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  • Itzamná (Mayan deity)

    Itzamná, (Mayan: “Iguana House”) principal pre-Columbian Mayan deity, ruler of heaven, day, and night. He frequently appeared as four gods called Itzamnás, who encased the world. Like some of the other Mesoamerican deities, the Itzamnás were associated with the points of the compass and their

  • Itzcóatl (Aztec king)

    Aztec: Under the ruler Itzcóatl (1428–40), Tenochtitlán formed alliances with the neighbouring states of Texcoco and Tlacopan and became the dominant power in central Mexico. Later, by commerce and conquest, Tenochtitlán came to rule an empire of 400 to 500 small states, comprising by 1519 some 5,000,000 to 6,000,000…

  • Itzhak (film by Chernick [2017])

    Itzhak Perlman: Itzhak (2017) is a documentary about his life and career.

  • IU (political party, Spain)

    Communist Party of Spain: Subsequently, the PCE joined the United Left (Izquierda Unida), a coalition of left-wing and ecologist parties. Although failing to attract wide support, the United Left did succeed in becoming Spain’s third largest national party.

  • IU (unit of measurement)

    International Unit (IU), in pharmacology, quantity of a substance, such as a vitamin, hormone, or toxin, that produces a specified effect when tested according to an internationally accepted biological procedure. For certain substances, the IU has been identified with a weight of a particular

  • Iu Mien (people)

    Mien, peoples of southern China and Southeast Asia. In the early 21st century they numbered some 2,700,000 in China, more than 350,000 in Vietnam, some 40,000 in Thailand, and approximately 20,000 in Laos. Several thousand Mien refugees from Laos have also settled in North America, Australia, and

  • Iuba (king of Numidia)

    Juba I, king of Numidia who sided with the followers of Pompey and the Roman Senate in their war against Julius Caesar in North Africa (49–45 bc). Succeeding his father, Hiempsal II, sometime between 63 and 50, Juba became bitterly hostile toward Caesar because of a personal insult (probably in

  • Iubhar Cinn Trágha (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Newry, town, Newry, Mourne and Down district, southeastern Northern Ireland. It lies along the River Clanrye and Newry Canal, near Carlingford Lough (inlet of the sea) and the Mourne Mountains. The town developed around a Cistercian abbey founded on the Clanrye by St. Malachy about 1144 and was

  • IUCN

    International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), network of environmental organizations founded as the International Union for the Protection of Nature in October 1948 in Fontainebleau, France, to promote nature conservation and the ecologically sustainable use of natural resources. It

  • IUCN Red List (conservation)

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, one of the most well-known objective assessment systems for classifying the status of plants, animals, and other organisms threatened with extinction. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) unveiled this assessment system in 1994. It contains

  • IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (conservation)

    IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, one of the most well-known objective assessment systems for classifying the status of plants, animals, and other organisms threatened with extinction. The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) unveiled this assessment system in 1994. It contains

  • IUD (contraceptive)

    contraception: Intrauterine devices (IUDs): IUDs are plastic or metal objects in a variety of shapes that are implanted inside the uterus. How they work is unclear, though researchers suspect that they cause a mild inflammation of the endometrium, thus inhibiting ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation…

  • IUE (satellite)

    International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE), astronomical research satellite built in the 1970s as a cooperative project of the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the Science and Engineering Research Council of the United Kingdom, and the European Space Agency (ESA). Launched

  • Iufaa (Egyptian priest)

    Abū ?īr: …uncovered the intact sarcophagus of Iufaa, a priest and palace administrator who lived about 525 bce.

  • IUGS

    Anthropocene Epoch: …Anthropocene Working Group of the International Union of Geologic Sciences (IUGS) voted to recommend the Anthropocene as a formal geologic epoch at the 35th International Geological Congress. In order for this interval to be made official, it first must be adopted by the IUGS and the International Commission on Stratigraphy.

  • Iuka, Battle of (United States history [1862])

    Woodall Mountain: …was the site of the Battle of Iuka (September 19, 1862), at which a Union force under General William S. Rosecrans was initially repulsed by Confederates under General Sterling Price near its base. It is thought to be named for Zephaniah H. Woodall, a former sheriff of Tishomingo county.

  • Iullemmiden (people)

    Niger: Ethnic groups: …are divided into three subgroups—the Iullemmiden of the Azaouak region in the west, the Asben (Kel A?r) in the A?r region, and the Itesen (Kel Geres) to the south and east of A?r. The Tuareg people are also found in Algeria and in Mali. The Kanuri, who live to the…

  • Iulus (millipede genus)

    millipede: …to many gardens, such as Julus (sometimes spelled Iulus) terrestris, a 25-mm (1-inch) species native to Europe and introduced into North America, and smooth-bodied forms often called wireworms. Some millipedes lack eyes and are brightly coloured; an example is the 25-mm greenhouse millipede (Oxidus gracilis). One of the most common…

  • Iulus (Roman mythology)

    Ascanius, in Roman legend, son of the hero Aeneas and the traditional founder of Alba Longa, probably the site of the modern Castel Gandolfo, near Rome. In different versions, Ascanius is placed variously in time. The usual account, found in Virgil’s Aeneid, makes the Trojan Creusa his mother.

  • iuno (Roman religion)

    genius: …the Roman housefather and the iuno, or juno, of the housemother were worshiped. These certainly were not the souls of the married pair, as is clear both from their names and from the fact that in no early document is there mention of the genius or iuno of a dead…

  • Iunu (ancient city, Egypt)

    Heliopolis, one of the most ancient Egyptian cities and the seat of worship of the sun god, Re. It was the capital of the 15th nome of Lower Egypt, but Heliopolis was important as a religious rather than a political centre. During the New Kingdom (c. 1539–1075 bce) its great temple of Re was second

  • IUPAC

    alcohol: Nomenclature: …at a meeting of the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) in Paris in 1957. Using the IUPAC system, the name for an alcohol uses the -ol suffix with the name of the parent alkane, together with a number to give the location of the hydroxyl group. The…

  • Iuppiter (Roman god)

    Jupiter, the chief ancient Roman and Italian god. Like Zeus, the Greek god with whom he is etymologically identical (root diu, “bright”), Jupiter was a sky god. One of his most ancient epithets is Lucetius (“Light-Bringer”); and later literature has preserved the same idea in such phrases as sub

  • IUPUI (university, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States)

    Indiana: Education: …Terre Haute in 1865, and Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis (IUPUI), which is Indiana’s major urban university campus. IUPUI was founded in 1969 as a collaboration between Indiana and Purdue universities; the institution is managed by Indiana University. IUPUI began to show especially rapid growth in the 1980s, and by the…

  • iurid (scorpion)

    scorpion: Annotated classification: Family Iuridae 21 species found in arid regions of the Americas as well as Turkey and Greece. Female reproductive system includes an ovariuterus, with yolk-poor ova developing within. Hadrurus the largest in the United States. Family Urodacidae 20 species found only in Australia. Family

  • Iuridae (scorpion)

    scorpion: Annotated classification: Family Iuridae 21 species found in arid regions of the Americas as well as Turkey and Greece. Female reproductive system includes an ovariuterus, with yolk-poor ova developing within. Hadrurus the largest in the United States. Family Urodacidae 20 species found only in Australia. Family

  • IUS (spacecraft)

    Boeing Company: History of Boeing Company: …was selected to develop the Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), a two-stage payload delivery vehicle that can be taken into space by either a space shuttle or a launcher such as the Titan. In 1993 NASA selected Boeing as the prime contractor for the ISS, and two years later the company…

  • ius provocationis (ancient Roman history)

    ancient Rome: Citizenship and politics in the middle republic: …appeal to the assembly (ius provocationis). A descendant of the Porcian clan later advertised these laws on coins as a victory for freedom. Moreover, the massive annual war effort provoked occasional resistance to military service. In 193 the tribunes started to investigate complaints about overly long military service. Interpreting…

  • Ius Regale Montanorum (law)

    Jihlava: …codified town mining law (Ius Regale Montanorum) served as a model for other central European mining laws. Hussite Utraquists and representatives of the Council of Basel signed a treaty at Jihlava in 1436. In 1523 the town was almost entirely destroyed by fire; its reconstruction, around the great town…

  • ius trium liberorum (Roman history)

    Martial: Life and career: …emperors Titus and Domitian the ius trium liberorum, which entailed certain privileges and was customarily granted to fathers of three children in Rome. These privileges included exemption from various charges, such as that of guardianship, and a prior claim to magistracies. They were therefore financially profitable and accelerated a political…

  • iusnaturalism

    Natural law, in philosophy, a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law. There have been several disagreements over the meaning of natural law and its relation to positive law. Aristotle (384–322 bce)

  • Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk (Russia)

    Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk, city and administrative centre of Sakhalin oblast (region), far eastern Russia. It lies in the south of Sakhalin Island on the Susuya River, 26 miles (42 km) north of the port of Korsakov. Originally the Japanese settlement of Toyohara, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk passed to the Soviet

  • Iuzhnyi Bug (river, Ukraine)

    Southern Buh, river, southwestern and south-central Ukraine. The Southern Buh is 492 miles (792 km) long and drains a basin of 24,610 square miles (63,740 square km). It rises in the Volyn-Podilsk Upland and flows east and southeast, first through a narrow valley with rapids and then across rolling

  • Iuzovka (Ukraine)

    Donetsk, city, southeastern Ukraine, on the headwaters of the Kalmius River. In 1872 an ironworks was founded there by a Welshman, John Hughes (from whom the town’s pre-Revolutionary name Yuzivka was derived), to produce iron rails for the growing Russian rail network. Later steel rails were made.

  • IV Olympiad, Games of the

    London 1908 Olympic Games, athletic festival held in London that took place April 27–Oct. 31, 1908. The London Games were the fourth occurrence of the modern Olympic Games. The 1908 Olympic Games originally were scheduled for Rome, but, with Italy beset by organizational and financial obstacles, it

  • IV Olympic Winter Games

    Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1936 Olympic Winter Games, athletic festival held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, Ger., that took place Feb. 6–16, 1936. The Garmish-Partenkirchen Games were the fourth occurrence of the Winter Olympic Games. The 1936 Winter Olympics, held in a Bavarian resort, were opened by

  • IV-VI compound (chemical compound)

    crystal: Covalent bonds: …is the case with the IV–VI semiconductors such as lead sulfide. Heavier elements from the fourth column of the periodic table (germanium, tin, and lead) combine with the chalcogenides from the sixth row to form good binary semiconductors such as germanium telluride (GeTe) or tin sulfide (SnS). They have the…

  • Iva annua (plant)

    Native American: Archaic cultures: …bear plentiful seeds) such as sumpweed (Iva annua) and lamb’s-quarters (Chenopodium album). Northern Americans independently domesticated several kinds of flora, including a variety of squash (c. 3000 bce) unrelated to the those of Mesoamerica or South America, sunflowers Helianthus annuus (c. 3000 bce), and goosefoot Chenopodium berlandieri (c.

  • Ivan (storm [2004])

    Cayman Islands: History: …were in the path of Hurricane Ivan, the most destructive storm of the 2004 hurricane season. Grand Cayman was badly hit and suffered great economic loss, particularly in the tourist sector; a national disaster was declared. The government instituted a large-scale effort to repair damage to beaches and infrastructure, and…

  • Ivan Alekseyevich (emperor of Russia)

    Ivan V, nominal tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1696. The younger son of Tsar Alexis (reigned 1645–76) by his first wife, Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya, Ivan was a chronic invalid, deficient mentally and physically, who suffered from scurvy and poor eyesight and in his later years was partially

  • Ivan Antonovich (emperor of Russia)

    Ivan VI, infant emperor of Russia in 1740–41. The son of Prince Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig-Bevern-Lüneburg and Anna Leopoldovna, the niece of Empress Anna (reigned in Russia 1730–40), Ivan Antonovich was named heir to the throne by the empress on Oct. 16 (Oct. 27), 1740, and proclaimed emperor t

  • Ivan Asen I (tsar of Bulgaria)

    Ivan Asen I, tsar of the Second Bulgarian empire from 1186 to 1196, during one of the most brilliant periods of the restored Bulgarian nation. He and his brother Peter II were founders of the Asen dynasty, which survived until the latter half of the 13th century. Asen was a descendant of l

  • Ivan Asen II (tsar of Bulgaria)

    Ivan Asen II, tsar of the Second Bulgarian empire from 1218 to 1241, son of Ivan Asen I. Ivan Asen overthrew his cousin Tsar Boril (reigned 1207–18) and blinded him, proclaiming himself tsar. A good soldier and administrator, he restored law and order, controlled the boyars, and, after defeating

  • Ivan Danilovich (Russian prince)

    Ivan I, grand prince of Moscow (1328–40) and grand prince of Vladimir (1331–40) whose policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia. The son of Prince Daniel of Moscow, Ivan succeeded his brother Yury as prince (1325) and then as grand prince (1328)

  • Ivan Grozny (tsar of Russia)

    Ivan the Terrible, grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and

  • Ivan I (Russian prince)

    Ivan I, grand prince of Moscow (1328–40) and grand prince of Vladimir (1331–40) whose policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia. The son of Prince Daniel of Moscow, Ivan succeeded his brother Yury as prince (1325) and then as grand prince (1328)

  • Ivan II (Russian prince)

    Ivan II, grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. The son of Ivan I, he succeeded his brother Semen on the throne of Moscow in 1353 and was granted the patent to that principality by the Khan of the Golden Horde in spite of the vigorous claim laid by Konstantin Vasilyevich of Suzdal. At first the

  • Ivan III (Russian prince)

    Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative

  • Ivan IV (tsar of Russia)

    Ivan the Terrible, grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and

  • Ivan Ivanovich (Russian prince)

    Ivan II, grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. The son of Ivan I, he succeeded his brother Semen on the throne of Moscow in 1353 and was granted the patent to that principality by the Khan of the Golden Horde in spite of the vigorous claim laid by Konstantin Vasilyevich of Suzdal. At first the

  • Ivan Kalita (Russian prince)

    Ivan I, grand prince of Moscow (1328–40) and grand prince of Vladimir (1331–40) whose policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia. The son of Prince Daniel of Moscow, Ivan succeeded his brother Yury as prince (1325) and then as grand prince (1328)

  • Ivan Krasny (Russian prince)

    Ivan II, grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. The son of Ivan I, he succeeded his brother Semen on the throne of Moscow in 1353 and was granted the patent to that principality by the Khan of the Golden Horde in spite of the vigorous claim laid by Konstantin Vasilyevich of Suzdal. At first the

  • Ivan Moneybag (Russian prince)

    Ivan I, grand prince of Moscow (1328–40) and grand prince of Vladimir (1331–40) whose policies increased Moscow’s power and made it the richest principality in northeastern Russia. The son of Prince Daniel of Moscow, Ivan succeeded his brother Yury as prince (1325) and then as grand prince (1328)

  • Ivan Petrovich Kotliarevsky (Ukrainian author)

    Ivan Kotlyarevsky, author whose burlesque-travesty of Virgil’s Aeneid was the first work written wholly in the Ukrainian language; it distinguished him as the father of modern Ukrainian literature. The Eneida (1798) transmutes Aeneas and the Trojans into dispossessed Cossacks of the period after

  • Ivan Susanin (opera by Glinka)

    opera: Russian opera: …Glinka: Zhizn za tsarya (A Life for the Tsar), also known as Ivan Susanin, (1836), and Ruslan i Lyudmila (1842; “Ruslan and Lyudmila”), both premiered in St. Petersburg. Basically Italianate operas, they—Ruslan in particular—determined the course of Russian opera, because of Glinka’s approximations of Slavic folk music, his modified…

  • Ivan the Black (Serbian leader)

    Montenegro: Medieval South Slav kingdoms: …succeeded by Ivan Crnojevi? (Ivan the Black), who, in the unlikely setting of this barren and broken landscape and pressed by advancing Ottoman armies, created in his court a remarkable, if fragile, centre of civilization. Ivan’s son Djuradj Crnojevi? built a monastery at Cetinje, founding there the see of…

  • Ivan the Fair (Russian prince)

    Ivan II, grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. The son of Ivan I, he succeeded his brother Semen on the throne of Moscow in 1353 and was granted the patent to that principality by the Khan of the Golden Horde in spite of the vigorous claim laid by Konstantin Vasilyevich of Suzdal. At first the

  • Ivan the Great (Russian prince)

    Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative

  • Ivan the Red (Russian prince)

    Ivan II, grand prince of Moscow and Vladimir. The son of Ivan I, he succeeded his brother Semen on the throne of Moscow in 1353 and was granted the patent to that principality by the Khan of the Golden Horde in spite of the vigorous claim laid by Konstantin Vasilyevich of Suzdal. At first the

  • Ivan the Terrible (tsar of Russia)

    Ivan the Terrible, grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and

  • Ivan the Terrible (work by Eisenstein)

    Sergei Eisenstein: …even more ambitious—Ivan Grozny (Ivan the Terrible)—about the 16th-century tsar Ivan IV, whom Stalin admired. Begun in 1943 in the Ural Mountains, the first part was finished in 1944, the second at the beginning of 1946. A third part was envisaged, but Eisenstein, suffering from angina pectoris, had to…

  • Ivan Tsarevich Riding the Gray Wolf (painting by Vasnetsov)

    Viktor Mikhaylovich Vasnetsov: …Battle with the Polovtsy (1880), Ivan Tsarevich Riding the Gray Wolf (1889), and Alyonushka (1881) were extremely popular in Russia. They became, in a sense, surrogates for Russian history, and during the Soviet era many were reproduced in schoolbooks and on consumer goods such as calendars, posters, and boxes of…

  • Ivan V (emperor of Russia)

    Ivan V, nominal tsar of Russia from 1682 to 1696. The younger son of Tsar Alexis (reigned 1645–76) by his first wife, Mariya Ilinichna Miloslavskaya, Ivan was a chronic invalid, deficient mentally and physically, who suffered from scurvy and poor eyesight and in his later years was partially

  • Ivan Vasilyevich (tsar of Russia)

    Ivan the Terrible, grand prince of Moscow (1533–84) and the first to be proclaimed tsar of Russia (from 1547). His reign saw the completion of the construction of a centrally administered Russian state and the creation of an empire that included non-Slav states. Ivan engaged in prolonged and

  • Ivan Vasilyevich (Russian prince)

    Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative

  • Ivan Veliky (Russian prince)

    Ivan III, grand prince of Moscow (1462–1505), who subdued most of the Great Russian lands by conquest or by the voluntary allegiance of princes, rewon parts of Ukraine from Poland–Lithuania, and repudiated the old subservience to the Mongol-derived Tatars. He also laid the administrative

  • Ivan VI (emperor of Russia)

    Ivan VI, infant emperor of Russia in 1740–41. The son of Prince Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig-Bevern-Lüneburg and Anna Leopoldovna, the niece of Empress Anna (reigned in Russia 1730–40), Ivan Antonovich was named heir to the throne by the empress on Oct. 16 (Oct. 27), 1740, and proclaimed emperor t

  • Ivanhoe (novel by Scott)

    Ivanhoe, historical romance by Sir Walter Scott, published in 1819. It concerns the life of Sir Wilfred of Ivanhoe, a fictional Saxon knight. Despite the criticism it received because of its historical inaccuracies, the novel was one of Scott’s most popular works. Ivanhoe, a chivalrous knight,

  • Ivanhoe (film by Thorpe [1952])

    Joan Fontaine: In Ivanhoe (1952) her character and Elizabeth Taylor’s compete for the affections of the titular Saxon knight. Fontaine appeared as the elder sister of a mental patient in the 1962 adaptation of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Tender Is the Night and as a terrorized schoolteacher in the…

  • Ivani?evi?, Goran (Croatian tennis player)

    Andre Agassi: …doubters when he triumphed over Goran Ivanisevic of Croatia at Wimbledon (he had ended his boycott of the tournament the previous year) to take his first Grand Slam title. In 1994, after being dropped by Bolletieri—who questioned Agassi’s dedication to the sport—and falling out of the top 30 in the…

  • Ivanishvili, Bidzina (prime minister of Georgia)

    Georgia: Georgian Dream government: …Dream (GD), led by billionaire Bidzina Ivanishvili. Although polls showed the UNM with a strong lead several weeks before the October parliamentary elections, the party’s position was damaged in late September when the release of videos showing Georgian prison guards beating and sexually abusing prisoners provoked widespread public anger. When…

  • Ivankovo (Russia)

    Dubna: …it absorbed the town of Ivankovo on the opposite bank. It is one of several planned “science cities,” its existence depending on the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, which employs scientists from many countries. Dubna University opened in 1994. The city includes much open green area. Pop. (2006 est.) 61,699.

  • Ivano-Frankivsk (Ukraine)

    Ivano-Frankivsk, city, western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just above its confluence with the Dniester River. Founded in 1662 as the Polish town of Stanis?awów (Ukrainian: Stanyslaviv), it occupied an important position on the northern approach to the Yablonitsky Pass over the

  • Ivano-Frankovsk (Ukraine)

    Ivano-Frankivsk, city, western Ukraine. It lies along the Bystritsa River just above its confluence with the Dniester River. Founded in 1662 as the Polish town of Stanis?awów (Ukrainian: Stanyslaviv), it occupied an important position on the northern approach to the Yablonitsky Pass over the

  • Ivanov (work by Chekhov)

    Anton Chekhov: Literary maturity: The play Ivanov (1887–89) culminates in the suicide of a young man nearer to the author’s own age. Together with “A Dreary Story,” that belongs to a group among Chekhov’s works that have been called clinical studies. They explore the experiences of the mentally or physically ill…

  • Ivanov, Aleksandr Andreyevich (Russian painter)

    Aleksandr Andreyevich Ivanov, Russian painter best known for his Appearance of Christ to the People. A single-minded and inveterate idealist, Ivanov opened for Russian art the Romantic mythology of martyrdom for art’s sake. Ivanov’s artistic path was marked by unusual consistency. He was the son of

  • Ivanov, Eugene (Russian military attaché)

    Profumo affair: …was a Russian military attaché, Eugene Ivanov, who was Keeler’s lover. Through Ward’s influence Profumo began an affair with Keeler, and rumours of their involvement soon began to spread. In March 1963 Profumo lied about the affair to Parliament, stating that there was “no impropriety whatsoever” in his relationship with…

  • Ivanov, Georgy (Bulgarian cosmonaut)

    Georgy Ivanov, Bulgarian cosmonaut who became the first Bulgarian in space. Ivanov graduated from the Bulgarian air force academy at Dolna in 1964 and served as an instructor at the academy before becoming a squadron commander of fighter aircraft in Bulgaria’s air force in 1967. In 1978 he was

  • Ivanov, Gjorge (president of Macedonia)

    North Macedonia: Independence: …VMRO-DPMNE in the person of Gjorge Ivanov. Historically, the Albanian minority has voted as a bloc for ethnic Albanian parties, and all governments since independence have been coalitions that included an Albanian party.

  • Ivanov, Ilya Ivanovich (Soviet biologist)

    Ilya Ivanovich Ivanov, Soviet biologist who developed a method for artificially inseminating domestic animals. In 1898 Ivanov established in Moscow several zoological laboratories where he studied the structure and vital processes of sex organs of farm animals, including the secretions of accessory

  • Ivanov, Lev Ivanovich (Russian dancer)

    Lev Ivanov, Russian ballet dancer who was choreographic assistant to Marius Petipa, the director and chief choreographer of the Imperial Russian Ballet. Ivanov joined the Imperial Ballet in St. Petersburg after graduating (1852) from its school. He specialized in character roles and was promoted to

  • Ivanov, Vsevolod (Soviet writer)

    Vsevolod Ivanov, Soviet prose writer noted for his vivid naturalistic realism, one of the most original writers of the 1920s. Ivanov was born into a poor family on the border of Siberia and Turkistan. He ran away from home to become a clown in a traveling circus and later was a wanderer, labourer,

  • Ivanov, Vsevolod Vyacheslavovich (Soviet writer)

    Vsevolod Ivanov, Soviet prose writer noted for his vivid naturalistic realism, one of the most original writers of the 1920s. Ivanov was born into a poor family on the border of Siberia and Turkistan. He ran away from home to become a clown in a traveling circus and later was a wanderer, labourer,

  • Ivanov, Vyacheslav (Soviet athlete)

    Vyacheslav Ivanov, Soviet rower who became the first three-time Olympic gold medalist in the prestigious single scull event. At the 1956 Olympics in Melbourne, Australia, Ivanov was in second place with 200 m remaining in the 2,000-metre race. He overtook Australian Stuart Mackenzie to win by five

  • Ivanov, Vyacheslav Ivanovich (Russian poet)

    Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov, leading poet of the Russian Symbolist movement who is also known for his scholarly essays on religious and philosophical themes. Ivanov was born into the family of a minor official. He attended Moscow University, but, after his second year, he went abroad and studied at

  • Ivanova, Galina Pavlovna (Russian soprano)

    Galina Vishnevskaya, (Galina Pavlovna Ivanova), Russian soprano (born Oct. 25, 1926, Leningrad, Russia, U.S.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]—died Dec. 11, 2012, Moscow, Russia), was a leading soprano at the Bolshoi Theatre from 1952 until 1974, when she and her third husband, cellist and conductor

  • Ivanovna, Anna (empress of Russia)

    Anna, empress of Russia from 1730 to 1740. Daughter of Ivan V (reigned 1682–96) and niece of Peter I the Great (reigned 1682–1725), Anna was married to Frederick William, ruler of the Baltic seacoast duchy of Courland, on Oct. 31 (Nov. 11), 1710. Although her husband died on the journey to C

  • Ivanovo (oblast, Russia)

    Ivanovo, oblast (region), western Russia, northeast of Moscow astride the middle Volga River and centred on Ivanovo city. The surface is a rolling morainic plain, with forests of spruce, pine, and fir and much swamp; most soils are infertile, though the southwest, with better soils, is largely

  • Ivanovo (Russia)

    Ivanovo, city and administrative centre of Ivanovo oblast (region), western Russia, on both banks of the Uvod River. It was created from two villages, Ivanovo and Voznesensk, in 1871; until 1932 it was known as Ivanovo-Voznesensk. The first linen mills in Russia were founded near Ivanovo by order

  • Ivanovo-Voznesensk (Russia)

    Ivanovo, city and administrative centre of Ivanovo oblast (region), western Russia, on both banks of the Uvod River. It was created from two villages, Ivanovo and Voznesensk, in 1871; until 1932 it was known as Ivanovo-Voznesensk. The first linen mills in Russia were founded near Ivanovo by order

  • Ivanovsky, Dmitry (Russian microbiologist)

    Dmitry Ivanovsky, Russian microbiologist who, from his study of mosaic disease in tobacco, first detailed many of the characteristics of the organisms that came to be known as viruses. Although he is generally credited as the discoverer of viruses, they were also independently discovered and named

  • Ivanovsky, Dmitry Iosifovich (Russian microbiologist)

    Dmitry Ivanovsky, Russian microbiologist who, from his study of mosaic disease in tobacco, first detailed many of the characteristics of the organisms that came to be known as viruses. Although he is generally credited as the discoverer of viruses, they were also independently discovered and named

  • Ivanovsky, Oleg Genrikhovich (Soviet engineer)

    Oleg Genrikhovich Ivanovsky, Soviet engineer (born Jan. 18, 1922, Moscow, Russia—died Sept. 18, 2014), as a senior engineer in the Soviet space program, was a key figure in the early development of space flight in the late 1950s and early ’60s. His greatest achievements were his design work on the

  • Iványi Grünwald Béla (Hungarian painter)

    Béla Iványi Grünwald, Hungarian painter, one of the founders of the Nagybánya artists’ colony. Grünwald studied at the School of Design in Budapest under Bertalan Székely, at Simon Hollósy’s private school in Munich, and at the Académie Julian in Paris. From 1889 he was a leading figure in the

  • Iványi Grünwald, Béla (Hungarian painter)

    Béla Iványi Grünwald, Hungarian painter, one of the founders of the Nagybánya artists’ colony. Grünwald studied at the School of Design in Budapest under Bertalan Székely, at Simon Hollósy’s private school in Munich, and at the Académie Julian in Paris. From 1889 he was a leading figure in the

  • Ivar inn beinlausi (Viking chieftain)

    Ivar the Boneless, Viking chieftain, of Danish origin, whose life story is suffused with legend. He is best known for his exploits on the British Isles, most notably his invasion, in the company of two brothers, of several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Unlike previous Viking raiders who came only to

  • Ivar the Boneless (Viking chieftain)

    Ivar the Boneless, Viking chieftain, of Danish origin, whose life story is suffused with legend. He is best known for his exploits on the British Isles, most notably his invasion, in the company of two brothers, of several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Unlike previous Viking raiders who came only to

  • Ivarr the Boneless (Viking chieftain)

    Ivar the Boneless, Viking chieftain, of Danish origin, whose life story is suffused with legend. He is best known for his exploits on the British Isles, most notably his invasion, in the company of two brothers, of several Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Unlike previous Viking raiders who came only to

  • Ivarsson, Erik (Norwegian archbishop)

    Sverrir Sigurdsson: …forces, however, alienated Eystein’s successor, Erik Ivarsson, who refused to crown Sverrir and fled to Denmark with many of the nation’s bishops in 1190. The remaining bishops crowned Sverrir in 1194 but were later excommunicated along with the king by Pope Innocent III. To the denunciations of the pope and…

  • Ivashchenkovo (Russia)

    Chapayevsk, city, Samara oblast (province), western Russia, on the Chapayevka River, a tributary of the Volga. Formerly a centre of the defense industry specializing in explosives, it now concentrates on nitrogen production and ammonia synthesis. A college of technology is located in the city. Pop.

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