You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Israel, Twelve Tribes of

    Twelve Tribes of Israel, in the Bible, the Hebrew people who, after the death of Moses, took possession of the Promised Land of Canaan under the leadership of Joshua. Because the tribes were named after sons or grandsons of Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel after he wrestled an angel of the

  • Israel, Why (film by Lanzmann [1973])

    Claude Lanzmann: Lanzmann’s first film, Israel, Why—a collection of in-depth interviews that offer a glimpse of the state 25 years after its establishment—was released in 1973. That film was the stepping-stone to Shoah, his most-acclaimed work. After Israel, Why was released, the Foreign Ministry in Israel asked him to create…

  • Israel-Arab wars

    Arab-Israeli wars, series of military conflicts between Israeli and various Arab forces, most notably in 1948–49, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982, and 2006. In November 1947 the United Nations (UN) voted to partition the British mandate of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state (see United Nations

  • Israel-PLO accord (Palestinian Liberation Organization-Israel [1993])

    two-state solution: Oslo peace process: In the 1990s a breakthrough agreement negotiated between Israeli and Palestinian leaders in Oslo, Norway, set out a process for a mutually negotiated two-state solution to be gradually implemented by the end of the decade. Although the process showed initial promise and…

  • Israeli acute paralysis virus (infectious agent)

    colony collapse disorder: Suspected causes: …wing virus, invertebrate iridescent virus, Israeli acute paralysis virus, Kashmir bee virus, Nosema species, Paenibacillus larvae (American foulbrood), and sacbrood virus. Many of those pathogens are present in increased abundance in hives affected by CCD, and varroa mites are capable of transmitting deadly honeybee viruses, including black queen cell virus…

  • Israeli Aircraft Industries (Israeli company)

    military aircraft: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs): …but similar Scout, produced by Israeli Aircraft Industries (IAI), proved effective in identifying and locating surface-to-air missiles and marking them for destruction during hostilities in Lebanon in 1982. The U.S. Marine Corps procured the Mastiff, and it followed up this vehicle with the IAI-designed and U.S.-built RQ-2 Pioneer, a slightly…

  • Israeli Defense Forces (military organization, Israel)

    Israel Defense Forces (IDF), armed forces of Israel, comprising the Israeli army, navy, and air force. The IDF was established on May 31, 1948, just two weeks after Israel’s declaration of independence. Since its creation, its guiding principles have been shaped by the country’s need to defend

  • Israeli law

    Israeli law, the legal practices and institutions of modern Israel. In ancient times, when the people of Israel lived in their homeland, they created their own law: the law of the Torah and the law of the Mishna and the Talmud (see Torah; Mishna). Then came the separation of land and people for

  • Israeli War of Independence

    Arab-Israeli wars, series of military conflicts between Israeli and various Arab forces, most notably in 1948–49, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982, and 2006. In November 1947 the United Nations (UN) voted to partition the British mandate of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state (see United Nations

  • Israeli, Isaac (Jewish physician and philosopher)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli, Jewish physician and philosopher, widely reputed in the European Middle Ages for his scientific writings and regarded as the father of medieval Jewish Neoplatonism. Although there is considerable disagreement about his birth and death dates, he is known to have lived more

  • Israeli, Isaac ben Solomon (Jewish physician and philosopher)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli, Jewish physician and philosopher, widely reputed in the European Middle Ages for his scientific writings and regarded as the father of medieval Jewish Neoplatonism. Although there is considerable disagreement about his birth and death dates, he is known to have lived more

  • Israeli-Arab wars

    Arab-Israeli wars, series of military conflicts between Israeli and various Arab forces, most notably in 1948–49, 1956, 1967, 1973, 1982, and 2006. In November 1947 the United Nations (UN) voted to partition the British mandate of Palestine into a Jewish state and an Arab state (see United Nations

  • Israelite (people)

    Israelite, descendant of the Hebrew patriarch Jacob, whose name was changed to Israel after an all-night fight at Penuel near the stream of Jabbok (Genesis 32:28). In early history, Israelites were simply members of the 12 tribes of Israel. After 930 bce and the establishment of two independent

  • Israelites (South African religious sect)

    South African Party: …religious sect known as the Israelites, who were squatting on a farm at Bulhoek near Queenstown in 1921, and to crush a rising among the Bondelswarts (a Nama group) in southern South West Africa (now Namibia) in 1922. In the former, a large force of several hundred officers attacked, using…

  • Israelites Gathering the Manna, The (painting by Poussin)

    Nicolas Poussin: Conversion to Classicism: In 1638 he painted The Israelites Gathering the Manna for Paul Fréart de Chantelou, who subsequently became his closest friend and greatest patron. This work is the most ambitious history painting of Poussin’s entire career and, by the artist’s own admission, was designed to be “read” by the viewer,…

  • Isra?ls, Isaac (Dutch painter)

    Jozef Isra?ls: …later works, and, like Rembrandt, Isra?ls often painted the poor Jews of the Dutch ghettos (e.g., A Son of the Chosen People, 1889). His son Isaac (1865–1934), also a painter, adopted an Impressionist technique and subject matter and had some influence on his father’s later work.

  • Isra?ls, Jozef (Dutch painter)

    Jozef Isra?ls, painter and etcher, often called the “Dutch Millet” (a reference to Jean-Fran?ois Millet). Isra?ls was the leader of the Hague school of peasant genre painting, which flourished in the Netherlands between 1860 and 1900. He began his studies in Amsterdam and from 1845 to 1847 worked

  • Isrāfīl (Islamic mythology)

    Isrāfīl, in Islam, the archangel who will blow the trumpet from the holy rock in Jerusalem (see Dome of the Rock) to announce the Day of Resurrection. The trumpet is constantly poised at his lips, ready to be blown when God so orders. Though not mentioned in the Qur?ān, Isrāfīl is known from Hadith

  • Isrā? (Islam)

    Isrā?, in Islām, the Prophet Mu?ammad’s night journey from Mecca to Jerusalem. As alluded to in the Qur?ān (17:1), a journey was made by a servant of God, in a single night, from the “sacred place of worship” (al-masjid al-?arām) to the “further place of worship” (al-masjid al-aq?ā).

  • Isrā?īl

    Israel, country in the Middle East, located at the eastern end of the Mediterranean Sea. It is bounded to the north by Lebanon, to the northeast by Syria, to the east and southeast by Jordan, to the southwest by Egypt, and to the west by the Mediterranean Sea. Jerusalem is the seat of government

  • Isrā?īl (Hebrew patriarch)

    Jacob, Hebrew patriarch who was the grandson of Abraham, the son of Isaac and Rebekah, and the traditional ancestor of the people of Israel. Stories about Jacob in the Bible begin at Genesis 25:19. According to the Old Testament, Jacob was the younger twin brother of Esau, who was the ancestor of E

  • ISRO (Indian space agency)

    Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), Indian space agency, founded in 1969 to develop an independent Indian space program. Its headquarters are in Bangalore (Bengaluru). ISRO’s chief executive is a chairman, who is also chairman of the Indian government’s Space Commission and the secretary of

  • ISS (physics)

    surface analysis: Secondary ion mass spectroscopy and ion scattering spectroscopy: For both SIMS and ISS, a primary ion beam with kinetic energy of 0.3–10 keV, usually composed of ions of an inert gas, is directed onto a surface. When an ion strikes the surface, two events can occur. In one scenario the…

  • ISS (space station)

    International Space Station (ISS), space station assembled in low Earth orbit largely by the United States and Russia, with assistance and components from a multinational consortium. The project, which began as an American effort, was long delayed by funding and technical problems. Originally

  • Issa (Japanese poet)

    Issa, Japanese haiku poet whose works in simple, unadorned language captured the spiritual loneliness of the common man. As a boy, Issa found relations with his stepmother so difficult that in 1777 he was sent by his father to Edo (present-day Tokyo), where he studied haikai under the poet Nirokuan

  • Issa (people)

    Issa, a branch of the Somali (q.v.) people living in the Republic of Djibouti (formerly the French Territory of the Afars and Issas) on the east coast of

  • Issachar (Hebrew tribe)

    Issachar, one of the 12 tribes of Israel that in biblical times constituted the people of Israel who later became the Jewish people. The tribe was named after the fifth son born to Jacob and his first wife, Leah. After the death of Moses, Joshua led the Israelites into the Promised Land and

  • Issakovitch, Sergey Ivanovitch (American architect)

    Serge Chermayeff, (SERGEY IVANOVITCH ISSAKOVITCH), Russian-born U.S. architect noted for designing modernistic buildings during the 1930s, particularly the De La Warr Pavilion at the coastal resort town of Bexhill, Eng. (b. Oct. 8, 1900--d. May 8,

  • Issei (people)

    Executive Order 9066: -born sons and daughters of Japanese immigrants) of southern California’s Terminal Island had been ordered to vacate their homes, leaving behind all but what they could carry. On March 2, 1942, Gen. John DeWitt, the army’s administrator for the western United States, issued Proclamation No. 1, which established Military Area…

  • Issel, Dan (American basketball player)

    Denver Nuggets: …future Hall of Fame members Dan Issel and David Thompson, Denver won its division for a second straight year in 1977–78, and in the postseason the Nuggets advanced to the Western Conference finals before being eliminated by the Seattle Supersonics.

  • Isserles, Moses ben Israel (Jewish scholar)

    Moses ben Israel Isserles, Polish-Jewish rabbi and codifier who, by adding notes on Ashkenazic customs to the great legal digest Shul?an ?arukh of the Sephardic codifier Joseph Karo, made it an authoritative guide for Orthodox Jews down to the present day. A precocious scholar, Isserles became the

  • ISSF

    shooting: International competition and organization: …changed its name to the International Shooting Sport Federation (ISSF) in 1998.

  • Issigonis, Sir Alec (British automobile designer)

    Sir Alec Issigonis, British automobile designer who created the best-selling, economical Mini and the perennially popular Morris Minor. The son of a Greek merchant, Issigonis immigrated to London in 1922 during the war between Greece and Turkey. After studying engineering, he joined Morris Motors

  • Issigonis, Sir Alexander Arnold Constantine (British automobile designer)

    Sir Alec Issigonis, British automobile designer who created the best-selling, economical Mini and the perennially popular Morris Minor. The son of a Greek merchant, Issigonis immigrated to London in 1922 during the war between Greece and Turkey. After studying engineering, he joined Morris Motors

  • Issihak II (African ruler)

    Songhai empire: …culminated disastrously for Songhai under Issihak II (1588–91) when Moroccan forces, using firearms, advanced into the Songhai empire to rout his forces, first at Tondibi and then at Timbuktu and Gao. Retaliatory guerrilla action of the pastoral Songhai failed to restore the empire, the economic and administrative centres of which…

  • Issledovaniye dogmaticheskogo bogosloviya (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: Conversion and religious beliefs: …Issledovaniye dogmaticheskogo bogosloviya (written 1880; An Examination of Dogmatic Theology), Soyedineniye i perevod chetyrokh yevangeliy (written 1881; Union and Translation of the Four Gospels), and V chyom moya vera? (written 1884; What I Believe); he later added Tsarstvo bozhiye vnutri vas (1893; The Kingdom of God Is Within You) and…

  • ISSN

    International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), in bibliography, eight-digit number that provides a concise and unambiguous identification code for serial publications. Unlike the International Standard Book Number (ISBN), this number’s only significance is its unique identification of a particular

  • Issoufou, Mahamadou (president of Niger)

    Mahamadou Issoufou, Nigerien politician who became president of Niger in 2011. During the late 1970s Issoufou studied in France and became a mining engineer; he returned to Niger in 1979 to work for the Société des Mines de l’A?r (SOMA?R), a French-controlled mining company. In 1990 he helped found

  • ISSP Survey

    public opinion: Regional and global surveys: …Program, better known as the ISSP Survey, is a collaborative effort involving research organizations in many parts of the world. Its survey topics include work, gender roles, religion, and national identity. The World Values Survey takes a slightly more political tack by examining the ways in which religious views, identity,…

  • issue preclusion (law)

    procedural law: Effects of the judgment: The related doctrine of collateral estoppel (also called issue preclusion) precludes the parties from relitigating, in a second suit based on a different claim, any issue of fact common to both suits that was actually litigated and necessarily determined in the first suit. At the start of the 20th…

  • Issues in Science and Religion (work by Barbour)

    Ian Barbour: His Issues in Science and Religion (1966) was one of the first books to treat the fields as two disciplines that shared a common ground rather than as two completely separate or conflicting spheres of study. The publication, which many credited with having created the interdisciplinary…

  • Issus, Battle of (Persian history)

    Battle of Issus, (333 bce), conflict early in Alexander the Great’s invasion of Asia in which he defeated a Persian army under King Darius III. This was one of the decisive victories by which Alexander conquered the Achaemenian Empire. Issus is a plain on the coast of the Gulf of ?skenderun, in

  • Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    Issy-les-Moulineaux, town, suburb of Paris, in Hauts-de-Seine département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. It is bounded to the northeast by the city limits of Paris. The town’s manufacturing industries include electrical equipment, chemicals, and printing and publishing, but in general

  • Issyk-Kul (oblast, Kyrgyzstan)

    Ysyk-K?l, oblasty (province), northeastern Kyrgyzstan. In the northeast is Lake Ysyk (Issyk-Kul) at an elevation of 5,276 feet (1,608 metres) and surrounded by ranges rising to some 17,100 feet (5,200 metres), while in the southeast, on the frontier with China, are the highest peaks of the Tien

  • Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan)

    Balykchy, town, capital of Ysyk-K?l oblasty (province), northeastern Kyrgyzstan. It is a port located on the western shore of Lake Ysyk (Issyk-Kul) and is linked to Frunze, about 87 miles (140 km) north-northwest. Balykchy’s economy centres on a food industry, including meat-packing and cereal

  • Issyk-kul, Ozero (lake, Kyrgyzstan)

    Lake Ysyk, a drainless lake in northeastern Kyrgyzstan. Situated in the northern Tien Shan (“Celestial Mountains”), it is one of the largest high-mountain lakes in the world and is famous for its magnificent scenery and unique scientific interest. It is situated within the bottom edges of the Lake

  • īstādeh-ye Moqor (lake, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Drainage: …southwest and the saline Lake īstādeh-ye Moqor, situated 60 miles (100 km) south of Ghaznī in the southeast. There are five small lakes in the Bābā Mountains known as the Amīr lakes; they are noted for their unusual shades of colour, from milky white to dark green, a condition caused…

  • Istaevone (mythology)

    Germanic peoples: Ingaevones, the Herminones, and the Istaevones—but the basis for this grouping is unknown. Tacitus records a variant form of the genealogy according to which Mannus had a larger number of sons, who were regarded as the ancestors of the Suebi, the Vandals, and others. At any rate, the currency of…

  • Istakhr (ancient city, Iran)

    Persepolis: History: …ce the nearby city of Istakhr (Estakhr, Stakhr) was the seat of local government, and Istakhr acquired importance as a centre of priestly wisdom and orthodoxy. Thereafter the city became the centre of the Persian Sāsānian dynasty, though the stone ruins that still stand just west of Persepolis suggest that…

  • Istállósk?, Mount (mountain, Hungary)

    Bükk Mountains: Maximum elevation is reached at Mount Istállósk? (3,146 feet [959 m]). The central core of the Bükk is a 12.5-by-4.5-mile (20-by-7-kilometre) limestone plateau (called Giants’ Table) with a rim of white cliffs dominating the surrounding lower mountains. The Bükk is an intensely folded and faulted block range. Along fault lines…

  • Istanbul (Turkey)

    Istanbul, largest city and principal seaport of Turkey. It was the capital of both the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The old walled city of Istanbul stands on a triangular peninsula between Europe and Asia. Sometimes as a bridge, sometimes as a barrier, Istanbul for more than 2,500 years

  • ?stanbul (Turkey)

    Istanbul, largest city and principal seaport of Turkey. It was the capital of both the Byzantine Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The old walled city of Istanbul stands on a triangular peninsula between Europe and Asia. Sometimes as a bridge, sometimes as a barrier, Istanbul for more than 2,500 years

  • Istanbul Agreement (World War I)

    Constantinople Agreement, (March 18, 1915), secret World War I agreement between Russia, Britain, and France for the postwar partition of the Ottoman Empire. It promised to satisfy Russia’s long-standing designs on the Turkish Straits by giving Russia Constantinople (Istanbul), together with a

  • ?stanbul Bogazi (strait, Turkey)

    Bosporus, strait (bo?az, “throat”) uniting the Black Sea and the Sea of Marmara and separating parts of Asian Turkey (Anatolia) from European Turkey. The Bosporus is 19 miles (30 km) long, with a maximum width of 2.3 miles (3.7 km) at the northern entrance and a minimum width of 2,450 feet (750

  • Istanbul Technical University (university, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Istanbul: Health and education: There is also a technical university on the Galata side of the Horn as well as an Academy of Fine Arts and schools of technology, commerce, and economics. Foreign educational institutions include the American Robert College for boys (founded in 1863) and the American College for girls (founded in…

  • ?stanbul üniversitesi (university, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Istanbul: Health and education: Istanbul University (?stanbul üniversitesi), founded in 1453, includes faculties of letters, science, law, medicine, and forestry and has facilities in Beyaz?t, Avc?lar, ?apa, Cerrahpa?a, Bah?ek?y, Kad?k?y, and ?i?li. There is also a technical university on the Galata side of the Horn as well as an…

  • Istanbul University (university, Istanbul, Turkey)

    Istanbul: Health and education: Istanbul University (?stanbul üniversitesi), founded in 1453, includes faculties of letters, science, law, medicine, and forestry and has facilities in Beyaz?t, Avc?lar, ?apa, Cerrahpa?a, Bah?ek?y, Kad?k?y, and ?i?li. There is also a technical university on the Galata side of the Horn as well as an…

  • istank?y (island, Greece)

    Cos, island off the southwestern coast of Turkey, the third largest of the Dodecanese Islands, Greece. A ragged limestone ridge runs along the southern coast. The highest point of the island, Mount Dhíkaios (2,776 feet [846 metres]), divides the island near its centre. A fertile lowland stretches

  • Istanu (Anatolian god)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Hurrian and Mitanni kingdoms: The sun god Shimegi and the moon god Kushuh, whose consort was Nikkal, the Ningal of the Sumerians, were of lesser rank. More important was the position of the Babylonian god of war and the underworld, Nergal. In northern Syria the god of war Astapi and the goddess…

  • Istaravshan (Tajikistan)

    Istaravshan, city, Tajikistan, in the northern foothills of the Turkistan Range. One of the most ancient cities of the republic, it may date from the 6th century ce, but it bore its former name only from the 17th to the early 21st century. It was famous in the past for its handicrafts, particularly

  • Isteni igazságra vezérl? kalauz (work by Pázmány)

    Hungarian literature: Effects of the Counter-Reformation: His Isteni igazságra vezérl? kalauz (1613; “Guide to Divine Truth”) was a refutation of non-Catholic religious doctrines and a masterpiece of Baroque prose.

  • Isthmian Games (ancient Greek festival)

    Isthmian Games, in ancient Greece, a festival of athletic and musical competitions in honour of the sea god Poseidon, held in the spring of the second and fourth years of each Olympiad at his sanctuary on the Isthmus of Corinth. Legend attributed their origin either to Sisyphus, king of Corinth,

  • isthmic pregnancy (medicine)

    pregnancy: Ectopic pregnancy: An isthmic pregnancy differs from one in the ampulla or infundibulum because the narrow tube cannot expand. Rupture of the affected tube with profuse intra-abdominal hemorrhage occurs early, usually within eight weeks after conception.

  • isthmus (geography)

    Isthmus, narrow strip of land connecting two large land areas otherwise separated by bodies of water. Isthmuses are of great importance in plant and animal geography because they offer a path for the migration of plants and animals between the two land masses they connect. Unquestionably the two

  • isthmus of the fallopian tube (anatomy)

    fallopian tube: The isthmus is a small region, only about 2 cm (0.8 inch) long, that connects the ampulla and infundibulum to the uterus. The final region of the fallopian tube, known as the intramural, or uterine, part, is located in the top portion (fundus) of the uterus;…

  • Istiblennius zebra (fish)

    blenny: The rockskipper (Istiblennius zebra) is a small Hawaiian blenny representative of several that live along shores and can hop about on land. The Hawaiian Runula goslinei and the Pacific R. tapeinosoma, both of which are small, are noted for nipping at swimmers.

  • isti?sān (Islamic law)

    Isti?sān, (Arabic: “to approve” or “to sanction”) in Islamic law, juristic discretion—i.e., the use of a jurist’s own judgment to determine the best solution to a religious problem that cannot be solved by simply citing sacred texts. Isti?sān found special application as Islam spread to new lands

  • Istiompax indicus (fish)

    marlin: The black marlin (M. indica) grows as large or larger than the blue. It is known to reach a weight of more than 700 kg (1,500 pounds). An Indo-Pacific species, it is blue or blue gray above and lighter below; its distinctive, stiff pectoral fins are…

  • Istiophoridae (fish family)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Istiophoridae (billfishes, marlins, sailfishes, and spearfishes) Bill round and shorter compared with sword of swordfish; dorsal fin long, extending almost the length of back of body and reaching striking height in the sailfish, Istiophorus gladius; pelvic fins present as thin filaments; body scaled; 2 small…

  • Istiophorus (fish)

    Sailfish, (genus Istiophorus), (genus ), valued food and game fish of the family Istiophoridae (order Perciformes) found in warm and temperate waters around the world. The sailfish has a long, rounded spear extending from its snout but is distinguished from related species, such as marlins, by its

  • Istiophorus albicans (fish)

    sailfish: platypterus) and the Atlantic sailfish (I. albicans).

  • Istiqlāl (political party, Morocco)

    Morocco: The French Zone: …took the new title of ?izb al-Istiqlāl (Independence Party). In January 1944 the party submitted to the sultan and the Allied (including the French) authorities a memorandum asking for independence under a constitutional regime. The nationalist leaders, including A?mad Balafrej, secretary general of the Istiqlāl, were unjustly accused and arrested…

  • Istiqlal Mosque (mosque, Jakarta, Indonesia)

    Jakarta: City layout: The Istiqlal Mosque, in the northeast corner of Medan Merdeka opposite Lapangan Banteng, is one of the largest mosques in Southeast Asia. The National Museum (formerly the Central Museum), on the west side of Medan Merdeka, houses a collection of historical, cultural, and artistic artifacts.

  • isti?lā? (Islamic law)

    Isti?lā?, (Arabic: “to deem proper”) in Islamic law, consideration of benefit, a norm employed by Muslim jurists to solve perplexing problems that find no clear answer in sacred religious texts. In such a situation, the judge reaches a decision by determining first what is materially most

  • Istitutioni harmoniche (treatise by Zarlino)

    Gioseffo Zarlino: Zarlino’s first treatise, Istitutioni harmoniche (1558), brought him rapid fame. It gives a shrewd account of musical thinking during the first half of the 16th century, and Zarlino’s thoughts on tuning, chords, and modes anticipate 17th- and 18th-century developments. He discussed the tuning of the first four intervals…

  • Istituto Dramma Italiano (Italian organization)

    Italy: Theatre: … (Ente Teatrale Italiano; ETI), the Institute for Italian Drama (Istituto Dramma Italiano; IDI), concerned with promoting Italian repertory, and the National Institute for Ancient Drama (Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico; INDA). In 1990 the government tightened its legislation on eligibility for funding, which severely affected fringe and experimental theatres. Financial…

  • Istituto Mobiliare Italiano (Italian holding company)

    Italy: Economic policy: …new state-run holding companies, the Italian Industrial Finance Institute (Istituto Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision.…

  • Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico (Italian organization)

    Italy: Theatre: …promoting Italian repertory, and the National Institute for Ancient Drama (Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico; INDA). In 1990 the government tightened its legislation on eligibility for funding, which severely affected fringe and experimental theatres. Financial constraints in subsequent years led to an increasing number of international coproductions.

  • Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale (Italian government)

    Italy: Health and welfare: …range of benefits, is the National Social Insurance Institute (Istituto Nazionale della Previdenza Sociale; INPS).

  • Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Public and private sectors: …l’Energia Elettrica; ENEL), and the State Insurance Fund (Istituto Nazionale delle Assicurazioni; INA). Other principal agencies include the Azienda Nazionale Autonoma delle Strade Statali (ANAS), responsible for some 190,000 miles (350,000 km) of the road network, and the Ente Ferrovie dello Stato (FS; “State Railways”), which controls the majority of…

  • Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale (Italian corporation)

    Italy: Economic policy: …Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision. Italy thus acquired a huge, state-led industrial sector, which was…

  • Istiwā?īyah, Al- (historical region, Africa)

    Sudan: Ismā?īl Pasha and the growth of European influence: …establish Egyptian hegemony over the equatorial regions of central Africa and to curtail the slave trade on the upper Nile. Baker remained in equatorial Africa until 1873, where he established the Equatoria province as part of the Egyptian Sudan. He had extended Egyptian power and curbed the slave traders on…

  • Istmo de Panamá (isthmus, Central America)

    Isthmus of Panama, land link extending east-west about 400 miles (640 km) from the border of Costa Rica to the border of Colombia. It connects North America and South America and separates the Caribbean Sea (Atlantic Ocean) from the Gulf of Panama (Pacific Ocean). The narrowest part of the Americas

  • Istomin, Eugene (American pianist)

    Eugene George Istomin, American classical pianist (born Nov. 26, 1925, New York, N.Y.—died Oct. 10, 2003, Washington, D.C.), debuted at age 17 with the Philadelphia Orchestra and the New York Philharmonic in the same week after winning awards that provided for those performances. Touring e

  • Istoria civile del regno di Napoli (work by Giannone)

    Pietro Giannone: …del regno di Napoli (1723; The Civil History of the Kingdom of Naples)—a polemical survey of Neapolitan history in which he espoused the side of the civil power in its conflicts with the Roman Catholic hierarchy. As a result of this, the Istoria was placed on the Index librorum prohibitorum…

  • Istoria del concilio tridentino (work by Sarpi)

    Paolo Sarpi: Sarpi’s writings.: …printed in his lifetime, the History of the Council of Trent, appeared in London in 1619, under the pseudonym Pietro Soave Polano. Though put on Rome’s Index of prohibited books, it went through several editions and five translations in 10 years.

  • Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidente (work by Galileo)

    Galileo: Telescopic discoveries: This controversy resulted in Galileo’s Istoria e dimostrazioni intorno alle macchie solari e loro accidenti (“History and Demonstrations Concerning Sunspots and Their Properties,” or “Letters on Sunspots”), which appeared in 1613. Against Scheiner, who, in an effort to save the perfection of the Sun, argued that sunspots are satellites of…

  • Istoria sfete udovice Judit u versih harvacchi slozena (work by Maruli?)

    Croatian literature: …Croatian Verses,” usually known as Judita), a plea for the national struggle against the Ottoman Empire; Hanibal Luci?, author of Robinja (“The Slave Girl”), the first South Slav secular play; Marin Dr?i?, who wrote pastoral dramas and comedies portraying Renaissance Dubrovnik (his comedy Dundo Maroje, first performed about 1551, played

  • istoriato style (pottery decoration)

    Istoriato style, style of pottery decoration, originating about 1500 in Faenza, Italy, and popular throughout the 16th century, in which paintings comparable in seriousness to Italian Renaissance easel paintings were applied to maiolica ware. The subjects—biblical, historical, and mythological

  • Istorie fiorentine (work by Machiavelli)

    Niccolò Machiavelli: The Florentine Histories: ” Machiavelli’s longest work—commissioned by Pope Leo X in 1520, presented to Pope Clement VII in 1525, and first published in 1532—is a history of Florence from its origin to the death of Lorenzo di Piero de’ Medici in 1492. Adopting the approach of…

  • Istoriya gosudarstva rossiyskogo (work by Karamzin)

    Nikolay Mikhaylovich Karamzin: …was devoted to his 12-volume Istoriya gosudarstva rossiyskogo (1816–29; “History of the Russian State”). Though based on original research, this first general survey of Russian history was conceived as a literary rather than an academic work. The history is, in effect, an apology for Russian autocracy. It is the first…

  • Istoriya odnoy zhizhni (work by Zoshchenko)

    Mikhail Mikhaylovich Zoshchenko: …requirements of Socialist Realism—notably in Istoriya odnoy zhizhni (1935; “The Story of One Life”), dealing with the construction, by forced labour, of the White Sea–Baltic Waterway—but with little success. In 1943 the magazine Oktyabr began to serialize his psychological-introspective series of episodes, anecdotes, and reminiscences entitled Pered voskhodom solntsa (“Before…

  • Istoriya Rossiyskaya s samikh drevneyshikh vremyon (work by Tatishchev)

    Vasily Nikitich Tatishchev: (1768–1848; History of Russia from the Most Early Times), relied on sources that have since to a great extent disappeared. It amassed a great volume of data based on original sources and was a pioneering work in its attempt to depict the development of the Russian…

  • Istoriya Vsesoyuznoy Kommunisticheskoy Partii (Bolshevikov): Kratky kurs (work by Stalin)

    Marxism: Stalin: …Partii (Bolshevikov): Kratky kurs (1938; A Short History of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union), and on a materialism that can be considered roughly identical to that of Feuerbach. His work Voprosy leninizma (1926; Problems of Leninism), which appeared in 11 editions during his lifetime, sets forth an ideology…

  • Istoro Nal, Mount (mountain, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Physiography: … (Nowshāk; 24,557 feet [7,485 metres]), Istoro Nal (24,242 feet [7,389 metres]), and Tirich Mir. Most major glaciers of the Hindu Kush—among them Kotgaz, Niroghi, Atrak, and Tirich—are in the valleys of this section.

  • Istra (peninsula, Europe)

    Istria, triangular peninsula that is part of Croatia and Slovenia. It extends into the northeastern Adriatic Sea between the Gulf of Venice (west) and the Gulf of Kvarner (east). The peninsula has an area of 1,220 square miles (3,160 square km). The northern portion is part of Slovenia, while the

  • Istranca Mountains (mountains, Turkey)

    Turkey: The northern folded zone: …and the main mountain range—the Y?ld?z (Istranca)—reaches only 3,379 feet (1,030 metres). Lowlands also occur to the south of the Sea of Marmara and along the lower Sakarya River east of the Bosporus. High ridges trending east-west rise abruptly from the Black Sea coast, and the coastal plain is thus…

  • Istria (peninsula, Europe)

    Istria, triangular peninsula that is part of Croatia and Slovenia. It extends into the northeastern Adriatic Sea between the Gulf of Venice (west) and the Gulf of Kvarner (east). The peninsula has an area of 1,220 square miles (3,160 square km). The northern portion is part of Slovenia, while the

  • Istrie, Jean-Baptiste Bessières, duc d’ (French soldier)

    Jean-Baptiste Bessières, duke d’Istrie, French soldier and, as one of Napoleon’s marshals, commander of the imperial guard after 1804. His appointment as marshal signaled Napoleon’s intention to develop the imperial guard. In 1792 Bessières joined Louis XVI’s constitutional guard as a private.

  • Istriot language

    Romance languages: Languages of the family: …one thousand speakers; known as Istriot, it may be related to Vegliot. Though some scholars connect it with Rhaetian Friulian dialects or with Venetian dialects of Italian, others maintain that it is an independent language. There are no texts except those collected by linguists. A little farther north in the…

Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载