The Home Government Association, calling for an Irish parliament, was formed in 1870 by Isaac Butt, a Protestant lawyer who popularized “Home Rule” as the movement’s slogan. In 1873

  • Irish Hospitals’ Sweepstakes (lottery)

    Irish Sweepstakes, one of the largest lotteries promoted internationally; it was authorized by the Irish government in 1930 to benefit Irish hospitals. A private trust was formed to run the lottery and market tickets throughout the world. During the 57 years of its existence, the contest derived

  • Irish Land Acts (British-Irish history)

    Ireland: The rise of Fenianism: …in 1870 introduced the first Irish Land Act, which conceded the principles of secure tenure and compensation for improvements made to property.

  • Irish Land League (Irish agrarian organization)

    Land League, Irish agrarian organization that worked for the reform of the country’s landlord system under British rule. The league was founded in October 1879 by Michael Davitt, the son of an evicted tenant farmer and a member of the Fenian (Irish Republican) Brotherhood. Davitt asked Charles

  • Irish Land Purchase Act (United Kingdom [1903])

    Ireland: The Home Rule movement and the Land League: …most important achievement was the Land Purchase Act of 1903, which initiated the greatest social revolution in Ireland since the 17th century. By providing generous inducements to landlords to sell their estates, the act effected by government mediation the transfer of landownership to the occupying tenants.

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