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  • ICS (Indian government)

    British Empire: Dominance and dominions: …tried, ranging from the sophisticated Indian Civil Service, with its largely effective adoption of native practices in civil law and administration, to the very loose and indirect supervision exercised in a number of African territories, where settlers and commercial interests were left much to themselves while native Africans were segregated…

  • ICSH

    Luteinizing hormone (LH), one of two gonadotropic hormones (i.e., hormones concerned with the regulation of the gonads, or sex glands) that is produced by the pituitary gland. LH is a glycoprotein and operates in conjunction with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Following the release of the egg

  • ICSI (medical procedure)

    infertility: Treatment options: Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) is a treatment for men with very low sperm counts or with sperm that for some other reason are unable to fertilize an egg. The first child conceived by this method was born in 1992. ICSI involves the direct injection of…

  • ICSID (international organization)

    World Bank: Origins: …Guarantee Agency (MIGA), and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). The IBRD provides loans at market rates of interest to middle-income developing countries and creditworthy lower-income countries. The IDA, founded in 1960, provides interest-free long-term loans, technical assistance, and policy advice to low-income developing countries in areas…

  • ICSU

    Antarctica: The development of IGY: …Unions (ICSU; known as the International Science Council [ISC] as of July 2018) adopted the proposal, and in 1952 ICSU appointed a committee that was to become known as the Comité Spécial de l’Année Géophysique Internationale (CSAGI) to coordinate IGY planning. Plans widened to include the scientific study of the…

  • ICSW (international organization)

    International Council on Social Welfare (ICSW), nongovernmental organization that represents international, national, and local organizations dedicated to social welfare, social development, and social justice. It was founded in Paris in 1928. Its international headquarters are in Utrecht, Neth.,

  • ictalurid (fish)

    Ictalurid, any fish of the family Ictaluridae, which includes about 50 species of North and Central American freshwater catfishes. Ictalurids are “typical” catfishes, with large, wide heads, tapering, scaleless bodies, and eight prominent mouth barbels. The family includes the channel and other

  • Ictaluridae (fish)

    Ictalurid, any fish of the family Ictaluridae, which includes about 50 species of North and Central American freshwater catfishes. Ictalurids are “typical” catfishes, with large, wide heads, tapering, scaleless bodies, and eight prominent mouth barbels. The family includes the channel and other

  • Ictalurus (catfish)

    Bullhead, any of several North American freshwater catfishes of the genus Ameiurus (Ictalurus of some authorities) and the family Ictaluridae. Bullheads are related to the channel catfish (I. punctatus) and other large North American species but have squared, rather than forked, tails and are

  • Ictalurus nebulosus (fish)

    catfish: The brown bullhead (Ictalurus nebulosus), for example, builds and guards a nest and protects its young, while male sea catfishes (Ariidae) carry the marble-sized eggs, and later the young, in their mouths.

  • Ictalurus punctatus (fish)

    ostariophysan: Importance: Culture of the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) is an important industry in the southern United States. Numerous ostariophysans provide sport fishers with recreation and food; several, such as the mahseers (several species of Tor) of Asia and the dorado (Salminus maxillosus) of South America, rank among the world’s…

  • Icteria virens (bird)

    chat: The yellow-breasted chat (Icteria virens) of North America is, at 19 cm (7.5 inches), the largest member of the wood-warbler family Parulidae—if in fact it belongs there. Greenish-gray above and bright yellow below, with white “spectacles” (sexes alike), it skulks in thickets but may perch in…

  • Icteridae (bird family)

    Icteridae, songbird family, order Passeriformes, consisting of about 100 species of great diversity in size, habits, and diet, found throughout the Americas. Members range in size from 16 to 54 cm (6 to 21 inches) long. They have conical bills, strong feet, and long, pointed wings. Most show black

  • Icterus bullockii (bird)

    oriole: …America is the closely related Bullock’s oriole (I. bullockii). The orchard oriole (I. spurius), black and chestnut, occurs over the eastern United States and Mexico. Among the tropical forms of icterids are the epaulet oriole (I. cayanensis) and the troupial (I. icterus).

  • Icterus cayanensis (bird)

    oriole: …forms of icterids are the epaulet oriole (I. cayanensis) and the troupial (I. icterus).

  • Icterus galbula (bird)

    oriole: …the icterids is the well-known Baltimore oriole (I. galbula), which breeds in North America east of the Rockies; it is black, white, and golden orange. In western North America is the closely related Bullock’s oriole (I. bullockii). The orchard oriole (I. spurius), black and chestnut, occurs over the eastern United…

  • Icterus icterus (bird)

    passeriform: Nesting: …nests are often appropriated by troupials (Icterus icterus), which evict the owners, even destroying the eggs and young in the process. a few other species also take over nests for their own use, notably the piratic flycatcher (Legatus leucophaius, a tyrannid) and the bay-winged cowbird (Molothrus badius).

  • Icterus spurius (bird)

    oriole: The orchard oriole (I. spurius), black and chestnut, occurs over the eastern United States and Mexico. Among the tropical forms of icterids are the epaulet oriole (I. cayanensis) and the troupial (I. icterus).

  • Ictinus (Greek architect)

    Ictinus, Greek architect, one of the most celebrated of Athens, known for his work on the Parthenon on the Acropolis, the Temple of the Mysteries at Eleusis, and the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Bassae. According to Vitruvius (Ten Books on Architecture, preface to Book VII), Ictinus designed the

  • Ictiobus cyprinellus (fish)

    sucker: …(10 inches) long, and the bigmouth buffalo fish (Ictiobus cyprinellus), a large sucker, measures up to 90 cm in length and 33 kg (73 pounds) in weight. Suckers are bony but are fished commercially and to some extent for sport. The various genera are known by such names as hog…

  • Ictonyx striatus (mammal)

    Zorille, (Ictonyx [sometimes Zorilla] striatus), African carnivore of the weasel family (Mustelidae), frequenting diverse habitats. It has a slender body, 29–39 centimetres (12–16 inches) long, and a bushy white tail, 21–31 cm long. Its fur is long and black, white striped on the back and white

  • ICTR

    Rwanda genocide of 1994: ICTR: In November 1994 the UN responded to charges of genocide in Rwanda by creating the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR; formally known as the International Criminal Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Genocide and Other Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law…

  • ICTU (Irish labour organization)

    Ireland: Labour and taxation: …unions are affiliated with the Irish Congress of Trade Unions (ICTU). The level of unionization in Ireland is fairly high, encompassing roughly one-third of the total workforce. There are also several employers’ unions (industrial organizations), organized on both a craft and a regional basis. The employers’ central negotiating organization is…

  • ICTV (international organization)

    virus: Distinguishing taxonomic features: …in large part by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), a member group of the International Union of Microbiological Societies. The ICTV oversees the ongoing process of devising and maintaining a universal classification scheme for viruses. In the virus classification hierarchy, the ICTV recognizes orders, families, subfamilies, genera,…

  • ICTY (international organization)

    Croatia: Independent Croatia: …particularly over cooperation with the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY), which indicted several Croatian generals who, according to many Croats, had heroic wartime reputations.

  • ICU (union, South Africa)

    Southern Africa: Political organizations and trade unions: …a Nyasaland migrant, founded the Industrial and Commercial Workers’ Union (ICU). Initially consisting of dockworkers in Cape Town, the ICU spread rapidly as a mass movement in the towns and in the countryside, where those who had been evicted responded with millenarian zeal to its message. At its height the…

  • ICU (Somali organization)

    al-Shabaab: …a militia affiliated with the Islamic Courts Union (ICU), a federation of local and clan-based Islamic courts that had been founded in southern Somalia in 2004 to combat the lawlessness and banditry afflicting the area since the collapse of the government of Mohamed Siad Barre in 1991. From about 2004…

  • ICU (medicine)

    Intensive care unit, hospital facility for care of critically ill patients at a more intensive level than is needed by other patients. Staffed by specialized personnel, the intensive care unit contains a complex assortment of monitors and life-support equipment that can sustain life in once-fatal

  • ICW (international organization)

    International Council of Women (ICW), organization, founded in 1888, that works with agencies around the world to promote health, peace, equality, and education. Founded by Susan B. Anthony, May Wright Sewell, and Frances Willard, among others, the ICW held its first convention March 25–April 1,

  • icy conglomerate model (astronomy)

    comet: The modern era: …popularly known as the “dirty snowball.”

  • id (psychology)

    Id, in Freudian psychoanalytic theory, one of the three agencies of the human personality, along with the ego and superego. The oldest of these psychic realms in development, it contains the psychic content related to the primitive instincts of the body, notably sex and aggression, as well as all

  • ID

    Intelligent design (ID), argument intended to demonstrate that living organisms were created in more or less their present forms by an “intelligent designer.” Intelligent design was formulated in the 1990s, primarily in the United States, as an explicit refutation of the theory of biological

  • ?īd al-A??ā (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Adha, (Arabic: “Festival of Sacrifice”) the second of two great Muslim festivals, the other being Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Adha marks the culmination of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites at Minā, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca, but is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world. As with Eid al-Fitr, it is

  • ?īd al-Fi?r (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Fitr, (Arabic: “Festival of Breaking Fast”) first of two canonical festivals of Islam. Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month of fasting, and is celebrated during the first three days of Shawwal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar (though the Muslim use of a lunar

  • ?īd al-Kabīr (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Adha, (Arabic: “Festival of Sacrifice”) the second of two great Muslim festivals, the other being Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Adha marks the culmination of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites at Minā, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca, but is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world. As with Eid al-Fitr, it is

  • ?īd al-Qurbān (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Adha, (Arabic: “Festival of Sacrifice”) the second of two great Muslim festivals, the other being Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Adha marks the culmination of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites at Minā, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca, but is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world. As with Eid al-Fitr, it is

  • ?īd al-?aghīr, al- (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Fitr, (Arabic: “Festival of Breaking Fast”) first of two canonical festivals of Islam. Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan, the Muslim holy month of fasting, and is celebrated during the first three days of Shawwal, the 10th month of the Islamic calendar (though the Muslim use of a lunar

  • id Software (American company)

    John Carmack: His company, id Software, developed shareware and Internet distribution channels, revolutionizing how computer games were sold.

  • id-bo tueryon (martial arts)

    tae kwon do: …practice basic sparring combinations (id-bo tueryon, “one-step sparring”); these are short, set sequences of attack and counter practiced between partners, after which the students may practice free sparring as opponents. In sparring, blows are stopped just short of contact. Tae kwon do is practiced as a sport by awarding…

  • Ida (mountain range, Turkey)

    Ida, mountain range in northwestern Asia Minor (now Turkey), near the site of ancient Troy. A classic shrine, Ida was where Paris passed judgment on the rival goddesses and was the scene of the rape of Ganymede. From its highest peak, about 5,800 feet (1,800 m), the gods are said to have w

  • IDA (UN)

    International Development Association (IDA), United Nations specialized agency affiliated with but legally and financially distinct from the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank). It was instituted in September 1960 to make loans on more flexible terms than those of the

  • IDA (American corporation)
  • Ida (mountain, Crete)

    ídi, mountain riddled with caves, west-central Crete (Modern Greek: Kríti), in the nomós (department) of Réthímnon, southern Greece. One of ídi’s two peaks, Timios Stavros, at 8,058 feet (2,456 m), is Crete’s highest mountain. According to one legend Zeus was reared in the ídiean cave on the peak’s

  • Ida (fossil primate)

    Ida, (Darwinius masillae), nickname for the remarkably complete but nearly two-dimensional skeleton of an adapiform primate dating to the middle Eocene Epoch (approximately 47 million years ago). It is the type specimen and the only known example of Darwinius masillae, a species assigned to the

  • Ida (film by Pawlikowski [2013])

    Pawel Pawlikowski: …whose acclaimed works notably included Ida (2013), which won an Academy Award for best foreign-language film.

  • Ida (asteroid)

    Galileo: …Gaspra (October 29, 1991) and Ida (August 28, 1993), thereby providing the first close-up views of such bodies; in the process, it discovered a tiny satellite (Dactyl) orbiting Ida. Galileo also furnished a unique perspective of the collision of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 with Jupiter as it closed on the planet…

  • Ida (king of Bernicia)

    Ida, first recorded king of Bernicia (from 547), soon after the foundation of the kingdom of Bernicia by the Angles in the British Isles. He supposedly built the fortress of Bebbanburh, the modern Bamborough; and after his death his kingdom, which did not extend south of the River Tees, reportedly

  • Ida Kominska Theatre (Polish theatrical company)

    Ida Kaminska: …Warsaw to found her own Ida Kaminska Theatre, where she starred in productions that she adapted and directed. She spent the years during World War II acting in the Soviet Union and then returned to her homeland to found the Jewish State Theatre of Poland (1945), which received official recognition…

  • Ida May (novel by Pike)

    Mary Hayden Green Pike: Her first novel, Ida May (1854), was published under the pseudonym Mary Langdon. A melodramatic tale of a child of wealthy white parents who is kidnapped and sold into slavery, the book was an immediate success. Riding to some extent on the coattails of Uncle Tom’s Cabin, published…

  • Ida-ten (Buddhism)

    Wei To, in Chinese and Japanese Buddhism, a popular protector of the faith and the general-in-chief under the lokapalas, the regents of the four quarters. From about the 7th century ce his images have been set up facing the main sanctuary of a temple. He is generally represented both in China and

  • Idah (Nigeria)

    Idah, town, Kogi state, south-central Nigeria. It lies on a sandstone cliff on the east bank of the Niger River. The traditional capital of the Igala people, Idah was brought under the jurisdiction of the kingdom of Benin by Oba (King) Esigie in the early 16th century. From Benin the polity of Idah

  • Idaho (state, United States)

    Idaho, constituent state of the United States of America. It ranks 14th among the 50 U.S. states in terms of total area. Its boundaries—with the Canadian province of British Columbia to the north and the U.S. states of Montana and Wyoming to the east, Utah and Nevada to the south, and Oregon and

  • Idaho bentgrass (plant)

    bentgrass: 9 feet) per season, and Idaho bentgrass (A. idahoensis) are popular lawn grasses. Varieties of both species are planted in golf courses and bowling greens around the world; they are closely cut to develop a finely textured, spongy, firm turf.

  • Idaho City (Idaho, United States)

    Idaho City, city, seat (1864) of Boise county, southwestern Idaho, U.S., above the confluence of Elk and Mores creeks. It lies in a mountainous area of Boise National Forest at an elevation of 4,400 feet (1,340 metres), 24 miles (39 km) northeast of Boise. Perhaps the most famous of Idaho’s early

  • Idaho Falls (Idaho, United States)

    Idaho Falls, city, seat (1911) of Bonneville county, southeastern Idaho, U.S., on the upper Snake River. Originally the territory of the Shoshone-Bannock and Northern Paiute Indians, it began as the Eagle Rock settlement at Taylor’s Ferry (1863), later Taylor’s Bridge. The town was renamed in 1890

  • Idaho Gem (cloned mule)

    Gordon L. Woods: …the experiments that led to Idaho Gem, the researchers extracted a nucleus from a donor mule cell and transferred it to an enucleated egg from a horse. The egg was then transplanted into the oviduct of a mare. After several hundred attempts, a viable male mule foal, Idaho Gem, was…

  • Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (laboratory, Idaho, United States)

    Idaho: Resources and power: The Idaho National Laboratory (formerly the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), in the desert near Arco, operated primarily as a research and testing site for nuclear reactors by the federal government, also is used for energy production and serves as a nuclear waste repository.

  • Idaho National Laboratory (laboratory, Idaho, United States)

    Idaho: Resources and power: The Idaho National Laboratory (formerly the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory), in the desert near Arco, operated primarily as a research and testing site for nuclear reactors by the federal government, also is used for energy production and serves as a nuclear waste repository.

  • Idaho Star (cloned mule)

    Gordon L. Woods: …mule clones Utah Pioneer and Idaho Star. Both Idaho Gem, which was cloned from a sibling of a champion racing mule, and Idaho Star went on to enjoy fruitful racing careers.

  • Idaho State College (university, Pocatello, Idaho)

    Idaho State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pocatello, Idaho, U.S. It comprises colleges of arts and sciences, business, education, engineering, health professions, pharmacy, and technology. The university offers a wide range of associate, bachelor’s, master’s,

  • Idaho State University (university, Pocatello, Idaho)

    Idaho State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pocatello, Idaho, U.S. It comprises colleges of arts and sciences, business, education, engineering, health professions, pharmacy, and technology. The university offers a wide range of associate, bachelor’s, master’s,

  • Idaho Technical Institute (university, Pocatello, Idaho)

    Idaho State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pocatello, Idaho, U.S. It comprises colleges of arts and sciences, business, education, engineering, health professions, pharmacy, and technology. The university offers a wide range of associate, bachelor’s, master’s,

  • Idaho, Academy of (university, Pocatello, Idaho)

    Idaho State University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Pocatello, Idaho, U.S. It comprises colleges of arts and sciences, business, education, engineering, health professions, pharmacy, and technology. The university offers a wide range of associate, bachelor’s, master’s,

  • Idaho, flag of (United States state flag)

    U.S. state flag consisting of a dark blue field (background) bearing the name of the state and its official seal.On March 5, 1866, Idaho Territory adopted its first official seal, representing mountains below a new moon, a steamer on the Shoshone River, figures of Liberty and Peace, an elk’s head,

  • Idaho, University of (university, Moscow, Idaho, United States)

    University of Idaho, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Moscow, Idaho, U.S. It is a land-grant university consisting of colleges of agricultural and life sciences, art and architecture, business and economics, education, engineering, graduate studies, law, letters and science,

  • Idalion (ancient city, Cyprus)

    Idalium, ancient city in southern Cyprus, near modern Dali. Of pre-Greek origin, Idalium was one of 10 Cypriot kingdoms listed on the prism (many-sided tablet) of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 bce). Eventually dominated by the Phoenician city of Citium, it became the centre of a cult of

  • Idalium (ancient city, Cyprus)

    Idalium, ancient city in southern Cyprus, near modern Dali. Of pre-Greek origin, Idalium was one of 10 Cypriot kingdoms listed on the prism (many-sided tablet) of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon (680–669 bce). Eventually dominated by the Phoenician city of Citium, it became the centre of a cult of

  • IDB (international organization)

    Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), international organization founded in 1959 by 20 governments in North and South America to finance economic and social development in the Western Hemisphere. The largest charter subscribers were Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Venezuela, and the United States.

  • ?iddah (Islam)

    ?iddah, a specified period of time that must elapse before a Muslim widow or divorcee may legitimately remarry. The Qur?ān (2:228) prescribes that a menstruating woman have three monthly periods before contracting a new marriage; the required delay for a nonmenstruating woman is three lunar

  • Iddesleigh, Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, 1st Earl of (British statesman)

    Sir Stafford Henry Northcote, 8th Baronet, British statesman and a leader of the Conservative Party who helped to shape national financial policy. On leaving Balliol College, Oxford, he became in 1843 private secretary to William Gladstone at the Board of Trade. He was afterward legal secretary to

  • Iddings, Joseph Paxson (American geologist)

    Joseph Paxson Iddings, American geologist who demonstrated the genetic relationships of neighbouring igneous rocks formed during a single period of magmatic activity. Iddings joined the U.S. Geological Survey in 1880. From 1883 to 1890 he worked with the team surveying Yellowstone National Park,

  • IDDM (medical disorder)

    immune system disorder: Type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: Type I diabetes mellitus is the autoimmune form of diabetes and often arises in childhood. It is caused by the destruction of cells of the pancreatic tissue called the islets of Langerhans. Those cells normally produce insulin, the hormone that…

  • ide (fish)

    Ide, (Leuciscus idus), common sport and food fish of the carp family, Cyprinidae, widely distributed in rivers and lakes of Europe and western Siberia. An elongated, rather stout fish, the ide is blue-gray or blackish with silvery sides and belly and is usually about 30–50 cm (12–20 inches) long.

  • idea

    Idea, active, determining principle of a thing. The word, brought into English from the Greek eidos, was for some time most commonly used roughly in the technical sense given to it by Plato in his theory of forms. By the 17th century it had come to be used more or less in its modern sense of

  • IDEA (United States [1990])

    Arlington Central School District Board of Education v. Murphy: …school districts under the 1990 Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) are not entitled to reimbursement for costs associated with hiring expert witnesses and consultants.

  • Idea de un príncipe politíco cristiano (work by Saavedra Fajardo)

    Diego de Saavedra Fajardo: …un príncipe político cristiano (1640; The Royal Politician), which urged a return to traditional virtues as the remedy for national decadence.

  • idea de’ scultori, pittori e architetti, L’? (work by Zuccaro)

    Federico Zuccaro: …the theory of Mannerism in L’idea de’ scultori, pittori e architetti (1607; “The Idea of Sculptors, Painters, and Architects”) and in a series of frescoes in his own house in Rome (Palazzo Zuccaro). After Taddeo’s death in 1566, Federico completed some of his brother’s unfinished commissions, including in the Villa…

  • idea dell’architettura universale, L’? (work by Scamozzi)

    Vincenzo Scamozzi: …treatises on architecture, the six-volume L’idea dell’architettura universale (1615), which exercised a wide influence in Italy and northern Europe.

  • Idea Fidei Fratrum (work by Spangenberg)

    August Gottlieb Spangenberg: …the Idea Fidei Fratrum (1779; Exposition of Christian Doctrine, 1784), which became the accepted statement of Moravian beliefs. Through his moderation, internal differences were ameliorated, and the Moravian Church maintained friendly relations with the Lutheran Church. Among his works are a life of Zinzendorf (1772–75; abridged Eng. trans., 1838), some…

  • Idea Man (memoir by Allen)

    Paul Allen: …2011 Allen published the memoir Idea Man, which traced the rise of Microsoft and described his often contentious relationship with Gates.

  • Idea Methodica (work by Martini)

    encyclopaedia: The development of the modern encyclopaedia (17th–18th centuries): …by Matthias Martini in his Idea Methodica (1606). Although Bacon was apparently unaware of this work, both philosophers were probably working from the same basic Platonic precepts. The results were profound: Diderot made a point of acknowledging the assistance Bacon’s analysis of the structure of human knowledge had afforded him…

  • Idea of a Patriot King, The (work by Bolingbroke)

    Henry Saint John, 1st Viscount Bolingbroke: Return to England.: For this group, he wrote The Idea of a Patriot King. It was his most famous work, but it offered no real solution to the problems of defeating Walpole or of creating a “patriot” party. In any event, Prince Frederick did not live to become king, and Walpole’s final defeat,…

  • Idea of a University (work by Newman)

    St. John Henry Newman: Conversion to Roman Catholicism: …was his lectures on the Idea of a University (1852). His role as editor of the Roman Catholic monthly, the Rambler, and in the efforts of Lord Acton to encourage critical scholarship among Catholics, rendered him further suspect and caused a breach with H.E. Manning, who was soon to be…

  • Idea of Entropy at Maenporth Beach, The (poem by Redgrove)

    Peter Redgrove: …in these volumes is “The Idea of Entropy at Maenporth Beach” (1972): it describes a mud bath that reveals the poet’s interest in Jungian psychology and taboo subjects.

  • Idea of History, The (work by Collingwood)

    R.G. Collingwood: His last book, The Idea of History (1946), proposed history as a discipline in which one relives the past in one’s own mind. Only by immersing oneself in the mental actions behind events, by rethinking the past within the context of one’s own experience, can the historian discover…

  • Idea of Perfection, The (novel by Grenville)

    Kate Grenville: …achieved major international success with The Idea of Perfection (1999), a story of the growing attraction between a recent divorcé and a woman whose third marriage ended with her husband’s suicide, two outsiders thrown together in a small town in the Australian bush. The best-selling novel—which also explored issues facing…

  • Idea of Phenomenology, The (work by Husserl)

    phenomenology: Basic principles: …Die Idee der Ph?nomenologie (The Idea of Phenomenology) in 1906. Yet, even for Husserl, the conception of phenomenology as a new method destined to supply a new foundation for both philosophy and science developed only gradually and kept changing to the very end of his career. Husserl was trained…

  • Idea of the Holy, The (work by Otto)

    study of religion: Modern origin and development of the history and phenomenology of religion: …world with the publication of The Idea of the Holy (in its German edition of 1917), which showed the influence of Schleiermacher, Marett, Edmund Husserl, and the Neo-Kantianism of Jakob Fries (1773–1843). More important than the philosophical side of his enterprise, however, was the excellent delineation of a central experience…

  • Idea of the University, The (work by Jaspers)

    Karl Jaspers: Postwar development of thought: …Die Idee der Universit?t (1946; The Idea of the University, 1959). He called for a complete de-Nazification of the teaching staff, but this proved to be impossible because the number of professors who had never compromised with the Nazis was too small. It was only gradually that the autonomous university…

  • Ideal (novel by Rand)

    Ayn Rand: The Fountainhead: That year she also wrote Ideal, about a self-centred film star on the run from the law, first as a novel and then as a play. However, she shelved both versions. The play was not produced until 1989, and the novel was not published until 2015. Her first published novel,…

  • ideal (mathematics)

    Ideal, in modern algebra, a subring of a mathematical ring with certain absorption properties. The concept of an ideal was first defined and developed by German mathematician Richard Dedekind in 1871. In particular, he used ideals to translate ordinary properties of arithmetic into properties of

  • ideal communication community (sociology)

    Jürgen Habermas: Philosophy and social theory: The notion of an “ideal communication community” functions as a guide that can be formally applied both to regulate and to critique concrete speech situations. Using this regulative and critical ideal, individuals would be able to raise, accept, or reject each other’s claims to truth, rightness, and sincerity solely…

  • ideal democracy (political science)

    democracy: Ideal democracy: As noted above, Aristotle found it useful to classify actually existing governments in terms of three “ideal constitutions.” For essentially the same reasons, the notion of an “ideal democracy” also can be useful for identifying and understanding the democratic characteristics of actually existing governments,…

  • ideal fluid (physics)

    fluid: The simplest model, called a perfect, or ideal, fluid, is one that is unable to conduct heat or to offer drag on the walls of a tube or internal resistance to one portion flowing over another. Thus, a perfect fluid, even while flowing, cannot sustain a tangential force; that is,…

  • ideal free distribution (behaviour and mathematics)

    animal social behaviour: Social interactions involved in monopolizing resources or mates: …models and is called the ideal free distribution. For example, if one person throws pieces of bread into a pond at twice the rate of a second person nearby on the same pond, ducks will distribute themselves between the two sources of food. The distribution will occur in approximately the…

  • ideal gas (chemistry and physics)

    Perfect gas, a gas that conforms, in physical behaviour, to a particular, idealized relation between pressure, volume, and temperature called the general gas law. This law is a generalization containing both Boyle’s law and Charles’s law as special cases and states that for a specified quantity of

  • ideal gas law (chemistry and physics)

    absolute zero: Therefore, the ideal gas law is only an approximation to real gas behaviour. As such, however, it is extremely useful.

  • Ideal Husband, An (film by Parker [1999])

    Julianne Moore: Rise to stardom: …adaptation (1999) of Oscar Wilde’s An Ideal Husband.

  • ideal language

    Ideal language, in analytic philosophy, a language that is precise, free of ambiguity, and clear in structure, on the model of symbolic logic, as contrasted with ordinary language, which is vague, misleading, and sometimes contradictory. In the Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (1922), the

  • Ideal of a Christian Church, The (work by Ward)

    William George Ward: After publishing The Ideal of a Christian Church (1844), which urged the Church of England to “sue humbly” at Rome’s feet “for pardon and restoration,” his work was condemned by the University of Oxford.

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