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  • Islam (religion)

    Islam, major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce. The Arabic term islām, literally “surrender,” illuminates the fundamental religious idea of Islam—that the believer (called a Muslim, from the active particle of islām) accepts surrender to the will of

  • Islam expliqué aux enfants, L’ (work by Ben Jelloun)

    Tahar Ben Jelloun: …latter was further employed in L’Islam expliqué aux enfants (2002; Islam Explained), written in response to the anti-Muslim sentiment that followed the September 11, 2001, attacks in the United States.

  • Islam Khmer (people)

    Cambodia: Ethnic groups: …early 21st century was the Cham-Malay group. Known in Cambodia as Khmer Islam or Western Cham, the Cham-Malay group also maintained a high degree of ethnic homogeneity and was discriminated against under the regime of Democratic Kampuchea. Receiving only slightly better treatment than the Khmer Islam during that period were…

  • Islām Shāh (Surinamese ruler)

    India: Sher Shah and his successors: …was succeeded by his son Islam Shah (ruled 1545–53). Islam Shah, preeminently a soldier, was less successful as a ruler than his father. Palace intrigues and insurrections marred his reign. On his death his young son, Fīrūz, came to the Sūr throne but was murdered by his own maternal uncle,…

  • Islām, Al- (religion)

    Islam, major world religion promulgated by the Prophet Muhammad in Arabia in the 7th century ce. The Arabic term islām, literally “surrender,” illuminates the fundamental religious idea of Islam—that the believer (called a Muslim, from the active particle of islām) accepts surrender to the will of

  • Islam, Kazi Nazrul (Bengali author)

    South Asian arts: Bangladesh: The poet-playwright Nazrul Islam followed the tradition of Tagore’s verse plays and dance operas. Inspired by left-wing ideology, he wrote for the People’s Theatre in East Bengal, championing the cause of the poor farmer. He dealt with psychological problems and inner tensions in his Shilpi (“The Artist”),…

  • Islam, Mazharul (Bangladeshi architect)

    Islamic arts: Islamic art under European influence and contemporary trends: …Rasem Badran, and the Bangladeshi Mazharul Islam. A unique message was transmitted by the visionary Egyptian architect Hassan Fathy, who, in eloquent and prophetic terms, urged that the traditional forms and techniques of vernacular architecture be studied and adapted to contemporary needs. Directly or indirectly, his work inspired many young…

  • Islam, Nation of (religious organization)

    Nation of Islam, African American movement and organization, founded in 1930 and known for its teachings combining elements of traditional Islam with black nationalist ideas. The Nation also promotes racial unity and self-help and maintains a strict code of discipline among members. Islam was

  • Islam, Pillars of

    Pillars of Islam, the five duties incumbent on every Muslim: shahādah, the Muslim profession of faith; ?alāt, or prayer, performed in a prescribed manner five times each day; zakāt, the alms tax levied to benefit the poor and the needy; ?awm, fasting during the month of Ramadan; and hajj, the major

  • Islam, Yusuf (British singer and songwriter)

    singer-songwriters: …Newman, James Taylor, Carly Simon, Cat Stevens, Carole King, Laura Nyro, Leonard Cohen, Jackson Browne, and Loudon Wainwright III, all of whom owed much to Dylan for having broken down conventional song form and undermining traditional vocal decorum.

  • Islām-ī Jamhūrīya-e Pākistān

    Pakistan, populous and multiethnic country of South Asia. Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbours Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan has been

  • Islamabad (national capital, Pakistan)

    Islamabad, city, capital of Pakistan, on the Potwar Plateau, 9 miles (14 km) northeast of Rawalpindi, the former interim capital. The city’s site was chosen by a commission in 1959 after Karachi was found unsuitable as the capital. Construction began in 1961 with an effort to blend traditional

  • Islamabad (India)

    Anantnag, city, northwestern Jammu and Kashmir state, northern India. It lies about 30 miles (50 km) southeast of Srinagar, on the Jhelum River north of the Pir Panjal Range. Anantnag is an agricultural trade centre and the southern headquarters for navigation by large boats in the Vale of Kashmir.

  • Islambouli, Khaled (Egyptian assassin)

    Khālid al-Islāmbūlī, Egyptian radical, assassin of Anwar el-Sādāt. Born into a family of rural notables, he attended Egypt’s military academy and was assigned to the artillery corps as a lieutenant. Furious at the arrest of his brother, a leader of the Islamist opposition to Sādāt, he joined a

  • Islāmbūlī, Khālid al- (Egyptian assassin)

    Khālid al-Islāmbūlī, Egyptian radical, assassin of Anwar el-Sādāt. Born into a family of rural notables, he attended Egypt’s military academy and was assigned to the artillery corps as a lieutenant. Furious at the arrest of his brother, a leader of the Islamist opposition to Sādāt, he joined a

  • Islami Jamhoori Itihad (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The first administration of Benazir Bhutto: …Punjab was won by the Islamic Democratic Alliance (Islami Jamhoori Itihad [IJI]), led by Nawaz Sharif, a Punjabi businessman, who became the province’s chief minister.

  • Islāmī Jamhuriat Itehad (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The first administration of Benazir Bhutto: …Punjab was won by the Islamic Democratic Alliance (Islami Jamhoori Itihad [IJI]), led by Nawaz Sharif, a Punjabi businessman, who became the province’s chief minister.

  • islāmī Lil-istithmār, Al-bank Al- (Muslim bank)

    Islāmic Development Bank, Muslim bank directed toward financing the economic and social development of members in accordance with the principles of the Sharī?ah (Islāmic sacred law). Conceived by the Organization of the Islāmic Conference in 1973, the bank was headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi

  • Islamic Action Front (political party, Jordan)

    Abdullah II: Domestic policy: …Abdullah sought to restrain the Islamic Action Front, the political arm of the Muslim Brotherhood in Jordan and the country’s largest opposition group, and pushed electoral reforms that were intended to increase voting based on platform rather than personal or tribal interests.

  • Islamic architecture

    Islamic architecture, building traditions of Muslim populations of the Middle East and elsewhere from the 7th century on. Islamic architecture finds its highest expression in religious buildings such as the mosque and madrasah. Early Islamic religious architecture, exemplified by Jerusalem’s Dome

  • Islamic Art, Museum of (museum, Doha, Qatar)

    Museum of Islamic Art, offshore museum in Doha, Qatar, located on the southern end of Doha Bay. It is noted for its vast collection of Islamic art spanning 1,300 years. The museum, which opened in 2008, was designed by the Pritzker Prize-winning Chinese American architect I.M. Pei, with an interior

  • Islamic Art, Museum of (museum, Cairo, Egypt)

    Museum of Islamic Art, museum in Cairo, one of the largest in the world dedicated to Islamic art and artifacts. The museum was founded in 1881, and its collection spans from the 7th-century Umayyad dynasty to the 19th-century Ottoman Empire. In 1903 the museum moved to its current building. The

  • Islamic arts

    Islamic arts, the literary, performing, and visual arts of the vast populations of the Middle East and elsewhere that adopted the Islamic faith from the 7th century onward. These adherents of the faith have created such an immense variety of literatures, performing arts, visual arts, and music that

  • Islamic Assembly (political party, Pakistan)

    Jama?at-i Islami, (Arabic: “Islamic Society”) religious party founded in British-controlled India (now Pakistan) in 1941 by Mawlana Abū al-A?lā al-Mawdūdī (1903–79). The party was established to reform society in accordance with the faith and drew its inspiration from the model of the prophet

  • Islamic Association (political party, Indonesia)

    Sarekat Islām, the first nationalist political party in Indonesia to gain wide popular support. Founded in 1912 the party originated as an association of those Muslim merchants who wanted to advance their economic interests in relation to Chinese merchants in Java, but the association became

  • Islamic Bank of Iran (bank)

    Iran: Finance: …Iran (later reorganized as the Islamic Economy Organization and exempt from nationalization) was established in Tehrān, with branches throughout the country. Iran’s 10 banks are divided into three categories—commercial, industrial, and agricultural—but all are subject to the same regulations. In lieu of interest on loans, considered to be usury and…

  • Islamic bath (bathing establishment)

    Islāmic bath, public bathing establishment developed in countries under Islāmic rule that reflects the fusion of a primitive Eastern bath tradition and the elaborate Roman bathing process. A typical bath house consists of a series of rooms, each varying in temperature according to the height and s

  • Islamic calendar (chronology)

    Muslim calendar, dating system used in the Muslim world for religious purposes. (Most countries now use the Gregorian calendar for civil purposes.) It is based on a year of 12 months, each month beginning approximately at the time of the new moon. The months are alternately 30 and 29 days long

  • Islamic caste (Indian society)

    Islamic caste, any of the units of social stratification that developed among Muslims in India and Pakistan as a result of the proximity of Hindu culture. Most of the South Asian Muslims were recruited from the Hindu population; despite the egalitarian tenets of Islam, the Muslim converts persisted

  • Islamic Clergy, Assembly of (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: Political process: Two other religious parties, the Assembly of Islamic Clergy (Jamī?at ?Ulamā?-e Islām) and the Assembly of Pakistani Clergy (Jamī?at ?Ulamā?-e Pakistan), have strong centres of support, the former in Karachi and the latter in the rural areas of the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Ethnic interests are served by organizations such as the…

  • Islamic Conference, Organization of the (Islamic organization)

    Organization of the Islamic Cooperation, an Islamic organization established in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in May 1971, following summits by Muslim heads of state and government in 1969 and by Muslim foreign ministers in 1970. The membership includes Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Benin,

  • Islamic Consultative Assembly (Iranian government)

    Council of Guardians: …Council and appointed by the Majles (parliament). The Council of Guardians reviews all legislation passed by the Majles to determine its constitutionality. If a majority of the council does not find a piece of legislation in compliance with the constitution or if a majority of the council’s Islamic canon lawyers…

  • Islamic Courts Union (Somali organization)

    al-Shabaab: …a militia affiliated with the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a federation of local and clan-based Islamic courts that had been founded in southern Somalia in 2004 to combat the lawlessness and banditry afflicting the area since the collapse of the government of Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991. From about 2004…

  • Islamic Da?wah Party (political party, Iraq)

    Ibrāhīm al-Ja?farī: …the mid-1960s he joined the Islamic Da?wah Party, then an underground movement. After completing high school, he left Karbalā? to study medicine in the northern city of Mosul, where he obtained a medical degree in 1974. While in Mosul, he was given responsibility for the recruitment of Da?wah members in…

  • Islamic Democratic Alliance (political party, Pakistan)

    Pakistan: The first administration of Benazir Bhutto: …Punjab was won by the Islamic Democratic Alliance (Islami Jamhoori Itihad [IJI]), led by Nawaz Sharif, a Punjabi businessman, who became the province’s chief minister.

  • Islamic Development Bank (Muslim bank)

    Islāmic Development Bank, Muslim bank directed toward financing the economic and social development of members in accordance with the principles of the Sharī?ah (Islāmic sacred law). Conceived by the Organization of the Islāmic Conference in 1973, the bank was headquartered in Jeddah, Saudi

  • Islamic Economy Organization (bank)

    Iran: Finance: …Iran (later reorganized as the Islamic Economy Organization and exempt from nationalization) was established in Tehrān, with branches throughout the country. Iran’s 10 banks are divided into three categories—commercial, industrial, and agricultural—but all are subject to the same regulations. In lieu of interest on loans, considered to be usury and…

  • Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan

    Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted

  • Islamic Group (militant organization)

    Egyptian Islamic Jihad: …EIJ was largely overshadowed by al-Jamā?ah al-Islāmiyyah, which waged a far-bloodier campaign inside Egypt, killing numerous officials, civilians, and foreign tourists.

  • Islamic Jihad (Egyptian extremist organization)

    Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), Egyptian extremist organization that originated in the late 1970s and developed into a powerful force in the 1980s and 1990s. Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) allied with the al-Qaeda network in the late 1990s, and the two groups merged in 2001. EIJ coalesced out of a

  • Islamic law (Islamic law)

    Sharī?ah, the fundamental religious concept of Islam—namely, its law. The religious law of Islam is seen as the expression of God’s command for Muslims and, in application, constitutes a system of duties that are incumbent upon all Muslims by virtue of their religious belief. Known as the Sharī?ah

  • Islamic literature

    Islamic arts: Islamic literatures: It would be almost impossible to make an exhaustive survey of Islamic literatures. There are so many works, of which hundreds of thousands are available only in manuscript, that even a very large team of scholars could scarcely master a…

  • Islamic medicine

    Unani medicine, a traditional system of healing and health maintenance observed in South Asia. The origins of Unani medicine are found in the doctrines of the ancient Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen. As a field, it was later developed and refined through systematic experiment by the Arabs,

  • Islamic National Front (political party, The Sudan)

    Sudan: The rise of Muslim fundamentalism: …of the party, renamed the Islamic National Front (NIF). Turābī methodically charted the Brotherhood and the NIF on a course of action designed to seize control of the Sudanese government despite the Muslim fundamentalists’ lack of popularity with the majority of the Sudanese people. Tightly disciplined, superbly organized, and inspired…

  • Islamic Order, Committee to Determine the Expediency of the (Iranian government)

    Iran: Deliberative bodies: …ordered the formation of the Committee to Determine the Expediency of the Islamic Order—consisting of several members from the Council of Guardians and several members appointed by the president—to arbitrate disagreements between the Majles and the Council of Guardians. The Assembly of Experts, a body of 83 clerics, was originally…

  • Islamic philosophy

    Arabic philosophy, Doctrines of the Arabic philosophers of the 9th–12th century who influenced medieval Scholasticism in Europe. The Arabic tradition combines Aristotelianism and Neoplatonism with other ideas introduced through Islam. Influential thinkers include the Persians al-Kindi, al-Farabi,

  • Islamic Renaissance Party (political party)

    Uzbekistan: Cultural life: …publishing ventures and through the Islamic Renaissance Party.

  • Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (political party, Tajikistan)

    Tajikistan: Centralization and opposition sidelined: He accused the Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan (IRPT)—which under the peace agreement was one of the opposition groups entitled to a percentage of government posts—of extremism and began dismissing members of the party from their official positions. The party itself, however, remained legal in Tajikistan. Meanwhile, Rahmonov…

  • Islamic Republic of Iran

    Iran, a mountainous, arid, and ethnically diverse country of southwestern Asia. Much of Iran consists of a central desert plateau, which is ringed on all sides by lofty mountain ranges that afford access to the interior through high passes. Most of the population lives on the edges of this

  • Islamic Republic of Mauritania

    Mauritania, country on the Atlantic coast of Africa. Mauritania forms a geographic and cultural bridge between the North African Maghrib (a region that also includes Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia) and the westernmost portion of Sub-Saharan Africa. Culturally it forms a transitional zone between the

  • Islamic Republic of Pakistan

    Pakistan, populous and multiethnic country of South Asia. Having a predominately Indo-Iranian speaking population, Pakistan has historically and culturally been associated with its neighbours Iran, Afghanistan, and India. Since Pakistan and India achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan has been

  • Islamic Republican Party (political party, Iran)

    Iran: Political process: …outset of the revolution, the Islamic Republic Party was the ruling political party in Iran, but it subsequently proved to be too volatile, and Khomeini ordered it disbanded in 1987. The Muslim People’s Republic Party, which once claimed more than three million members, and its leader, Ayatollah Mohammad Kazem Shariat-Madari,…

  • Islamic Resistance Movement (Palestinian nationalist movement)

    Hamas, militant Islamic Palestinian nationalist movement in the West Bank and Gaza Strip that is dedicated to the establishment of an independent Islamic state in historical Palestine. Founded in 1987, Hamas opposed the secular approach of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) to the

  • Islamic Revolution ([1978–1979])

    Iranian Revolution, popular uprising in Iran in 1978–79 that resulted in the toppling of the monarchy on February 11, 1979, and led to the establishment of an Islamic republic. The 1979 revolution, which brought together Iranians across many different social groups, has its roots in Iran’s long

  • Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (Iranian armed forces)

    Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), branch of the Iranian armed forces, independent of Iran’s regular army (the latter is sometimes called Artesh). Iran’s leader Ruhollah Khomeini established the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) in April 1979 by decree and tasked it with safeguarding

  • Islamic Salvation Front (political party, Algeria)

    Islamic Salvation Front, Algerian Islamist political party. Known best by its French acronym, the organization was founded in 1989 by Ali Belhadj and Abbasi al-Madani. The party won a majority of the seats contested in local elections in 1990 and most of the seats in the National Assembly in the

  • Islamic Society (political group, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933–73): …religious organization known as the Islamic Society (Jam?iyyat-e Eslāmī), which was founded by a number of religiously minded individuals, including members of the University of Kabul faculty of religion, in 1971. The Islamists were highly influenced by the militant ideology of Egypt’s Muslim Brotherhood and were ardently opposed to the…

  • Islamic Society of North America (Islamic organization)

    Ingrid Mattson: …was elected vice president of ISNA, an umbrella organization of Islamic groups in the United States and Canada. From 2006 to 2010 she served as president of ISNA—the first woman, the first person from a non-Islamic country, and the first convert to Islam to hold the position. A highly visible…

  • Islamic State (militant organization)

    Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), transnational Sunni insurgent group operating primarily in western Iraq and eastern Syria. First appearing under the name ISIL in April 2013, the group launched an offensive in early 2014 that drove Iraqi government forces out of key western cities,

  • Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (militant organization)

    Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), transnational Sunni insurgent group operating primarily in western Iraq and eastern Syria. First appearing under the name ISIL in April 2013, the group launched an offensive in early 2014 that drove Iraqi government forces out of key western cities,

  • Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (militant organization)

    Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), transnational Sunni insurgent group operating primarily in western Iraq and eastern Syria. First appearing under the name ISIL in April 2013, the group launched an offensive in early 2014 that drove Iraqi government forces out of key western cities,

  • Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant, The

    The Middle East was shaken in 2014 by the sudden rise of the transnational Sunni insurgent group known as the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL; also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria [ISIS]). The group surged from its Syrian stronghold into Iraq early in the year and by midyear

  • Islamic State in West Africa (Nigerian Islamic group)

    Boko Haram, (Hausa: “Westernization Is Sacrilege”) Islamic sectarian movement, founded in 2002 by Muhammed Yusuf in northeastern Nigeria, that since 2009 has carried out assassinations and large-scale acts of violence in that country. The group’s initial proclaimed intent was to uproot the

  • Islamic State of Afghanistan

    Afghanistan, landlocked multiethnic country located in the heart of south-central Asia. Lying along important trade routes connecting southern and eastern Asia to Europe and the Middle East, Afghanistan has long been a prize sought by empire builders, and for millennia great armies have attempted

  • Islamic State’s West African Province (Nigerian Islamic group)

    Boko Haram, (Hausa: “Westernization Is Sacrilege”) Islamic sectarian movement, founded in 2002 by Muhammed Yusuf in northeastern Nigeria, that since 2009 has carried out assassinations and large-scale acts of violence in that country. The group’s initial proclaimed intent was to uproot the

  • Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq (government organization, Iraq)

    Iraq: Political process: …(known since 2007 as the Islamic Supreme Council of Iraq). Another group, the Iraqi National Congress, received strong, albeit intermittent, support from the U.S. government during the 1990s. All operated outside Iraq or in areas of the country not under government control.

  • Islamic Tendency Movement (political party, Tunisia)

    Ennahda Party, Tunisian political party, founded in 1981 by Rachid al-Ghannouchi and Abdelfattah Mourou (?Abd al-Fattā? Mūrū) as the Islamic Tendency Movement. Its platform called for a fairer distribution of economic resources, the establishment of multiparty democracy, and the injection of more

  • Islamic Union (political party, Indonesia)

    Sarekat Islām, the first nationalist political party in Indonesia to gain wide popular support. Founded in 1912 the party originated as an association of those Muslim merchants who wanted to advance their economic interests in relation to Chinese merchants in Java, but the association became

  • Islamic University of Imam Mu?ammad Ibn Sa?ūd (university, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia)

    Riyadh: Education: … (1957) and Islamic University of Imam Mu?ammad ibn Sa?ūd (1953) are both national universities. In addition, there are a number of military academies, including King ?Abd al-?Azīz Military College (1955), King Khālid Military College (1982), and King Fahd Security College, originally established in Mecca in the mid-1930s. At the beginning…

  • Islamic world

    Islamic world, the complex of societies and cultures in which Muslims and their faith have been prevalent and socially dominant. Adherence to Islam is a global phenomenon: Muslims predominate in some 30 to 40 countries, from the Atlantic eastward to the Pacific and along a belt that stretches

  • Islamism (political ideologies)

    Islamism, broad set of political ideologies that utilize and draw inspiration from Islamic symbols and traditions in pursuit of a sociopolitical objective. The aims and objectives of these movements vary widely, as do their interpretations of Islamic tradition and practice, and, as such, the

  • Islamist movement (religion and politics)

    fundamentalism: Islamic fundamentalism: Because the term fundamentalism is Christian in origin, because it carries negative connotations, and because its use in an Islamic context emphasizes the religious roots of the phenomenon while neglecting the nationalistic and social grievances that underlie it, many scholars prefer to call…

  • island (geography)

    Island, any area of land smaller than a continent and entirely surrounded by water. Islands may occur in oceans, seas, lakes, or rivers. A group of islands is called an archipelago. Islands may be classified as either continental or oceanic. Oceanic islands are those that rise to the surface from

  • ísland

    Iceland, island country located in the North Atlantic Ocean. Lying on the constantly active geologic border between North America and Europe, Iceland is a land of vivid contrasts of climate, geography, and culture. Sparkling glaciers, such as Vatna Glacier (Vatnaj?kull), Europe’s largest, lie

  • Island (novel by Huxley)

    Aldous Huxley: His last novel, Island (1962), is a utopian vision of a Pacific Ocean society.

  • island arc

    Island arc, long, curved chain of oceanic islands associated with intense volcanic and seismic activity and orogenic (mountain-building) processes. Prime examples of this form of geologic feature include the Aleutian-Alaska Arc and the Kuril-Kamchatka Arc. Most island arcs consist of two parallel,

  • island biogeography, theory of (biology)

    patch dynamics: History of patch dynamics: …the 1970s, and with the theory of island biogeography, developed by American ecologist Robert MacArthur and American biologist E.O. Wilson in the 1960s. (The former theory proposed that the collective activities of several distinct but interacting populations drive the ecological fate of the species, and the latter theory posited that…

  • Island Carib (people)

    Carib: The Island Carib, who were warlike (and allegedly cannibalistic), were immigrants from the mainland who, after driving the Arawak from the Lesser Antilles, were expanding when the Spanish arrived. Peculiarly, the Carib language was spoken only by the men; women spoke Arawak. Raids upon other peoples…

  • island dwarfing (biology)

    Homo floresiensis: … may have been caused by island dwarfing, or endemic dwarfing, a process whereby some creatures confined to isolated habitats such as islands are known to have become smaller over time. Such dwarfing has never been seen in the remains of other members of the human family, which show that stature…

  • island gray fox (mammal)

    gray fox: …related but smaller form, the island gray fox (U. littoralis), is found on islands off the coast of southern California. The name gray fox is sometimes also applied to the hoary fox (see fox) of Europe.

  • Island in the Moon, An (satire by Blake)

    English literature: Blake, Wordsworth, and Coleridge: …is visible in the satirical An Island in the Moon (written c. 1784–85); he then took the bolder step of setting aside sophistication in the visionary Songs of Innocence (1789). His desire for renewal encouraged him to view the outbreak of the French Revolution as a momentous event. In works…

  • Island in the Sky (rock formation, Utah, United States)

    Canyonlands National Park: The Island in the Sky is a huge, level sandstone mesa situated between the Green and Colorado rivers. These rivers are entrenched in winding canyons and in this part of the park are gently flowing; their confluence forms the southern tip of the mesa. Float trips…

  • Island in the Sun (film by Rossen [1957])

    Robert Rossen: After the blacklist: …of Alexander’s remarkable conquests, but Island in the Sun (1957) marked the first time in many years that Rossen neither produced nor scripted one of his own films, and it suffered from his absence. The 1959 historical drama They Came to Cordura set Gary Cooper and Rita Hayworth during the…

  • Island Lake (lake, Manitoba, Canada)

    Island Lake, lake in east-central Manitoba, Canada, near the Ontario border. A post of the Hudson’s Bay Company was established on the lake in 1824, and gold was found in the area in the 1920s. The lake, which is part of the Hudson Bay drainage system, is fed by several rivers and drains northward

  • Island of Bali (work by Covarrubias)

    Miguel Covarrubias: …Asia, and subsequently he wrote Island of Bali (1937). Covarrubias also painted six mural maps illustrating the cultures of the Pacific area for the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco; these maps were then published as Pageant of the Pacific (1939).

  • Island of Doctor Moreau, The (work by Wells)

    The Island of Doctor Moreau, science fiction novel by H.G. Wells, published in 1896. The classic work focuses on a mad scientist’s experiments involving vivisection to address such issues as evolution and ethics. The story takes the form of a manuscript accidentally found by the nephew of the

  • Island of Doctor Moreau, The (film by Frankenheimer [1996])

    John Frankenheimer: Later work: …the big screen, Frankenheimer directed The Island of Doctor Moreau (1996), an adaptation of the H.G. Wells novel. The sci-fi film was widely panned, with the performances by Val Kilmer and Marlon Brando receiving particular criticism. Ronin (1998), Frankenheimer’s next theatrical release, however, was an assured thriller, with Robert De…

  • Island of Lost Souls (film by Kenton [1932])

    Bela Lugosi: >Island of Lost Souls (1932); and Mark of the Vampire (1935). He costarred with Karloff in several films, including The Black Cat (1934), The Raven (1935), and The Invisible Ray (1936), and he appeared occasionally in non-horror films, such as the Paramount Pictures all-star comedy…

  • Island of Tears, The (work by Ogot)

    Grace Ogot: …The Other Woman (1976), and The Island of Tears (1980)—give an inside view of traditional Luo life and society and the conflict of traditional with colonial and modern cultures. Her novel The Promised Land (1966) tells of Luo pioneers in Tanzania and western Kenya.

  • Island of the Colorblind, The (work by Sacks)

    Oliver Sacks: …mysterious form of paralysis in The Island of the Colorblind (1997). He presented further case studies in The Mind Traveler (1998), a program produced for television, and wrote of patients with conditions relating to music in Musicophilia: Tales of Music and the Brain (2007). The Mind’s Eye (2010) investigated the…

  • Island of the Dead (painting by B?cklin)

    Arnold B?cklin: …dark allegorical themes, as in Island of the Dead (1880), which provided the inspiration for the symphonic poem The Isle of the Dead by the Russian composer Sergey Rachmaninoff. Such spectral scenes as his Odysseus and Calypso (1883) and The Pest (1898) reveal the morbid symbolism that anticipated the so-called…

  • Island of the Mighty, The (work by Arden)

    John Arden: …well as the Arthurian drama The Island of the Mighty (1972), Vandaleur’s Folly (1978), and The Little Gray Home in the West (1982), among others—were written with D’Arcy. Arden’s fiction includes the novel Silence Among the Weapons (1982; also published as Vox Pop) and the story collection The Stealing Steps…

  • Island Records (British company)

    Island Records: Chris Blackwell's Rock and Reggae Circus: Chris Blackwell grew up in Jamaica but was educated in England. He founded Island Records in 1959 in Jamaica, then three years later relocated to the United Kingdom, where Island became an outlet for Jamaican records, initially aimed at immigrant communities throughout Britain. In 1964,…

  • Island Records: Chris Blackwell’s Rock and Reggae Circus

    Chris Blackwell grew up in Jamaica but was educated in England. He founded Island Records in 1959 in Jamaica, then three years later relocated to the United Kingdom, where Island became an outlet for Jamaican records, initially aimed at immigrant communities throughout Britain. In 1964, still

  • island scrub jay (bird)

    jay: …western North America; and the island scrub jay (A. insularis), found only on Santa Cruz Island, off the coast of California. They are locally called “blue jays,” but they lack the crests of C. cristata.

  • island silicate (mineral)

    Nesosilicate, compound with a structure in which independent silicate tetrahedrons (each consisting of a central silicon atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms at the corners of a tetrahedron) are present. Because none of the oxygen atoms is shared by other tetrahedrons, the chemical formula contains

  • island stage

    Theatre-in-the-round, form of theatrical staging in which the acting area, which may be raised or at floor level, is completely surrounded by the audience. It has been theorized that the informality thus established leads to increased rapport between the audience and the actors.

  • island tree poppy (plant)

    tree poppy: The related island tree poppy (Dendromecon harfordii), endemic to the Channel Islands off the southern California coast, reaches a height of 6 metres (20 feet). Tree poppies are hardy as ornamentals only in areas with mild winters.

  • Island, The (novel by Benchley)

    Michael Ritchie: The 1980s: …disliked version of the best-selling thriller by Peter Benchley, who also wrote the screenplay; it starred Michael Caine as a journalist investigating the Bermuda Triangle. Better received was Divine Madness (1980), a Bette Midler concert film. Ritchie reteamed with Matthau on The Survivors (1983), but the comedy failed to find…

  • Island, The (film by Ritchie [1980])

    Michael Ritchie: The 1980s: …turned to more-commercial fare with The Island (1980), a disliked version of the best-selling thriller by Peter Benchley, who also wrote the screenplay; it starred Michael Caine as a journalist investigating the Bermuda Triangle. Better received was Divine Madness (1980), a Bette Midler concert film. Ritchie reteamed with Matthau on…

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