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  • Italian cuisine

    cooking: Cuisines driven by class, climate, and politics: …how political fragmentation can affect cuisine. Blessed by a favourable climate, the region produces a full range of grains, fruits and vegetables, which is ideal for culinary diversity. That diversity persisted in the absence of political unity, which otherwise may have favoured one regional style over another. Until Italy was…

  • Italian cypress (tree)

    cypress: …is obtained from the Bhutan, Italian, and Monterey cypresses (C. torulosa, C. sempervirens, and C. macrocarpa, respectively). Their wood is light, moderately hard, and very durable in contact with the soil but is usually knotty and has an odour sometimes considered offensive. These three trees, together with the Arizona (C.…

  • Italian Democratic Socialist Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Democratic Socialist Party, anticommunist reform party advocating the nationalization of some industries. As a centre party, it was able to join many Italian governments in the decades after World War II. In early 1947, socialists who opposed the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) for its

  • Italian Democratic Socialists (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party: …in 1998 to form the Italian Democratic Socialists (Socialisti Democratici Italiani, SDI).

  • Italian Drama, Institute for (Italian organization)

    Italy: Theatre: … (Ente Teatrale Italiano; ETI), the Institute for Italian Drama (Istituto Dramma Italiano; IDI), concerned with promoting Italian repertory, and the National Institute for Ancient Drama (Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico; INDA). In 1990 the government tightened its legislation on eligibility for funding, which severely affected fringe and experimental theatres. Financial…

  • Italian East Africa

    Italian East Africa, group of Italian possessions in East Africa in the period 1936–41. It comprised Ethiopia (annexed by Italy on May 9, 1936, and was proclaimed a part of Italian East Africa that June 1) together with the Italian colonies of Eritrea, now part of Ethiopia, and Italian S

  • Italian farthingale (clothing)

    farthingale: …an elongated torso, and the Italian farthingale, which was a smaller and more delicate version, balanced equally at the hips and frequently worn alone as a skirt.

  • Italian General Confederation of Labour (Italian trade union)

    General Italian Confederation of Labour , Italy’s largest trade-union federation. It was organized in Rome in 1944 as a nationwide labour federation to replace the dissolved Fascist syndicates. Its founders, who included communists, social democrats, and Christian Democrats, intended it to be the

  • Italian Girl in Algiers, The (opera by Rossini)

    Gioachino Rossini: Italian period: …of L’Italiana in Algeri (1813; The Italian Girl in Algiers) followed, showing further refinements in his reforms of opera buffa. These two successes opened wide the doors of La Scala. With Aureliano in Palmira (1814) the composer affirmed his authority over the singers; he decided to prescribe and write the…

  • Italian Gothic (art style)

    Western painting: Italian Gothic: In the 13th century both Rome and Tuscany had flourishing pictorial traditions, and both, until the middle of the century, were strongly influenced by Byzantine art. The transitional period 1250–1300 is poorly documented. Since much of the Roman work was subsequently destroyed, evidence…

  • Italian greyhound (breed of dog)

    greyhound: The Italian greyhound is a breed of toy dog apparently derived from the greyhound. It has existed in its present form for more than 2,000 years and has been a favourite of the aristocracy. A miniature version of the greyhound, it stands 13 to 15 inches…

  • Italian hand (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century): …of their alteration of this Italian hand. Others simply called it italique or lettera italiana. Regardless of the name, the hand had moved far from its early-16th-century prototypes. For example, at the beginning of the 17th century, writers began to change how the small letters were joined to each other.…

  • Italian Harlem (area, New York City, New York, United States)

    Harlem: …early era of integration, “Italian Harlem,” persisted as a small enclave along First Avenue and Pleasant Avenue, with an axis along 116th Street.

  • Italian Independence, Wars of

    battles of Custoza: …over northern Italy during the Italian Wars of Independence, both occurring at Custoza, 11 miles southwest of Verona, in Lombardy.

  • Italian Industrial Finance Institute (Italian holding company)

    Italy: Economic policy: …new state-run holding companies, the Italian Industrial Finance Institute (Istituto Mobiliare Italiano; IMI) and the Institute for Industrial Reconstruction (Istituto per la Ricostruzione Industriale; IRI), were set up to bail out failing firms and to provide capital for new industrial investment; they also provided trained managers and effective financial supervision.…

  • Italian jasmine (plant)

    jasmine: Major species: Italian jasmine (J. humile), a vinelike shrub with yellow flowers, has many cultivated varieties. The fragrant dried flowers of Arabian jasmine (J. sambac) are used to make jasmine tea.

  • Italian Job, The (film by Collinson [1969])

    The Italian Job, British comedy caper film, released in 1969, that was a cult favourite in the United Kingdom. Michael Caine starred as a recently released convict who assembles a group of eccentric thieves to enact an ingenious gold robbery in Italy. After an extended car chase—featuring a fleet

  • Italian Job, The (film by Gray [2003])

    Donald Sutherland: …Season (1989), Cold Mountain (2003), The Italian Job (2003), Pride & Prejudice (2005; as the estimable Mr. Bennet), The Mechanic (2011), and The Eagle (2011).

  • Italian Journey (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Napoleonic period (1805–16): …Classical world (Itali?nische Reise [1816–17; Italian Journey], which takes the story only as far as his final departure from Naples). Second, in 1814 Goethe accepted an invitation to visit the Neckar region and the Rhineland in western Germany, where his hosts, the brothers Boisserée, had amassed a great collection of…

  • Italian kingdom (Italian history)

    Italy: Lombard Italy: …Lombard period was called the regnum Italiae (“kingdom of Italy”) from the 9th century onward.

  • Italian Labour Union (Italian labour organization)

    Italian Labour Union, Italian trade union federation with more than a million and a half members. The UIL was formed in 1950 in opposition to the communist-dominated Italian General Confederation of Labour, Italy’s largest trade union federation, and the Roman Catholic-supported Italian

  • Italian labyrinth (ancient maze)

    labyrinth: The Italian was a highly intricate series of chambers in the lower part of the tomb of Porsena at Clusium. This tomb is said to be recognizable in the mound named Poggio Gajella, near Chiusi.

  • Italian language

    Italian language, Romance language spoken by some 66,000,000 persons, the vast majority of whom live in Italy (including Sicily and Sardinia). It is the official language of Italy, San Marino, and (together with Latin) Vatican City. Italian is also (with German, French, and Romansh) an official

  • Italian law

    civil law: Italian law: The French code was introduced into parts of Italy during the Napoleonic conquests. Even after the collapse of Napoleon’s empire, when French law was abrogated, the Napoleonic Code still served as the model for the new codes of several Italian states. The new…

  • Italian League (Italian history)

    Peace of Lodi: …maintain existing boundaries, and an Italian League (Lega Italica) was set up. The states of the league promised to defend one another in the event of attack and to support a contingent of soldiers to provide military aid. The league, officially proclaimed by Pope Nicholas V on March 2, 1455,…

  • Italian Liberal Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Liberal Party, moderately conservative Italian political party that dominated Italian political life in the decades after unification (1861) and was a minor party in the period after World War II. The Liberal Party was first formed as a parliamentary group within the Piedmont assembly in

  • Italian literature

    Italian literature, the body of written works produced in the Italian language that had its beginnings in the 13th century. Until that time nearly all literary work composed in Europe during the Middle Ages was written in Latin. Moreover, it was predominantly practical in nature and produced by

  • Italian Mannerism (art style)

    Western painting: Italian Mannerism and Late Renaissance: The first reaction against Leonardo, Michelangelo, Raphael, and Andrea del Sarto occurred in Florence between 1515 and 1524, during which time the painters Giovanni Battista (called Rosso Fiorentino) and Jacopo Carrucci Pontormo

  • Italian Masters in German Galleries (work by Morelli)

    Giovanni Morelli: His Italian Masters in German Galleries (1880; Eng. trans., 1883) marks an epoch in 19th-century art criticism. The so-called Morellian method was explored in this and his Italian Painters: Critical Studies of Their Work (1890; Eng. trans., 1892). Essentially 19th century in its scientific rigorousness, his…

  • Italian National Committee

    Young Italy: …replaced Young Italy with the Italian National Committee (Associazione Nazionale Italiana). After 1850, with Piedmont leading the struggle for unification, Mazzini’s influence declined.

  • Italian National Society (Italian organization)

    Italy: The war of 1859: …Italian nationalists founded the monarchist-unionist Italian National Society, which supported the policies of Cavour. Under the presidency of Manin and the vice presidency of Garibaldi, the society achieved wider appeal than it would have achieved under the exclusive leadership of moderates. Although he did not outlaw conspiratorial movements, Cavour was…

  • Italian oak (plant)

    oak: ilex), Italian oak (Q. frainetto), Lebanon oak (Q. libani), Macedonian oak (Q. trojana), and Portuguese oak (Q. lusitanica). Popular Asian ornamentals include the blue Japanese oak (Q. glauca), daimyo oak (Q. dentata),

  • Italian onion (plant)

    onion: Italian onions, or cipollini onions, are flat, with red colour and mild flavour. They are used raw for salads and sandwiches, and their red outer rings make an attractive garnish. Shallots are a small, angular variety of onion. They are typically white with a brown…

  • Italian orchid (plant)

    Orchis: militaris), and the naked man orchid (O. italica) all have flowers that resemble helmeted human figures. (See also man orchid.) Other Eurasian species of Orchis include some known as marsh orchids and others known as spotted orchids.

  • Italian Peninsula (peninsula, Europe)

    Italian Peninsula, one of the three great peninsulas of southern Europe, the other two being the Balkan (to the east) and the Iberian (to the west). The Italian Peninsula extends from the region of the Po River southward for some 600 miles (960 km); it has a maximum width of 150 miles (240 km). To

  • Italian Popular Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Popular Party, former centrist Italian political party whose several factions were united by their Roman Catholicism and anticommunism. They advocated programs ranging from social reform to the defense of free enterprise. The DC usually dominated Italian politics from World War II until the

  • Italian quillwort (plant)

    quillwort: Major species: Italian quillwort (I. malinverniana) has longer spiraling leaves that float on the water surface. Sand quillwort (I. histrix), an inconspicuous terrestrial European species, has very narrow 5–7-cm (2–3-inch-) long leaves that curl back to the ground from a fat white tufted base.

  • Italian Railways (Italian railway)

    Ferrovie dello Stato (FS), largest railway system of Italy. FS operates lines on the mainland and also on the islands of Sicily and Sardinia, which are linked to the mainland by train ferries. The Italian railway system was nationalized in 1905. In 1986 its status was changed from a government

  • Italian Republic

    Italy, country of south-central Europe, occupying a peninsula that juts deep into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy comprises some of the most varied and scenic landscapes on Earth and is often described as a country shaped like a boot. At its broad top stand the Alps, which are among the world’s most

  • Italian Republic (historical kingdom, Italy)

    Italy: The French Consulate, 1799–1804: …elected president of the new Italian Republic, though not without opposition, and Melzi became its vice president. Melzi pursued a policy of compromise and co-option. Although notables, mostly members of the aristocracy, held most of the prefectures and ministries, representatives of the democratic opposition were gradually included and given important…

  • Italian Republican Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Republican Party, anticlerical social-reform party. Although it had only a small following in the years after World War II, its position in the centre of the Italian political spectrum enabled it to take part in many coalition governments. The party dates back to the 19th century, when

  • Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party (political party, Italy)

    Italy: Forces of opposition: …Party of Romagna (later the Italian Revolutionary Socialist Party), which preached eventual revolution but also agitated for such causes as universal suffrage and labour and welfare legislation; in 1882, under the new suffrage, Costa became Italy’s first socialist deputy. In Lombardy a moderate, labour-oriented Italian Workers’ Party, founded in 1885,…

  • Italian Riviera (region, France-Italy)

    Riviera, Mediterranean coastland between Cannes (France) and La Spezia (Italy). The French section comprises part of the C?te d’Azur (which extends farther west), while the Italian section is known to the west and east of Genoa as the Riviera di Ponente and the Riviera di Levante, respectively.

  • Italian school (mathematics)

    mathematics: Algebraic topology: …was fruitfully applied by the Italian school of algebraic geometers. It ran into problems, which it was not wholly able to solve, having to do with the singularities a surface can possess. Whereas a locus given by f(x, y) = 0 may intersect itself only at isolated points, a locus…

  • Italian Social Movement (political party, Italy)

    National Alliance, former nationalist anticommunist political party of Italy. Historically, some of its members held neofascist views. The MSI was formed in 1946 by supporters of former Italian leader Benito Mussolini from elements of the defunct Uomo Qualunque (Average Man) Party that had appeared

  • Italian Social Republic (historical area, Italy)

    Italy: The republic of Salò (the Italian Social Republic) and the German occupation: …as ruler of the “Italian Social Republic,” a last-ditch puppet Fascist regime based in Salò on Lake Garda. The republic tried to induct those born in 1923, 1924, and 1925 into its army, but only 40 percent of young men responded. Many others deserted soon after the call-up. In…

  • Italian Socialist Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Italian Socialists (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party: …in 1998 to form the Italian Democratic Socialists (Socialisti Democratici Italiani, SDI).

  • Italian Somaliland (historical colony, Africa)

    Italian Somaliland, Former Italian colony, eastern Africa. It extended south from Cape Asir to the boundary of Kenya, occupying an area of 178,218 sq mi (461,585 sq km). Italy obtained control of it in 1889 and it was incorporated as a state in Italian East Africa in 1936. Britain invaded in 1941

  • Italian sonnet (poetry)

    sonnet: …beloved, Laura—established and perfected the Petrarchan (or Italian) sonnet, which remains one of the two principal sonnet forms, as well as the one most widely used. The other major form is the English (or Shakespearean) sonnet.

  • Italian stone pine (tree species)

    pine: …including black, white, Himalayan, and stone pines, and some are planted in reforestation projects or for windbreaks. Pine-leaf oil, used medicinally, is a distillation product of the leaves; charcoal, lampblack, and fuel gases are distillation by-products.

  • Italian style (music)

    Henry Purcell: Music for theatre: …still more closely with the Italian style is very noticeable in the later dramatic works, which often demand considerable agility from the soloists.

  • Italian Symphony (work by Mendelssohn)

    Italian Symphony, orchestral work by German composer Felix Mendelssohn, so named because it was intended to evoke the sights and sounds of Italy. Its final movement, which is among the most strongly dramatic music the composer ever wrote, even uses the rhythms of Neapolitan dances. The symphony

  • Italian Theatre Board (Italian organization)

    Italy: Theatre: …activity in Italy are the Italian Theatre Board (Ente Teatrale Italiano; ETI), the Institute for Italian Drama (Istituto Dramma Italiano; IDI), concerned with promoting Italian repertory, and the National Institute for Ancient Drama (Istituto Nazionale del Dramma Antico; INDA). In 1990 the government tightened its legislation on eligibility for funding,…

  • Italian trecento music (music history)

    Ars Nova: …which is also known as Italian trecento music. The most important theorist of this school was Marchettus of Padua, whose treatise Pomerium (in the early 14th century) outlines certain rhythmic innovations in Italian notation of the time. The most important composers of 14th-century Italy are Jacopo da Bologna, Francesco Landini,…

  • Italian unification, war of (1859)

    Austria: Neoabsolutist era, 1849–60: …which would in 1859 support Sardinia in its war of Italian unification against the Austrians.

  • Italian Wars (European history)

    Italian Wars, (1494–1559) series of violent wars for control of Italy. Fought largely by France and Spain but involving much of Europe, they resulted in the Spanish Habsburgs dominating Italy and shifted power from Italy to northwestern Europe. The wars began with the invasion of Italy by the

  • Italian Workers’ Party (political party, Italy)

    Italian Socialist Party, former Italian political party, one of the first Italian parties with a national scope and a modern democratic organization. It was founded in 1892 in Genoa as the Italian Workers’ Party (Partito dei Lavoratori Italiani) and formally adopted the name Italian Socialist Party

  • Italian, or The Confessional of the Black Penitents. A Romance, The (novel by Radcliffe)

    The Italian, novel by Ann Radcliffe, published in three volumes in 1797. A notable example of Gothic literature, the novel’s great strength is its depiction of the villain, the sinister monk Schedoni. The main plot concerns the attempts of various characters to prevent the marriage of Vincentio di

  • Italian, The (novel by Radcliffe)

    The Italian, novel by Ann Radcliffe, published in three volumes in 1797. A notable example of Gothic literature, the novel’s great strength is its depiction of the villain, the sinister monk Schedoni. The main plot concerns the attempts of various characters to prevent the marriage of Vincentio di

  • Italian-American Civil Rights League (American organization)

    Joseph Colombo: …publicly and helped found the Italian-American Civil Rights League in 1970; his son Andrew was its vice president. On June 28, 1971, Colombo, speaking at an Italian-American rally in Columbus Circle, was shot by a young black man, who was himself immediately slain. Colombo was probably the target of the…

  • Italiana in Algeri, L’? (opera by Rossini)

    Gioachino Rossini: Italian period: …of L’Italiana in Algeri (1813; The Italian Girl in Algiers) followed, showing further refinements in his reforms of opera buffa. These two successes opened wide the doors of La Scala. With Aureliano in Palmira (1814) the composer affirmed his authority over the singers; he decided to prescribe and write the…

  • Italianate painters (Dutch painting)

    Italianate painters, group of 17th-century northern European painters, principally Dutch, who traveled in Italy and, consciously adopting the style of landscape painting that they found there, incorporated Italian models and motifs into their own works. Chief among the Italianates were Bartholomeus

  • Itali?nische Reise (work by Goethe)

    Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Napoleonic period (1805–16): …Classical world (Itali?nische Reise [1816–17; Italian Journey], which takes the story only as far as his final departure from Naples). Second, in 1814 Goethe accepted an invitation to visit the Neckar region and the Rhineland in western Germany, where his hosts, the brothers Boisserée, had amassed a great collection of…

  • Italiano

    Italian language, Romance language spoken by some 66,000,000 persons, the vast majority of whom live in Italy (including Sicily and Sardinia). It is the official language of Italy, San Marino, and (together with Latin) Vatican City. Italian is also (with German, French, and Romansh) an official

  • Italiano, Anna Maria Louisa (American actress)

    Anne Bancroft, (Anna Maria Louisa Italiano), American actress (born Sept. 17, 1931, Bronx, N.Y.—died June 6, 2005, New York, N.Y.), was a versatile performer whose half-century-long career was studded with renowned successes on stage, screen, and television. She won both a Tony Award and an A

  • Italians, The (work by Twombly)

    Cy Twombly: In a work such as The Italians (1961), Twombly made seemingly random and scrawled marks with oil paint, pencil, and crayon as if pursuing a kind of abstract and gestural handwriting in a stream of consciousness. Closer examination, though, reveals this artist’s wide range of choices and emphases, with alternating…

  • italic (typeface)

    Italic, in printing, a sloping, light-bodied, compact, and almost cursive letter form, which, with roman and black letter shapes, has been one of the three major typefaces in the history of Western printing. Used today almost exclusively as a special function adjunct of roman letters, italic types

  • italic bastarda (calligraphy)

    testeggiata: …ornamental feature of the 16th-century italic bastarda script. At Venice in 1554, Vespasiano Amphiareo published models that combined an overdisciplined cancellaresca script with black-letter mercantile script mannerisms such as loops and running ligatures. From this hybrid the Vatican scriptor Gianfrancesco Cresci developed a highly cursive, free-flowing hand. His italic bastarda…

  • Italic Handwriting, Society for (British calligraphers)

    calligraphy: Revival of calligraphy (19th and 20th centuries): …United Kingdom; in 1952 the Society for Italic Handwriting was founded there by the English calligrapher Alfred Fairbank, a pupil of Graily Hewitt. Fairbank, who was undoubtedly the strongest advocate for the italic hand in the 20th century, published his first manual on learning italic handwriting in 1932, and he…

  • Italic languages

    Italic languages, certain Indo-European languages that were once spoken in the Apennine Peninsula (modern Italy) and in the eastern part of the Po valley. These include the Latin, Faliscan, Osco-Umbrian, South Picene, and Venetic languages, which have in common a considerable number of features

  • Italic people, ancient

    Ancient Italic people, any of the peoples diverse in origin, language, traditions, stage of development, and territorial extension who inhabited pre-Roman Italy, a region heavily influenced by neighbouring Greece, with its well-defined national characteristics, expansive vigour, and aesthetic and

  • italic script (calligraphy)

    Italic script, in calligraphy, script developed by the Italian humanists about 1400 from antique Latin texts and inscriptions. The humanists called the Carolingian minuscule in which most of these sources were preserved lettera antica, mistakenly regarding it as a Roman script from the time of

  • Italic War (Roman history)

    Social War, (90–89 bc), rebellion waged by ancient Rome’s Italian allies (socii) who, denied the Roman franchise, fought for independence. The allies in central and southern Italy had fought side by side with Rome in several wars and had grown restive under Roman autocratic rule, wanting instead

  • Italica (ancient town, Spain)

    Hadrian: Early life: In 90 Hadrian visited Italica, where he remained for several years. There he received some kind of military training and also developed a fondness for hunting that he kept for the rest of his life.

  • Italicus, Silius (Roman poet)

    Silius Italicus, Latin epic poet whose 17-book, 12,000-line Punica on the Second Punic War (218–201 bc) is the longest poem in Latin literature. Silius was a distinguished advocate in his earlier years. He later took to public service and was a consul in 68, the year of Nero’s death. His

  • italienne bastarde (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: Writing manuals and copybooks (16th to 18th century): …documents: the financière and the italienne bastarde. (Barbedor had been given the task of revising the official government scripts by the king’s minister of finance, Jean-Baptiste Colbert.) Barbedor’s instructions for writing the italienne bastarde (which he saw as a near-universal hand for all sorts of nonfinancial documents) are precise: small…

  • Italiysky, Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov, Knyaz (Russian military officer)

    Aleksandr Vasilyevich Suvorov, Count Rimniksky, Russian military commander notable for his achievements in the Russo-Turkish War of 1787–91 and in the French Revolutionary Wars. In 1789 he was created a Russian count and a count of the Holy Roman Empire; in 1799 he was created a Russian prince.

  • Italo-Albanian Church (Catholicism)

    Italo-Albanian Church, an Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic communion, comprising the descendants of ancient Greek colonists in southern Italy and Sicily and 15th-century Albanian refugees from Ottoman rule. The Italo-Greeks were Byzantine-rite Catholics; but, after the Norman invasion of

  • Italo-Ethiopian War (1935–1936)

    Italo-Ethiopian War, (1935–36), an armed conflict that resulted in Ethiopia’s subjection to Italian rule. Often seen as one of the episodes that prepared the way for World War II, the war demonstrated the ineffectiveness of the League of Nations when League decisions were not supported by the great

  • Italo-Ethiopian War (1895–1896)

    Italy: Colonialism: …Ethiopian province of Tigray, and war with Ethiopia began again. In March 1896 the Ethiopians overwhelmed the Italian army at the Battle of Adwa (Adua), killing about 5,000 Italian troops. This disaster forced Crispi to resign and ended Italy’s colonial adventures for some years. It was widely seen in Italy…

  • Italo-Greek Church (Catholicism)

    Italo-Albanian Church, an Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic communion, comprising the descendants of ancient Greek colonists in southern Italy and Sicily and 15th-century Albanian refugees from Ottoman rule. The Italo-Greeks were Byzantine-rite Catholics; but, after the Norman invasion of

  • Italo-Greek-Albanian Church (Catholicism)

    Italo-Albanian Church, an Eastern-rite member of the Roman Catholic communion, comprising the descendants of ancient Greek colonists in southern Italy and Sicily and 15th-century Albanian refugees from Ottoman rule. The Italo-Greeks were Byzantine-rite Catholics; but, after the Norman invasion of

  • Italo-Turkish War (1911–1912)

    Italo-Turkish War, (1911–12), war undertaken by Italy to gain colonies in North Africa by conquering the Turkish provinces of Tripolitana and Cyrenaica (modern Libya). The conflict upset the precarious international balance of power just prior to World War I by revealing the weakness of Turkey and,

  • Italus, John (Byzantine philosopher)

    John Italus, Byzantine philosopher, skilled dialectician, and imputed heretic who, at the imperial court, established a school of Platonism that advanced the work of integrating Christian with pagan Greek thought. Italus exerted a lasting influence on the Byzantine mind. Of Calabrian origin,

  • Italy (ancient Roman territory, Italy)

    Italy, in Roman antiquity, the Italian Peninsula from the Apennines in the north to the “boot” in the south. In 42 bc Cisalpine Gaul, north of the Apennines, was added; and in the late 3rd century ad Italy came to include the islands of Sicily, Corsica, and Sardinia, as well as Raetia and part of P

  • Italy

    Italy, country of south-central Europe, occupying a peninsula that juts deep into the Mediterranean Sea. Italy comprises some of the most varied and scenic landscapes on Earth and is often described as a country shaped like a boot. At its broad top stand the Alps, which are among the world’s most

  • Italy, Bank of (Italian bank)

    Italy: Finance: The Bank of Italy is the central bank and the sole bank of issue. Since the introduction of the euro in 2002, the Bank of Italy has been responsible for the production and circulation of euro notes in accordance with EU policy. Execution of monetary policy…

  • Italy, Bank of (American bank)

    A.P. Giannini: …California-based Bank of Italy—later the Bank of America—which, by the 1930s, was the world’s largest commercial bank. He was a major pioneer of branch banking.

  • Italy, Council of (European history)

    Italy: Spanish Italy: …Aragon, were coordinated by a Council of Italy in Madrid. At this council, the three major states—Naples, Sicily, and Milan—were each represented by two regents, one Castilian and one native. Sardinia remained a dependency of Aragon. The king, however, continued to receive and be responsive to embassies sent by various…

  • Italy, flag of

    vertically striped green-white-red national flag. Its width-to-length ratio is 2 to 3.A rich history of flags and coats of arms has existed in Italy since at least the 1200s, but the lack of national unification meant that there was no recognized flag representing all Italian-populated areas. The

  • Italy, history of

    Italy: Italy in the early Middle Ages: The Roman Empire was an international political system in which Italy was only a part, though an important part. When the empire fell, a series of barbarian kingdoms initially ruled the peninsula, but, after the Lombard invasion of 568–569,…

  • Italy, Kingdom of (historical kingdom, Italy)

    Italy: The French Consulate, 1799–1804: …elected president of the new Italian Republic, though not without opposition, and Melzi became its vice president. Melzi pursued a policy of compromise and co-option. Although notables, mostly members of the aristocracy, held most of the prefectures and ministries, representatives of the democratic opposition were gradually included and given important…

  • It?meri (sea, Europe)

    Baltic Sea, arm of the North Atlantic Ocean, extending northward from the latitude of southern Denmark almost to the Arctic Circle and separating the Scandinavian Peninsula from the rest of continental Europe. The largest expanse of brackish water in the world, the semienclosed and relatively

  • Itami (Japan)

    Itami, city, southeastern Hyōgo ken (prefecture), west-central Honshu, Japan. It lies largely between the Muko (west) and Kanzaki (east) rivers along the Fukuchiyama railway line, 9 miles (14 km) northwest of central ōsaka. Itami was a castle town from the 13th to the 16th century and became a

  • Itami Jūzō (Japanese director and screenwriter)

    Itami Jūzō, Japanese film director and screenwriter. He had a successful 20-year career as an actor in films such as 55 Days at Peking (1963), an American vehicle, before venturing into directing. His directorial debut, Ososhiki (1984; The Funeral), was acclaimed for its satire of social

  • Itanagar (India)

    Itanagar, town, capital of Arunachal Pradesh state, northeastern India. It is situated north of the Brahmaputra River in the southwestern part of the state. The state government established an industrial estate in the city to foster industrial development. Itanagar is the home of Arunachal

  • itang (Micronesian title)

    Micronesian culture: Socialization and education: …specialists known in Chuuk as itang. These were men and women who had trained under an older expert adept in traditional history, oratory, war strategy and tactics, and magic. Those who had earned the title or degree of itang could thenceforth serve as an orator, ambassador, counselor, or executive officer…

  • Itanhém River (river, Brazil)

    Maxakali: …near the headwaters of the Itanhém River. Over the past century the Maxakali have moved progressively eastward from their original home along the upper Mucuri River. The Maxakali numbered about 400 in the late 20th century.

  • Itanium 9500 (microprocessor)

    Intel: Pentium microprocessor: The Itanium 9500, which was released in 2012, had 3,100,000,000 transistors. This growth in transistor count became known as Moore’s law, named after company cofounder Gordon Moore, who observed in 1965 that the transistor count on a silicon chip would double approximately annually; he revised it…

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