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  • Islander (aircraft)

    history of flight: General aviation: …second aircraft was the Britten-Norman Islander, with headquarters located on the Isle of Wight. Designed as an up-to-date replacement for obsolete types such as the Dove, the twin-engine Islander debuted in the mid-1960s. Along with modern avionics, it featured a high wing and fixed gear, and its metal construction followed…

  • Islanders, League of the (Greek history)

    Antigonus I Monophthalmus: Military campaigns: …in the Aegean into the League of the Islanders, preparatory to his invasion of Greece. His ally, the city of Rhodes, furnished him with the necessary fleet.

  • Islandman, The (work by Criomhthain)

    Celtic literature: The Gaelic revival: …best is Tomás ó Criomhthain’s An tOileánach (1929; The Islandman). At one time the gaeltacht memoirs threatened to become a vogue and inspired the brilliant satirical piece An Béal Bocht (1941; The Poor Mouth) by Flann O’Brien (pseudonym of Brian ó Nualláin). Less characteristic but perhaps no less valuable have…

  • Islands (album by the Band)

    the Band: With only the lacklustre Islands (1977) as a last, contract-honouring memento of their career, the Band quickly fragmented. In 1983, sans Robertson, the group re-formed and played a less-than-spectacular tour. Three years later, Manuel was found hanging from a shower curtain in a Florida motel room.

  • Islands (Roman province, Greece)

    Greece: Late Roman administration: Crete (Kríti), and the Islands (Insulae). Of the eight provinces, all except Rhodope and the Islands were a part of the larger diocese of Moesia, which extended to the Danube River in the north. (The word diocese originally referred to a governmental area governed by a Roman imperial vicar.…

  • íslands árb?kur (work by Espólín)

    Icelandic literature: The 18th century: Jón Espólín published íslands árb?kur (1822–55; “Annals of Iceland”), a history of Iceland from 1262.

  • Islands in the Net (novel by Sterling)

    Bruce Sterling: In Islands in the Net (1988), heroine Laura Webster is drawn into the geopolitics of a vast information network. In The Difference Engine (1990; written with William Gibson), Sterling imagines the ascent of the computer age during the 19th century. In 1992 he published Globalhead, a…

  • Islands in the Stream (novel by Hemingway)

    Ernest Hemingway: Islands in the Stream, three closely related novellas growing directly out of his peacetime memories of the Caribbean island of Bimini, of Havana during World War II, and of searching for U-boats off Cuba, appeared in 1970.

  • Islands in the Stream (film by Schaffner [1977])

    Franklin J. Schaffner: Islands in the Stream (1977) was an ambitious though largely unsuccessful attempt to render Ernest Hemingway’s posthumously published collection of three novellas into a cohesive film.

  • islands of Langerhans (anatomy)

    Islets of Langerhans, irregularly shaped patches of endocrine tissue located within the pancreas of most vertebrates. They are named for the German physician Paul Langerhans, who first described them in 1869. The normal human pancreas contains about 1,000,000 islets. The islets consist of four

  • Islands, Bay of (bay, New Zealand)

    Bay of Islands, bay of the South Pacific Ocean and geographic region, northern North Island, New Zealand, formed when the sea flooded an old river valley system. The bay has a shoreline of 500 miles (800 km) and about 150 islands. It opens to the sea through an 11-mile- (18-kilometre-) wide passage

  • Islands, Greek (region, Greece)

    Greece: The islands of Greece: The Ionian Islands off the western coast of Greece structurally resemble the folded mountains of ípeiros. Of the six main islands, Corfu (Modern Greek: Kérkyra), opposite the Albanian frontier, is the northernmost; it is fertile and amply endowed with well-watered lowland. The…

  • Islandsk kj?rlighet (work by Gudmundsson)

    Kristmann Gudmundsson: …Norwegian a collection of stories, Islandsk kj?rlighet (“Icelandic Loves”). It was a literary success and astonished the critics by its mastery of Norwegian idiom and style. He followed that success with the publication of several novels, among them the family sagas Brudekjolen (1927; The Bridal Gown) and Livets morgen (1929;…

  • íslandsklukkan (work by Laxness)

    Halldór Laxness: ” The nationalistic trilogy íslandsklukkan (1943–46; “Iceland’s Bell”) established him as the country’s leading writer.

  • Islas a la deriva (work by Pacheco)

    José Emilio Pacheco: In the poems of Islas a la deriva (1976; “Islands Adrift”), Pacheco reinterpreted history and mythology.

  • Islas Baleares (region and province, Spain)

    Balearic Islands, archipelago in the western Mediterranean Sea and a comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Spain coextensive with the Spanish provincia (province) of the same name. The archipelago lies 50 to 190 miles (80 to 300 km) east of the Spanish mainland. There are two groups of

  • Islas de Chincha (islands, Peru)

    Chincha Islands, island group that is part of Los Libertadores-Wari región, Peru. Located in the Pacific Ocean 13 miles (21 km) off Peru’s southwestern coast, the three small islands are situated to the northwest of Paracas Bay and west-northwest of the city of Pisco. They have extensive guano d

  • Islas Juan Fernández (islands, Chile)

    Juan Fernández Islands, small cluster of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, situated about 400 miles (650 km) west of and administratively part of Chile. They consist of the 36-square-mile (93-square-km) Isla Robinson Crusoe (also called Isla Más a Tierra); the 33-square-mile Isla Alejandro

  • Islay (island, Inner Hebrides, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Islay, most southerly island of the offshore Atlantic group known as the Inner Hebrides, in Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, Scotland. It is separated from the island of Jura by the Sound of Islay, which is 0.9 mile (1.5 km) wide. The island is 25 miles (40 km) long

  • Islay, Archibald Campbell, Earl and Viscount of (British politician [1682-1761])

    Archibald Campbell, 3rd duke of Argyll, brother of the 2nd Duke of Argyll, and a prominent politician during the early Hanoverian period in Britain. Campbell served in the army for a short time under the Duke of Marlborough, but he was appointed treasurer of Scotland in 1705 and the following year

  • Isle of Dogs (film by Anderson [2018])

    F. Murray Abraham: … (2014) and the stop-motion animated Isle of Dogs (2018), and he provided the voice of the villainous Grimmel in How to Train Your Dragon: Hidden World (2019). His later films included Lady and the Tramp (2019). In addition, Abraham had recurring roles in the TV shows The Good Wife (2009–16)…

  • Isle of Dogs (novel by Cornwell)

    Patricia Cornwell: …works included a novel (Isle of Dogs, 2001), a children’s book (Life’s Little Fable, 1999), and a work of nonfiction (Portrait of a Killer: Jack the Ripper—Case Closed, 2002). The latter book controversially posits the artist Walter Sickert as the fiendish killer.

  • Isle of Man, flag of the (flag of a British crown possession)

    flag of a British crown possession, flown subordinate to the Union Jack, that consists of a red field (background) bearing a central triskelion, or triskele, of three bent legs joined together at a central point.The Manx triskelion is one of the oldest continually used government symbols. It is a

  • Isle of Pines (island and municipality, Cuba)

    Isla de la Juventud, (Spanish: “Isle of Youth”) island and municipio especial (special municipality) of Cuba, in the Caribbean Sea. It is bounded to the northwest by the Canal de los Indios and on the north and northeast by the Gulf of Batabanó, which separate it from the mainland of western Cuba.

  • Isle of Wight Pop Festival, The (British music festival)

    The Isle of Wight Pop Festival: More than a year after Woodstock, the third Isle of Wight Pop Festival was held August 26–31, 1970, on the island of the same name off the coast of southern England. The previous year’s festival had attracted about 200,000 people, most of them drawn by…

  • Isle Royale (island, Michigan, United States)

    Isle Royale, centre of a wilderness archipelago and the largest island in Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan, U.S. Administered as part of Keweenaw county, it lies 56 miles (90 km) from the Upper Peninsula shore and 15 miles (24 km) from the Canadian shore and is 45 miles (72 km) long and 9 miles

  • Isle Royale National Park (national park, Michigan, United States)

    Isle Royale National Park, island national park located in northwestern Lake Superior, northwestern Michigan, U.S. Established in 1931, the park has an area of 893 square miles (2,313 square km) and includes Isle Royale, the largest island in Lake Superior, measuring 45 miles (72 km) long and 9

  • ísleifr Gissurarson (Icelandic bishop)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: One of the first was ísleifr, who, after being educated and ordained a priest, was consecrated bishop. His school at Skálholt in southern Iceland was for many centuries the chief bishopric and a main centre of learning. The earliest remembered historian is S?mundr the Wise, but Ari Torgilsson is regarded…

  • ísleifur Gissurarson (Icelandic bishop)

    Icelandic literature: Prose: One of the first was ísleifr, who, after being educated and ordained a priest, was consecrated bishop. His school at Skálholt in southern Iceland was for many centuries the chief bishopric and a main centre of learning. The earliest remembered historian is S?mundr the Wise, but Ari Torgilsson is regarded…

  • íslendinga saga (saga by Sturla Thórdarson)

    saga: Native historical accounts: …important of which is the íslendinga saga (“The Icelanders’ Saga”) of Sturla Tórearson, who describes in memorable detail the bitter personal and political feuds that marked the final episode in the history of the Icelandic commonwealth (c. 1200–64).

  • íslendingabók (work by Ari)

    Ari Thorgilsson the Learned: …historian whose íslendingabók (Libellus Islandorum; The Book of the Icelanders) is the first history of Iceland written in the vernacular. Composed before 1133 and covering the period from the settlement of Iceland up to 1120, it includes information on the founding of the Althing (parliament) and on the settlement of…

  • íslenska

    Icelandic language, national language of Iceland, spoken by the entire population, some 330,000 in the early 21st century. It belongs (with Norwegian and Faroese) to the West Scandinavian group of North Germanic languages and developed from the Norse speech brought by settlers from western Norway

  • Isles of Immortality pattern (Chinese pottery)

    pottery: Reign of the Xuande emperor (1425–35): …Immortality—often referred to as the Rock of Ages pattern. The pattern appears frequently throughout the Ming period and later.

  • Isles of Saint Francis Conservation Park (park, South Australia, Australia)

    Ceduna: Nearby is Isles of St. Francis Conservation Park, home for a variety of fauna, including the rare Cape Barren goose. Pop. (2006) 3,572; (2011) 3,480.

  • Isleworth Mona Lisa (painting)

    Mona Lisa: Other Mona Lisas: …Mona Lisa include the so-called Isleworth Mona Lisa, which some commentators asserted was Leonardo’s first version of the famed portrait. The claim was a controversial one, with several leading Leonardo scholars flatly denying it. Numerous seminude interpretations, often referred to as Monna Vanna, also exist and were likely completed by…

  • Isley Brothers, the (American music group)

    The Isley Brothers, American rhythm-and-blues and rock band that began recording in the late 1950s and continued to have hit records in the 1960s and ’70s with music that ranged from rhythm and blues to soul to funk. The original members were Kelly Isley (byname of O’Kelly Isley, Jr.; b. December

  • Isley, Ernie (American musician)

    the Isley Brothers: Later members included Ernie Isley (b. March 7, 1952, Cincinnati), Marvin Isley (b. August 18, 1953, Cincinnati—d. June 6, 2010, Chicago, Illinois), and Chris Jasper (b. December 30, 1951, Cincinnati).

  • Isley, Kelly (American musician)

    the Isley Brothers: The original members were Kelly Isley (byname of O’Kelly Isley, Jr.; b. December 25, 1937, Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S.—d. March 31, 1986), Rudolph Isley (b. April 1, 1939, Cincinnati), and Ronald Isley (b. May 21, 1941, Cincinnati). Later members included Ernie Isley (b. March 7, 1952, Cincinnati), Marvin Isley (b.…

  • Isley, Marvin (American musician and songwriter)

    Marvin Isley, American bass guitarist and songwriter (born Aug. 18, 1953, Cincinnati, Ohio—died June 6, 2010, Chicago, Ill.), reimagined the gritty rhythm-and-blues singing trio the Isley Brothers (Kelly, Rudolph, and Ronald); after joining (1973) his older brothers (together with another brother,

  • Isley, Phyllis Lee (American actress)

    Jennifer Jones, American film actress known for her performances in roles that alternated between fresh-faced naifs and tempestuous vixens. Jones attended the American Academy of Dramatic Arts in New York City, and after appearing in a series of bit movie parts, she landed an audition with

  • Isley, Ronald (American musician)

    the Isley Brothers: April 1, 1939, Cincinnati), and Ronald Isley (b. May 21, 1941, Cincinnati). Later members included Ernie Isley (b. March 7, 1952, Cincinnati), Marvin Isley (b. August 18, 1953, Cincinnati—d. June 6, 2010, Chicago, Illinois), and Chris Jasper (b. December 30, 1951, Cincinnati).

  • Isley, Rudolph (American musician)

    the Isley Brothers: March 31, 1986), Rudolph Isley (b. April 1, 1939, Cincinnati), and Ronald Isley (b. May 21, 1941, Cincinnati). Later members included Ernie Isley (b. March 7, 1952, Cincinnati), Marvin Isley (b. August 18, 1953, Cincinnati—d. June 6, 2010, Chicago, Illinois), and Chris Jasper (b. December 30, 1951, Cincinnati).

  • Islington (borough, London, United Kingdom)

    Islington, inner borough of London, England, located directly north of the City of London. It is part of the historic county of Middlesex. The present borough was established in 1965 by amalgamation of the former metropolitan boroughs of Islington and Finsbury. It includes the areas of (from north

  • Islington Commission (United Kingdom-India [1917])

    Lee Commission: The Islington Commission’s report (1917) had recommended that 25 percent of the higher government posts should go to Indians. That report had become a dead letter in 1918, when the Montagu-Chelmsford Report proposed Indian appointments to one-third of the posts. Simultaneous examinations were instituted in London…

  • Islwyn (British poet)

    William Thomas, clergyman and poet, considered the only successful practitioner of the long Welsh poem in the 19th century. His major work is the uncompleted philosophical poem Y Storm (1856; The Storm). Originally a land surveyor, Thomas was ordained in the Calvinistic Methodist ministry in 1859.

  • Isly, Battle of (Algerian-French history)

    Morocco: Decline of traditional government (1830–1912): …had been totally defeated at Isly, near the frontier town of Oujda. The sultan then promised to intern or expel Abdelkader if he should again enter Moroccan territory. Two years later, when he was again driven into Morocco, the Algerian leader was attacked by Moroccan troops and was forced to…

  • Isly, Thomas-Robert Bugeaud, duc d’ (marshal of France)

    Thomas-Robert Bugeaud, duke d’Isly, marshal of France who played an important part in the French conquest of Algeria. Bugeaud joined Napoleon’s imperial guard and later distinguished himself during the Peninsular War, after which he rose to the rank of colonel. He supported the First Restoration

  • ISM (astronomy)

    Interstellar medium, region between the stars that contains vast, diffuse clouds of gases and minute solid particles. Such tenuous matter in the interstellar medium of the Milky Way system, in which the Earth is located, accounts for about 5 percent of the Galaxy’s total mass. The interstellar

  • ismail Bey (Ottoman noble)

    ?ayn: …Vidin (now in Bulgaria), and ?smail Bey of Seres (now Sérrai, Greece) maintained their own private armies, levied taxes, and dispensed justice. The ?ayn of Rus?uk (now in Bulgaria), Bayrakdar Mustafa Pa?a, although he failed to restore Selim III, led a successful coup and brought Selim’s nephew Mahmud II to…

  • Ismail bin Dato? Abdul Rahman, Tun (Malay politician)

    Tun Ismail bin Dato? Abdul Rahman, Malay politician who held several ministerial portfolios. Tun Ismail, a medical doctor trained in Singapore and Melbourne, entered Malaysian politics in 1951 when he was elected vice president of the United Malays National Organisation, the dominant Malay

  • Ismail Ibn Nagrel?a (Spanish-Jewish scholar and statesman)

    Samuel ha-Nagid, Talmudic scholar, grammarian, philologist, poet, warrior, and statesman who for two decades was the power behind the throne of the caliphate of Granada. As a youth Samuel received a thorough education in all branches of Jewish and Islāmic knowledge and mastered Arabic c

  • Ismail Marzuki Park (arts centre, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Indonesia: Cultural institutions: …municipal government in 1968, is Ismail Marzuki Park (Taman Ismail Marzuki; TIM), named after a prominent Jakarta-born composer. The centre has generated a fresh approach to both tradition and modernism. While offering regular performances of local and regional arts, TIM also produces modernist theatrical works that typically fuse Indonesian and…

  • Ismail Qemal bey Vlora (Albanian statesman)

    Vlor?: On November 28, 1912, Ismail Qemal proclaimed there the independence of Albania. Vlor? was occupied by the Italians in 1915–20 and again in 1939. During World War II Sazan was used as a German and Italian submarine base. After the war the town’s harbour and submarine facilities were improved…

  • Ismailia (Egypt)

    Ismailia, capital of Al-Ismā?īliyyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northeastern Egypt. The city is located near the midpoint of the Suez Canal, on the northwestern shore of Lake Al-Timsā?. The lake, in a natural depression, was connected to the Gulf of Suez of the Red Sea in pharaonic times. The city

  • Ismay of Wormington, Hastings Lionel Ismay, Baron (British soldier)

    Hastings Lionel Ismay, Baron Ismay, British soldier who became Prime Minister Winston Churchill’s closest military adviser during World War II and participated in most major policy decisions of the Allied powers. Commissioned in 1905, Ismay served in India and Africa. After World War I he became

  • Ismay, J. Bruce (British businessman)

    J. Bruce Ismay, British businessman who was chairman of the White Star Line and who survived the sinking of the company’s ship Titanic in 1912. Ismay was the eldest son of Thomas Henry Ismay, who owned the White Star Line, which operated a fleet of passenger ships. After his father’s death in 1899,

  • Ismay, Joseph Bruce (British businessman)

    J. Bruce Ismay, British businessman who was chairman of the White Star Line and who survived the sinking of the company’s ship Titanic in 1912. Ismay was the eldest son of Thomas Henry Ismay, who owned the White Star Line, which operated a fleet of passenger ships. After his father’s death in 1899,

  • Ismā?īl (son of Abraham)

    Ishmael, son of Abraham through Hagar, according to the three great Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. After the birth of Isaac, another son of Abraham, through Sarah, Ishmael and his mother were banished to the desert. A minor figure thereafter in the traditions of Judaism and

  • Ismā?īl (Shī?ite imam)

    Ja?far al-?ādiq: His eldest son, Ismā?īl, predeceased him, but the “Seveners,” represented today chiefly by the Ismā?īliyyah (followers of Ismā?īl)—argued that Ismā?īl merely disappeared and would reappear one day. Three other sons also claimed the imamate; of these, Mūsā al-Kā?im gained widest recognition. Shi?i sects not recognizing Ismā?īl are mostly…

  • Ismā?īl (?Alawī ruler of Morocco)

    Ismā?īl, second ruler of the ?Alawī dynasty of Morocco; his long reign (1672–1727) saw the consolidation of ?Alawī power, the development of an effective army trained in European military techniques, and the introduction of French influence in Morocco. Virtually nothing is known about Ismā?īl’s

  • Ismā?īl al-Mutawakkil (Zaydī ruler)

    A?mad Ibn Abī al-Rijāl: …orator under the rule of Ismā?īl al-Mutawakkil, the Zaydī spiritual and temporal ruler of Yemen.

  • Ismā?īl a?-?āfir (Dhū an-Nūnid ruler)

    Dhū an-Nūnid Dynasty: …their city, and his son Ismā?īl a?-?āfir were the first local rulers to refuse to recognize the central authority of the Umayyad caliph of Córdoba. A?-?āfīr established himself as an independent king in Toledo and, despite constant wars with the Christians, ruled until 1043. His son Ya?yā al-Ma?mūn (reigned 1043–75)…

  • Ismā?īl I (shah of Iran)

    Ismā?īl I, shah of Iran (1501–24) and religious leader who founded the ?afavid dynasty (the first native dynasty to rule the kingdom in 800 years) and converted Iran from the Sunni to the Shī?ite sect of Islam. According to tradition, Ismā?īl was descended from an imam. His father, leader of a

  • Ismā?īl I (Na?rid ruler)

    Spain: Granada: When Ismā?īl I (1314–25) ascended the throne, another branch of the Na?rid family gained power. Ismā?īl checked the reconquest ambitions of Alfonso XI—who in 1340, with the aid of the Portuguese, won a decisive victory over the Maghribian army of Abū al-?asan at the Battle of…

  • Ismā?īl I ibn A?mad (Sāmānid ruler)

    Ismā?īl I ibn A?mad, (reigned 892–907), one of the Persian Sāmānid dynasty’s most famous sovereigns, who was generous, brave, just, and cultivated. Originally governor of Transoxiana at the age of 21, he extended his domains throughout ?abaristān and Khorāsān and, though nominally under the caliph

  • Ismā?īl ibn Ja?far (Shī?ite imam)

    Ja?far al-?ādiq: His eldest son, Ismā?īl, predeceased him, but the “Seveners,” represented today chiefly by the Ismā?īliyyah (followers of Ismā?īl)—argued that Ismā?īl merely disappeared and would reappear one day. Three other sons also claimed the imamate; of these, Mūsā al-Kā?im gained widest recognition. Shi?i sects not recognizing Ismā?īl are mostly…

  • Ismā?īl ibn Mu?ammad at-Tamīmī (Druze leader)

    al-?udūd: …Universal Soul (an-Nafs), embodied in Ismā?īl ibn Mu?ammad at-Tamīmī. The Word (al-Kalimah) emanates from an-Nafs and is manifest in the person of Mu?ammad ibn Wahb al-Qurashī. The fourth successive principle is the Preceder (as-Sābiq, or Right Wing [al-Janā? al-Ayman]), embodied in Salāmah ibn ?Abd al-Wahhāb as-Sāmirrī; and the fifth is…

  • Ismā?īl ibn Sharīf (?Alawī ruler of Morocco)

    Ismā?īl, second ruler of the ?Alawī dynasty of Morocco; his long reign (1672–1727) saw the consolidation of ?Alawī power, the development of an effective army trained in European military techniques, and the introduction of French influence in Morocco. Virtually nothing is known about Ismā?īl’s

  • Ismā?īl II (Sāmānid ruler)

    Sāmānid dynasty: …999, and the last Sāmānid, Ismā?īl II, after a five-year struggle against the Ghaznavid Ma?mūd and the Qarakhanids, was assassinated in 1005.

  • Ismā?īl III (shah of Iran)

    Karīm Khān Zand (Mo?ammad): …the throne the infant Shāh Ismā?īl III, the grandson of the last official ?afavid king. Ismā?īl was a figurehead king, real power being vested in Karīm Khān, who never claimed the title of shāhānshāh (“king of kings”) but used that of vakīl (“regent”).

  • Ismā?īl Pasha (Ottoman viceroy of Egypt)

    Ismā?īl Pasha, viceroy of Egypt under Ottoman suzerainty, 1863–79, whose administrative policies, notably the accumulation of an enormous foreign debt, were instrumental in leading to British occupation of Egypt in 1882. Ismā?īl studied in Paris and undertook various diplomatic missions in Europe

  • Ismā?īl Shahīd, Mu?ammad (Indian religious reformer)

    Mu?ammad Ismā?īl Shahīd, Indian Muslim reformer who attempted to purge Indian Islam from idolatry and who preached holy war against the Sikhs and the British. As a preacher in Delhi, Ismā?īl Shahīd attracted attention as a young man for his forceful preaching against such popular superstitions as

  • Ismā?īl ?ādil Shāh (Bijāpur ruler)

    India: Growth of power: …was fighting in the east, Ismā?īl ?ādil Shah of Bijapur had retaken Raichur fort. In 1520 Krishna Deva decisively defeated Ismā?īl with some aid from Portuguese gunners and recaptured Raichur. In 1523 he carried the attack further, invading Bijapur and capturing several forts. Krishna Deva razed Gulbarga and once again…

  • Ismā?īl, A?mad (Egyptian defense minister)

    A?mad Ismā?īl, Egyptian field marshal who was Egypt’s defense minister and commander in chief when he planned the attack across the Suez Canal that surprised Israel on October 6, 1973, and began the Yom Kippur War (see Arab-Israeli wars). Ismā?īl graduated from the Cairo Military Academy in 1938,

  • Ismā?īl, ?Abd al-Fattā? (president of Yemen)

    Yemen: Two Yemeni states: ?Abd al-Fattā? Ismā?īl was the major ideologue of the YSP, as well as head of state and the driving force behind South Yemen’s move toward the Soviet Union earlier in the 1970s. Late in that decade he was opposed by his former ally, leader of…

  • Ismā?īliyyah (Islamic sect)

    Ismā?īliyyah, sect of Shi?ah Islam that was most active as a religiopolitical movement in the 9th–13th century through its constituent movements—the Fā?imids, the Qarāmi?ah (Qarmatians), and the Nīzarīs. In the early 21st century it was the second largest of the three Shi?ah communities in Islam,

  • Ismā?īliyyah (district, Cairo, Egypt)

    Cairo: Development of the city: …its large park), ?Abdīn, and Ismā?īliyyah—all now central zones of contemporary Cairo. By the end of the 19th century these districts were well-developed, but with the beginning of British rule of Egypt in 1882 they were transformed into a colonial enclave.

  • Ismā?īliyyah Canal, Al- (canal, Egypt)

    Suez Canal: Construction: …of a small canal (the Al-Ismā?īliyyah) from the delta along the Wadi Tumelat, with a southern branch (now called the Al-Suways al-?ulwah Canal; the two canals combined were formerly called the Sweet Water Canal) to Suez and a northern one (Al-?Abbāsiyyah Canal) to Port Said. This supplied drinking water in…

  • Ismā?īliyyah, Al- (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Ismā?īliyyah, mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northeastern Nile delta, Lower Egypt. It is a square-shaped territory with a long, narrow extension northward along the Suez Canal, ending just south of Port Said. Its eastern boundary is the Suez Canal, including Great Bitter Lake (Bu?ayra al-Murrah

  • Ismā?īliyyah, Al- (Egypt)

    Ismailia, capital of Al-Ismā?īliyyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), northeastern Egypt. The city is located near the midpoint of the Suez Canal, on the northwestern shore of Lake Al-Timsā?. The lake, in a natural depression, was connected to the Gulf of Suez of the Red Sea in pharaonic times. The city

  • Ismene (Greek mythology)

    Antigone: …father, Antigone and her sister Ismene served as Oedipus’ guides, following him from Thebes into exile until his death near Athens. Returning to Thebes, they attempted to reconcile their quarreling brothers—Eteocles, who was defending the city and his crown, and Polyneices, who was attacking Thebes. Both brothers, however, were killed,…

  • Isn’t It Romantic (work by Wasserstein)

    Wendy Wasserstein: …revised and expanded, 1977) and Isn’t It Romantic (1981), which explore women’s attitudes toward marriage and society’s expectations of women. In The Heidi Chronicles a successful art historian discovers that her independent life choices have alienated her from men as well as women. The Sisters Rosensweig (1992) continues the theme…

  • Isn’t Life Wonderful? (film by Griffith)

    history of the motion picture: D.W. Griffith: …feature was the independent semidocumentary Isn’t Life Wonderful? (1925), which was shot on location in Germany and is thought to have influenced both the “street” films of the German director G.W. Pabst and the post-World War II Italian Neorealist movement.

  • ISNA (Islamic organization)

    Ingrid Mattson: …was elected vice president of ISNA, an umbrella organization of Islamic groups in the United States and Canada. From 2006 to 2010 she served as president of ISNA—the first woman, the first person from a non-Islamic country, and the first convert to Islam to hold the position. A highly visible…

  • isnād (Islam)

    Isnād, (from Arabic sanad, “support”), in Islam, a list of authorities who have transmitted a report (?adīth) of a statement, action, or approbation of Muhammad, one of his Companions (?a?ābah), or of a later authority (tabī?); its reliability determines the validity of a ?adīth. The isnād precedes

  • ISO

    International Organization for Standardization (ISO), specialized international organization concerned with standardization in all technical and nontechnical fields except electrical and electronic engineering (the responsibility of the International Electrotechnical Commission [IEC]). Founded in

  • ISO (satellite)

    Infrared Space Observatory (ISO), European Space Agency (ESA) satellite that observed astronomical sources of infrared radiation from 1995 to 1998. After the spectacular success in 1983 of the short-lived Infrared Astronomical Satellite, which produced the first infrared all-sky survey, the ESA

  • ISO number (photography)

    technology of photography: Sensitometry and speed: The internationally adopted scale is ISO speed, written, for example, 200/24°. The first half of this (200) is arithmetic with the value directly proportional to the sensitivity (and also identical with the still widely used ASA speed). The second half (24°) is logarithmic, increasing by 3° for every doubling of…

  • Iso-Hollo, Volmari (Finnish athlete)

    Volmari Iso-Hollo, Finnish runner, who won two successive gold medals in the Olympic Games (1932, 1936) for the 3,000-metre steeplechase. Iso-Hollo also won a silver medal for the 10,000-metre race at the 1932 Olympic Games in Los Angeles and a bronze medal in the same event during the 1936 Games

  • ISO/OSI (communications)

    telecommunications network: Open systems interconnection: Different communication requirements necessitate different network solutions, and these different network protocols can create significant problems of compatibility when networks are interconnected with one another. In order to overcome some of these interconnection problems, the open systems interconnection (OSI) was approved in…

  • isoamyl nitrite (drug)

    Amyl nitrite, drug once commonly used in the treatment of angina pectoris, a condition characterized by chest pain precipitated by oxygen deficiency in the heart muscle. Amyl nitrite is one of the oldest vasodilators (i.e., agents that expand blood vessels). The drug is useful in treating cyanide

  • isobar (cartography)

    Isobar, line on a weather map of constant barometric pressure drawn on a given reference surface. The isobaric pattern on a constant-height surface is extremely useful in weather forecasting because of the close association between pressure and weather. Regions of low pressure at sea level tend to

  • isobar (nuclear physics)

    Isobar, in nuclear physics, any member of a group of atomic or nuclear species all of which have the same mass number—that is, the same total number of protons and neutrons. Thus, chlorine-37 and argon-37 are isobars. Chlorine-37 has 17 protons and 20 neutrons in its nucleus, whereas argon-37 has

  • isobaric spin (physics)

    Isospin, property that is characteristic of families of related subatomic particles differing principally in the values of their electric charge. The families of similar particles are known as isospin multiplets: two-particle families are called doublets, three-particle families are called

  • isobaric surface (physics)

    ocean current: Pressure gradients: …surfaces of equal pressure, called isobaric surfaces, are tilted in the deeper layers by the same amount as the sea surface. This is referred to as the barotropic field of mass. The unchanged pressure gradient gives rise to a current speed independent of depth. The oceans of the world, however,…

  • Isobel Gunn (novel by Thomas)

    Audrey Thomas: …spiritual journey to West Africa; Isobel Gunn (1999), a fictional account of the woman who disguised herself as a man to work for Hudson’s Bay Company in the 1800s; and Local Customs (2014), which was inspired by the mysterious death of Letty Landon, a writer who died in 1838 shortly…

  • isobutane (chemical compound)

    hydrocarbon: Alkanes: The other, called isobutane, has a branched chain.

  • isobutyl alcohol (chemical compound)

    butyl alcohol: isobutyl alcohol, and tertiary (t-) butyl alcohol.

  • isobutylene (chemical compound)

    butene: cis-2-butene, trans-2-butene, and isobutylene. All four butenes are gases at room temperature and pressure.

  • isobutylene-isoprene rubber (chemical compound)

    Butyl rubber (IIR), a synthetic rubber produced by copolymerizing isobutylene with small amounts of isoprene. Valued for its chemical inertness, impermeability to gases, and weatherability, butyl rubber is employed in the inner linings of automobile tires and in other specialty applications. Both

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