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  • Isaac Or Zaru?a (European scholar)

    Isaac ben Moses Of Vienna, medieval codifier of Jewish law (Halakha) whose vast compilation, Or Zaru?a (“Light Is Sown”), was widely quoted in later Halakhic works. Or Zaru?a is also valued by historians for its descriptions of Jewish life in medieval France, Germany, and Italy. By his own t

  • Isaac Syrus (Syrian bishop)

    Isaac of Nineveh, Syrian bishop, theologian, and monk whose writings on mysticism became a fundamental source for both Eastern and Western Christians. Born in Qatar, Isaac became a monk of Bet-Qatraje in Kurdistan, northern Iraq, and was consecrated bishop of Nineveh, near modern Mosul, Iraq, c. 6

  • Isaac the Blind (Spanish theosophist)

    Judaism: School of Isaac the Blind: Another theosophic tendency in Languedoc developed concurrently with—but independently of—the Sefer ha-bahir. The two movements would take only about 30 years to converge, constituting what may conveniently (though not quite precisely) be called classical Kabbala. The second school flourished in Languedoc during…

  • Isaac the Elder (Jewish physician and philosopher)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli, Jewish physician and philosopher, widely reputed in the European Middle Ages for his scientific writings and regarded as the father of medieval Jewish Neoplatonism. Although there is considerable disagreement about his birth and death dates, he is known to have lived more

  • Isaac the Great (Syrian theologian and writer)

    Isaac of Antioch, Syrian writer, probably a priest of an independent Syrian Christian church and author of a wealth of theological literature and historical verse describing events in Rome and Asia Minor. According to 5th-century Byzantine chroniclers, Isaac was a native of Amida, near modern

  • Isaac the Great, Saint (Armenian religious leader)

    Saint Isaac the Great, feast days two weeks before Lent and early in July; celebrated catholicos, or spiritual head, of the Armenian Apostolic (Orthodox) Church, principal advocate of Armenian cultural and ecclesiastical independence and collaborator in the first translation of the Bible and varied

  • Isaac the Syrian (Syrian bishop)

    Isaac of Nineveh, Syrian bishop, theologian, and monk whose writings on mysticism became a fundamental source for both Eastern and Western Christians. Born in Qatar, Isaac became a monk of Bet-Qatraje in Kurdistan, northern Iraq, and was consecrated bishop of Nineveh, near modern Mosul, Iraq, c. 6

  • Isaac, Heinrich (Flemish composer)

    Heinrich Isaac, one of the three leading composers (with Jakob Obrecht and Josquin des Prez) of the Flemish school in the late 15th century. A pupil of Florentine organist Antonio Squarcialupi, he taught in the household of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence (c. 1484–92) and set to music some of

  • Isaac, Rabbi Solomon ben, of Troyes (French religious scholar)

    Rashi, renowned medieval French commentator on the Bible and the Talmud (the authoritative Jewish compendium of law, lore, and commentary). Rashi combined the two basic methods of interpretation, literal and nonliteral, in his influential Bible commentary. His commentary on the Talmud was a

  • Isaacs, Alick (Swiss scientist)

    interferon: …in 1957 by British bacteriologist Alick Isaacs and Swiss microbiologist Jean Lindenmann. Research conducted in the 1970s revealed that these substances could not only prevent viral infection but also suppress the growth of cancers in some laboratory animals. Hopes were raised that interferon might prove to be a wonder drug…

  • Isaacs, Arnold (Canadian-born American fashion designer)

    Arnold Scaasi, (Arnold Isaacs), Canadian-born American fashion designer (born May 8, 1930, Montreal, Que.—died Aug. 4, 2015, New York, N.Y.), created flamboyantly glamorous eveningwear for actresses (Barbra Streisand, Diahann Carroll, and Mary Tyler Moore) and U.S. first ladies (Mamie Eisenhower,

  • Isaacs, Barnett (British financier)

    Barney Barnato, financier, diamond magnate, and gold baron who first rivaled and then later allied with Cecil Rhodes in struggling for control in the development of the Southern African mining industry. Barnett Isaacs was the son of a Jewish shopkeeper, Isaac Isaacs, in the East End of London. In

  • Isaacs, John (American basketball player)

    John Isaacs, Panamanian-born American basketball player (born Sept. 15, 1915, Panama City, Pan.—died Jan. 26, 2009, Bronx, N.Y.), was a standout point guard for the Harlem Renaissance, a barnstorming all-black professional basketball team that rose to prominence in New York City during the era that

  • Isaacs, Jorge (Colombian writer)

    Jorge Isaacs, Colombian poet and novelist whose best work, María (1867; Maria: A South American Romance, 1977), was one of the most famous Latin-American novels of the 19th century. The son of a prosperous English Jew, Isaacs received an excellent education. During the War of the Cauca (1860–63) he

  • Isaacs, Rufus Daniel (British statesman)

    Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st marquess of Reading, politician, lord chief justice of England, and diplomat. Called to the bar in 1887, Isaacs built a prosperous practice, representing trade unions as well as large corporations. In 1904 he was elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal. Appointed

  • Isaacs, Susan (American author)

    Frank Perry: …based on best-selling novels by Susan Isaacs: the suburban murder mystery Compromising Positions (1985) and Hello Again (1987), a reincarnation comedy. Perry’s last film was the autobiographical documentary On the Bridge (1992), which depicted his battle against prostate cancer.

  • Isaacs-Kidd midwater trawl

    undersea exploration: Collection of biological samples: …behind the towing vessel, a midwater trawl of the Isaacs-Kidd variety uses an inclined-plane surface rigged in front of the net entrance to act as a depressor. The trawl is shaped like an asymmetrical cone with a pentagonal mouth opening and a round closed end. Within the net, additional netting…

  • Isaak, Heinrich (Flemish composer)

    Heinrich Isaac, one of the three leading composers (with Jakob Obrecht and Josquin des Prez) of the Flemish school in the late 15th century. A pupil of Florentine organist Antonio Squarcialupi, he taught in the household of Lorenzo de’ Medici in Florence (c. 1484–92) and set to music some of

  • Isaakiyevsky Sobor (cathedral, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    Saint Isaac’s Cathedral, iron-domed cathedral in St. Petersburg that was designed in Russian Empire style by Auguste de Montferrand. Covering 2.5 acres (1 hectare), it was completed in 1858 after four decades of construction. The granite and marble building is cruciform, and its great dome is one

  • Isaaq (people)

    Djibouti: Ethnic groups: …members of the Gadaboursi and Isaaq clans that migrated from northern Somalia during the 20th century to work on the construction of the Djibouti–Addis Ababa railway and Djibouti city’s port expansion.

  • Isaaq Somali (people)

    Djibouti: Ethnic groups: …members of the Gadaboursi and Isaaq clans that migrated from northern Somalia during the 20th century to work on the construction of the Djibouti–Addis Ababa railway and Djibouti city’s port expansion.

  • Isabeau de Bavière (queen of France)

    Isabella of Bavaria, queen consort of Charles VI of France, who frequently was regent because of her husband’s periodic insanity. Her gravest political act was the signing of the Treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1420), which recognized King Henry V of England as heir to the French crown in place of her

  • Isabel (queen of Jerusalem)

    Isabella I, queen of Jerusalem (1192–1205). Daughter of Almaric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena, she succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem after the death of her sister, Sibyl (Sibylle), in 1190 and the deposition of Sibyl’s husband and consort in 1192. First married to Humphrey IV, lord of Toron,

  • Isabel a Pacificadora, Santa (queen of Portugal)

    Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, ; canonized 1625; feast day July 4), daughter of Peter III of Aragon, wife of King Dinis (Denis) of Portugal. She was named for her great-aunt St. Elizabeth of Hungary and received a strict and pious education. In 1282 she was married to Dinis, a good ruler but an

  • Isabel a Rainha Santa (queen of Portugal)

    Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, ; canonized 1625; feast day July 4), daughter of Peter III of Aragon, wife of King Dinis (Denis) of Portugal. She was named for her great-aunt St. Elizabeth of Hungary and received a strict and pious education. In 1282 she was married to Dinis, a good ruler but an

  • Isabel de la Cruz (Spanish religious leader)

    Spain: The conversos: Thus, the followers of Sister Isabel de la Cruz, a Franciscan, organized the centres of the Illuminists (Alumbrados), mystics who believed that through inner purification their souls should submit to God’s will and thus enter into direct communication with him. While they counted some of the high aristocracy among their…

  • Isabel de Portugal, Santa (queen of Portugal)

    Saint Elizabeth of Portugal, ; canonized 1625; feast day July 4), daughter of Peter III of Aragon, wife of King Dinis (Denis) of Portugal. She was named for her great-aunt St. Elizabeth of Hungary and received a strict and pious education. In 1282 she was married to Dinis, a good ruler but an

  • Isabel de Torres Peak (mountain, Dominican Republic)

    Puerto Plata: …lies at the foot of Isabel de Torres Peak, along the Atlantic Ocean. Puerto Plata was founded in 1503 by Christopher Columbus. Serving the fertile Cibao Valley, the port handles the produce of one of the country’s leading coffee-growing regions. The agricultural hinterland is also a major tobacco-producing area, and…

  • Isabel la Católica (queen of Spain)

    Isabella I, queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by

  • Isabela (Philippines)

    Basilan: The chief settlement is Isabela (also called Basilan City), and other towns include Lamitan, in the north of the island, and Maluso, in the west. The island was one of the centres of the 1972 Muslim rebellion in southern Mindanao.

  • Isabela Island (island, Ecuador)

    Isabela Island, largest of the Galapagos Islands, Ecuador. It lies in the eastern Pacific Ocean 600 miles (965 km) west of mainland Ecuador and has an area of 2,249 square miles (5,825 square km). It was named in the 17th century for George Monck, duke of Albemarle, but now only its northern tip,

  • Isabela, La (Hispaniola, West Indies)

    Christopher Columbus: The second and third voyages: …on January 2 and named La Isabela for the queen. On February 2 Antonio de Torres left La Isabela with 12 ships, some gold, spices, parrots, and captives (most of whom died en route), as well as the bad news about Navidad and some complaints about Columbus’s methods of government.…

  • Isabelia, Cordillera (mountains, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Relief: …on the Honduras border; the Cordilleras Isabelia and Dariense, in the north-central area; and the Huapí, Amerrique, and Yolaina mountains, in the southeast. The mountains are highest in the north, and Mogotón Peak (6,900 feet [2,103 metres]), in the Cordillera Entre Ríos, is the highest point in the country.

  • Isabella (Hispaniola, West Indies)

    Christopher Columbus: The second and third voyages: …on January 2 and named La Isabela for the queen. On February 2 Antonio de Torres left La Isabela with 12 ships, some gold, spices, parrots, and captives (most of whom died en route), as well as the bad news about Navidad and some complaints about Columbus’s methods of government.…

  • Isabella (poem by Keats)

    John Keats: The year 1819: Keats had written “Isabella,” an adaptation of the story of the Pot of Basil in Giovanni Boccaccio’s Decameron, in 1817–18, soon after the completion of Endymion, and again he was dissatisfied with his work. It was during the year 1819 that all his greatest poetry was written—“Lamia,” “The…

  • Isabella (fictional character)

    Measure for Measure: Claudio’s sister Isabella, a novice in a nunnery, pleads his case to Angelo. This new deputy ruler, a man of stern and rigorous self-control, finds to his consternation and amazement that he lusts after Isabella; her virgin purity awakens in him a desire that more profligate sexual…

  • Isabella Clara Eugenia (archduchess of Austria)

    Isabella Clara Eugenia, archduchess of Austria, infanta of Spain who became the instrument of her father’s claims to the thrones of England and France; as archduchess of Austria, she ruled the Spanish Netherlands with her husband, Archduke Albert VII, from 1598 to 1621. The daughter of King Philip

  • Isabella d’Este (duchess of Mantua)

    art market: The 15th century: …celebrated example was created by Isabella d’Este, wife of Francesco Gonzaga III, at the ducal palace in Mantua (see also House of Este; Gonzaga dynasty). Decorated with paintings by Andrea Mantegna and other court artists, d’Este’s studiolo was designed to show off her remarkable collection of

  • Isabella Farnese (queen of Spain)

    Isabella Farnese, queen consort of Philip V of Spain (reigned 1700–46), whose ambitions to secure Italian possessions for her children embroiled Spain in wars and intrigues for three decades. Her capability in choosing able and devoted ministers, however, brought about beneficial internal reforms

  • Isabella I (queen of Jerusalem)

    Isabella I, queen of Jerusalem (1192–1205). Daughter of Almaric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena, she succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem after the death of her sister, Sibyl (Sibylle), in 1190 and the deposition of Sibyl’s husband and consort in 1192. First married to Humphrey IV, lord of Toron,

  • Isabella I (queen of Spain)

    Isabella I, queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by

  • Isabella II (queen of Jerusalem)

    Isabella II, queen of the Latin kingdom of Jerusalem (1212–28) and consort of the Holy Roman emperor Frederick II. The daughter of John of Brienne and Mary (Marie) of Montferrat, Isabella inherited the throne on her mother’s death in 1212, but her father ruled as regent and guardian and even

  • Isabella II (queen of Spain)

    Isabella II, queen of Spain (1833–68) whose troubled reign was marked by political instability and the rule of military politicians. Isabella’s failure to respond to growing demands for a more progressive regime, her questionable private life, and her political irresponsibility contributed to the

  • Isabella of Angoulême (queen of England)

    John: War with France: …Lusignan and Angoulême, himself married Isabella (August 1200), the heiress to Angoulême, who had been betrothed to Hugh IX de Lusignan. This politically conceived marriage provoked the Lusignans into rebellion the next year; they appealed to Philip II, who summoned John to appear before his court. In the general war…

  • Isabella of Anjou (queen of Jerusalem)

    Isabella I, queen of Jerusalem (1192–1205). Daughter of Almaric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena, she succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem after the death of her sister, Sibyl (Sibylle), in 1190 and the deposition of Sibyl’s husband and consort in 1192. First married to Humphrey IV, lord of Toron,

  • Isabella of Bavaria (queen of France)

    Isabella of Bavaria, queen consort of Charles VI of France, who frequently was regent because of her husband’s periodic insanity. Her gravest political act was the signing of the Treaty of Troyes (May 21, 1420), which recognized King Henry V of England as heir to the French crown in place of her

  • Isabella of France (queen of England)

    Isabella of France, queen consort of Edward II of England, who played a principal part in the deposition of the king in 1327. The daughter of Philip IV the Fair of France, Isabella was married to Edward on January 25, 1308, at Boulogne. Isabella’s first interventions in politics were conciliatory.

  • Isabella of Gloucester (wife of John, king of England)

    John: Youth and rivalry for the crown: …year, and was married to Isabella, heiress to the earldom of Gloucester. He also had to promise (March 1190) not to enter England during Richard’s absence on his Crusade. But John’s actions were now dominated by the problem of the succession, in which his nephew, the three-year-old Arthur I, duke…

  • Isabella of Hainaut (queen of France)

    Philip II: Early life and kingship: …on April 28, 1180, married Isabella, the daughter of Baldwin V of Hainaut and the niece (through her mother) of Philip of Alsace, the count of Flanders, who promised to give the king the territory of Artois as her dowry.

  • Isabella of Portugal (queen of Castile)

    álvaro de Luna: …in 1447 John II married Isabella of Portugal, who determined to destroy Luna’s power over her husband. In 1453, Isabella, supported by their son, the future Henry IV, persuaded the king to arrest Luna and have him publicly executed at Valladolid—an event which seems to have led to the king’s…

  • Isabella the Catholic (queen of Spain)

    Isabella I, queen of Castile (1474–1504) and of Aragon (1479–1504), ruling the two kingdoms jointly from 1479 with her husband, Ferdinand II of Aragon (Ferdinand V of Castile). Their rule effected the permanent union of Spain and the beginning of an overseas empire in the New World, led by

  • Isabella tiger moth (insect)

    tiger moth: A typical arctiid, the Isabella tiger moth (Isia isabella), emerges in spring and attains a wingspan of 37 to 50 mm (1.5 to 2 inches). Black spots mark its abdomen and yellow wings. The larva, known as the banded woolly bear, is brown in the middle and black at…

  • Isabella, Cordillera (mountains, Nicaragua)

    Nicaragua: Relief: …on the Honduras border; the Cordilleras Isabelia and Dariense, in the north-central area; and the Huapí, Amerrique, and Yolaina mountains, in the southeast. The mountains are highest in the north, and Mogotón Peak (6,900 feet [2,103 metres]), in the Cordillera Entre Ríos, is the highest point in the country.

  • Isabella, or the Fatal Marriage (work by Southerne)

    Thomas Southerne: The Fatal Marriage anticipated 18th-century domestic tragedy, and Oroonoko showed affiliations with the earlier heroic plays of Dryden. The role of Isabella, which was first played by the great English actress Elizabeth Barry, gave Sarah Siddons one of her major successes a century later. The…

  • Isabelle d’Anjou (queen of Jerusalem)

    Isabella I, queen of Jerusalem (1192–1205). Daughter of Almaric I of Jerusalem and Maria Comnena, she succeeded to the throne of Jerusalem after the death of her sister, Sibyl (Sibylle), in 1190 and the deposition of Sibyl’s husband and consort in 1192. First married to Humphrey IV, lord of Toron,

  • Isabelline (architectural style)

    Isabelline, vigorous, inventive, and cosmopolitan architectural style created during the joint reign of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile, which in turn formed the basis for the Plateresque style. The Isabelline style is not a pure style in that but few of the buildings created during the

  • Isabey, Jean-Baptiste (French painter)

    Jean-Baptiste Isabey, gifted French painter and printmaker, specializing in portraits and miniatures. He enjoyed official favour from the time of Louis XVI until his death. His portrait Napoleon at Malmaison (1802) is considered one of the best likenesses of the emperor. Isabey studied under, among

  • Isadora (film by Reisz [1968])

    Vanessa Redgrave: Oscar contender: roles from the 1960s and ’70s: …of dancer Isadora Duncan in Isadora (1968), and she appeared as Nina in Sidney Lumet’s adaptation of Anton Chekhov’s The Seagull (1968). In 1971 Redgrave took on the role of Andromache in The Trojan Women and received another Oscar nomination for her work as the

  • Isaeus (Greek speech writer)

    Isaeus, professional speech writer specializing in testamentary law, whose lucidity and logical method were a landmark in the development of forensic oratory. According to tradition, he was the pupil of the influential speechwriter Lysias and teacher of the great orator and statesman Demosthenes.

  • ISAF (NATO mission)

    Afghanistan War: Iraq takes centre stage: …other foreign forces—operating as the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF)—to deploy beyond the Kabul area. That choice was directed by the Pentagon, which insisted on a “light footprint” out of concern that Afghanistan would become a drag on U.S. resources as attention shifted to Iraq (see Iraq War). When ISAF…

  • Isagoge (work by Porphyry)

    history of logic: Transmission of Greek logic to the Latin West: … and of Porphyry of Tyre’s Isagoge (“Introduction,” on Aristotle’s Categories), although these translations were not very influential. He also wrote logical treatises of his own. A short De dialectica (“On Dialectic”), doubtfully attributed to St. Augustine (354–430), shows evidence of Stoic influence, although it had little influence of its own.…

  • Isagoras (Athenian noble)

    Cleisthenes of Athens: …his leadership, and in 508 Isagoras, the leader of the more reactionary nobles, was elected chief archon. It was at this point, according to later tradition, that Cleisthenes took the people into partnership and transformed the situation. Before the year 508–507 was over, the main principles of a complete reform…

  • Isahaya (Japan)

    Isahaya, city, southern Nagasaki ken (prefecture), western Kyushu, Japan. It is located on an isthmuslike strip of land at the juncture of Shimabara (east) and Nagasaki (west) peninsulas and the Tara Volcano (Tara-dake) massif (north). The western part of the city lies at the southeastern extremity

  • Isai (biblical figure)

    Jesse, in the Old Testament, the father of King David. Jesse was the son of Ohed, and the grandson of Boaz and Ruth. He was a farmer and sheep breeder in Bethlehem. David was the youngest of Jesse’s eight sons. The appellation “son of Jesse” served as a synonym for David both at Saul’s court and, s

  • Isaiah (Hebrew prophet)

    Isaiah, prophet after whom the biblical Book of Isaiah is named (only some of the first 39 chapters are attributed to him), a significant contributor to Jewish and Christian traditions. His call to prophecy in about 742 bce coincided with the beginnings of the westward expansion of the Assyrian

  • Isaiah scroll

    biblical literature: The Qumrān texts and other scrolls: …Qumrān are a practically complete Isaiah scroll (1QIsaa), dated about 100–75 bce, and another very fragmentary manuscript (1QIsab) of the same book. The first contains many variants from the Masoretic text in both orthography and text, and the second is very close to the Masoretic type and contains few genuine…

  • Isaiah’s Vision of Eternal Peace (work by Ardon)

    Mordecai Ardon: …on a stained-glass window entitled Isaiah’s Vision of Eternal Peace for the National Jewish University and Library in Jerusalem.

  • Isaiah, Ascension of (pseudepigraphal work)

    Ascension of Isaiah, pseudepigraphal work surviving intact only in a 5th–7th-century-ad Ethiopic edition. Fragments exist in Greek, Coptic, Latin, and Old Slavonic. Three separate works comprise the total book, the final version by a Christian editor, which appeared in the 2nd century ad. The first

  • Isaiah, Book of (Old Testament)

    Book of Isaiah, one of the major prophetical writings of the Old Testament. The superscription identifies Isaiah as the son of Amoz and his book as “the vision of Isaiah . . . concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” According to 6:1, Isaiah

  • Isaias Afewerki (president of Eritrea)

    Isaias Afwerki, Eritrean independence leader and president of Eritrea from 1993. When Isaias was born in 1946 in Asmara, the city was under the United Nations-mandated control of the United Kingdom. Eritrea itself was federated to Ethiopia in 1952 and was forcibly annexed 10 years later. This

  • Isaias Afwerki (president of Eritrea)

    Isaias Afwerki, Eritrean independence leader and president of Eritrea from 1993. When Isaias was born in 1946 in Asmara, the city was under the United Nations-mandated control of the United Kingdom. Eritrea itself was federated to Ethiopia in 1952 and was forcibly annexed 10 years later. This

  • Isaias, Book of (Old Testament)

    Book of Isaiah, one of the major prophetical writings of the Old Testament. The superscription identifies Isaiah as the son of Amoz and his book as “the vision of Isaiah . . . concerning Judah and Jerusalem in the days of Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah, kings of Judah.” According to 6:1, Isaiah

  • Isakov, Sapar (prime minister of Kyrgyzstan)

    Kyrgyzstan: History: …the parliament sacked Prime Minister Sapar Isakov, also an ally of Atambayev. In June 2018 Isakov was among several political figures arrested on corruption charges, including another former prime minister. The following year, in August 2019, Atambayev was arrested after a dramatic standoff at his compound, and he was charged…

  • Isakovo culture (archaeology)

    Stone Age: Asian cultures: …successive cultures are discerned: (1) Isakovo, showing the earliest appearance of pottery, alongside flint and bone tools (arrowheads, knives, points, half-ground adzes). Pointed-based pots in Isakovo probably were copies of similarly shaped baskets. Art monuments are not numerous here. The period may reach back to about 4000 bc. (2) Serovo,…

  • Isakson, John Hardy (United States senator)

    Johnny Isakson, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 2004 and began representing Georgia in that body the following year. He previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1999–2005). Isakson graduated from the University of Georgia in 1966. That year

  • Isakson, Johnny (United States senator)

    Johnny Isakson, American politician who was elected as a Republican to the U.S. Senate in 2004 and began representing Georgia in that body the following year. He previously served in the U.S. House of Representatives (1999–2005). Isakson graduated from the University of Georgia in 1966. That year

  • Isamaa (political party, Estonia)

    Lennart Meri: …president as the head of Isamaa (Fatherland), a nationalist coalition party dedicated to preserving Estonian culture. No candidate received a majority of the votes, and Meri placed second. The parliament, however, was dominated by parties aligned with Isamaa, and it elected him president on October 5, 1992. Although the post…

  • Isamu Noguchi Garden Museum (museum, Long Island City, New York, United States)

    Isamu Noguchi: The Isamu Noguchi Garden Museum, which opened in Long Island City, New York, in 1985, includes an outdoor sculpture garden and a collection of some 500 sculptures, models, and photographs.

  • Isan (region, Thailand)

    Thailand: Northeast (Isan): The majority of peoples living in the northeast region, which corresponds to the Khorat Plateau, share linguistic, cultural, and religious traditions with the Lao living across the Mekong River. Until the late 19th century this region was made up of relatively independent realms. In…

  • Isandhlwana and Rorke’s Drift, Battles of (South African history)

    Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, (Jan. 22–23, 1879), first significant battles of the Anglo-Zulu War in Southern Africa. In December 1878 Sir Bartle Frere, the British high commissioner for South Africa, issued an ultimatum to Cetshwayo, the Zulu king, that was designed to be impossible to

  • Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, Battles of (South African history)

    Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke’s Drift, (Jan. 22–23, 1879), first significant battles of the Anglo-Zulu War in Southern Africa. In December 1878 Sir Bartle Frere, the British high commissioner for South Africa, issued an ultimatum to Cetshwayo, the Zulu king, that was designed to be impossible to

  • Isaq ibn Ahmed, Sheikh (Arabian leader)

    Somalia: The great Somali migrations: …later, by the settlement of Sheikh Isaq, founder of the Isaaq Somali. As the Daarood and Isaaq clans grew in numbers and territory in the northeast, they began to vie with their Oromo neighbours, thus creating a general thrust toward the southwest. By the 16th century the movements that followed…

  • isar (trousers)

    dress: South Asia: …and wide trousers known as isar. These garments and the farji, a long, gownlike coat with short sleeves, which was worn by priests, scholars, and high officials, were made of cotton or wool, silk being forbidden to men by the Qur?ān. Somewhat modified, these traditional styles continue to be worn…

  • ISAR (radar technology)

    radar: Radar imaging: This is called inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR). Both the target and the radar can be in motion with ISAR.

  • Isar River (river, Europe)

    Isar River, river, Bavaria Land (state), southern Germany. Rising at an elevation of 5,741 feet (1,750 m) in the Karwendelgebirge, just northeast of Innsbruck, Austria, the Isar runs west and then north crossing into Germany at Scharnitz Pass. The river there flows through a deep gorge that was

  • Isar River Bridge (bridge, Grünewald, Germany)

    bridge: Early bridges: In 1904 the Isar River Bridge at Grünewald, Germany, designed by Emil Morsch for Wayss’s firm, became the longest reinforced-concrete span in the world at 69 metres (230 feet).

  • ISAS (Japanese organization)

    Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency: …of Tokyo had created the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS) in 1964. This small group undertook the development of scientific spacecraft and the vehicles needed to launch them, and it launched Japan’s first satellite, Osumi, in 1970. In 1981 oversight of ISAS was transferred to the Japanese Ministry…

  • Isasmelt process (metallurgy)

    lead processing: Direct smelting: In the Isasmelt process, a gas or air lance is brought in through the top of a furnace and its tip submerged in the sulfide concentrate. A blast from the lance produces a turbulent bath in which the concentrates are oxidized to produce a high-lead slag. This…

  • Isatis tinctoria (plant)

    Woad, (Isatis tinctoria), biennial or perennial herb in the mustard family (Brassicaceae), formerly grown as a source of the blue dye indigo. A summer-flowering plant native to Eurasia, woad is sometimes cultivated for its attractive flowers and has naturalized in parts of North America, where it

  • Isaura Palaia (ancient city, Turkey)

    Isauria: Their country with its capital, Isaura Palaia, was joined with Cilicia by Pompey; and under the emperor Augustus (reigned 27 bc–ad 14) it became part of the Roman province of Galatia. Isauria was later prominent as the birthplace of the East Roman (Byzantine) emperor Zeno, whose reign (474–491) is sometimes…

  • Isauria (ancient district, Turkey)

    Isauria, ancient inland district of south-central Anatolia. Its inhabitants, a mountain people described by Greco-Roman authors as warlike and uncivilized, were conquered by the Roman general Publius Servilius Vatia “Isauricus” in a three-year campaign, 76–74 bc. Their country with its capital,

  • Isaurian (people)

    Anastasius I: …rebellious and powerful countrymen, the Isaurians, from Constantinople and their later resettlement in Thrace. To protect Constantinople against the raiding Bulgarians and Slavs, Anastasius built a wall (512) from the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. In foreign affairs he recognized Theodoric’s Ostrogoth rule in Italy (497), but the…

  • Isawa Shūji (Japanese educator)

    Japanese music: Music education: …a Meiji educational search team, Isawa (Izawa) Shūji (1851–1917), and a Boston music teacher, Luther Whiting Mason (1828–96). Mason went to Japan in 1880 to help form a music curriculum for public schools and start a teacher-training program. Although there was much talk of combining the best of East and…

  • ?īsāwīyah (?ūfī order)

    Shādhilīyah: …Darqāwā in Morocco and the ?īsāwīyah in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia.

  • Isay, Richard (American psychoanalyst and psychiatrist)

    Richard Alexander Isay, American psychoanalyst and psychiatrist (born Dec. 13, 1934, Pittsburgh, Pa.—died June 28, 2012, New York, N.Y.), contested the medical treatment of homosexuality as an illness and proved instrumental in the subsequent shift to accepting homosexuality as nonpathological.

  • Isay, Richard Alexander (American psychoanalyst and psychiatrist)

    Richard Alexander Isay, American psychoanalyst and psychiatrist (born Dec. 13, 1934, Pittsburgh, Pa.—died June 28, 2012, New York, N.Y.), contested the medical treatment of homosexuality as an illness and proved instrumental in the subsequent shift to accepting homosexuality as nonpathological.

  • Isbell, Jeff (American musician)

    Guns N' Roses: ), Izzy Stradlin (original name Jeff Isbell; b. April 8, 1962, Lafayette, Indiana), Steve Adler (b. January 22, 1965, Cleveland, Ohio, U.S.), Matt Sorum (b. November 19, 1960, Long Beach, California, U.S.), Dizzy Reed (original name Darren Reed; b. June 18, 1963, Hinsdale, Illinois, U.S.), and…

  • ISBN

    International Standard Book Number (ISBN), in bibliography, 10- or 13-digit number assigned before publication to a book or edition thereof, which identifies the work’s national, geographic, language, or other convenient group and its publisher, title, edition, and volume number. The ISBN is part

  • Isboseth (king of Israel)

    Ishbosheth, in the Old Testament (II Samuel 2:8–4:12), fourth son of King Saul and the last representative of his family to be king over Israel (the northern kingdom, as opposed to the southern kingdom of Judah). His name was originally Ishbaal (Eshbaal; I Chronicles 8:33; 9:39), meaning “man of

  • ISBT (international organization)

    International Society of Blood Transfusion (ISBT), organization founded in 1935 in Paris to aid in the solution of scientific and practical problems in blood transfusion, to facilitate the development of closer ties among those concerned with such problems, and to promote standardization of

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