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  • Kanwar, Roop (Indian widow)

    suttee: …notoriously in the case of Roop Kanwar, an 18-year-old widow who committed suttee in 1987. The incident was highly controversial, as groups throughout India either publicly defended Kanwar’s actions or declared that she had been murdered.

  • Kanya Puja (Hindu ritual)

    Navratri: One popular ritual is Kanya Puja, which takes place on the eighth or ninth day. In this ritual nine young girls are dressed as the nine goddess aspects celebrated during Navratri and are worshiped with ritual foot washing and given offerings such as food and clothing.

  • Kánya, Kálmán (Hungarian statesman)

    Hungary: Financial crisis: the rise of right radicalism: …year, when Darányi’s foreign minister, Kálmán Kánya, obtained the tacit consent of the Little Entente for Hungary to rearm, although Hungary was still sadly short of armaments, for which, again, Germany was its only source of supply. On a visit to Berlin, Darányi and Kánya smoothed over the difficulties; but,…

  • kanyadan (marriage custom)

    India: Family and kinship: …“gift of a maiden” (kanyadan) from the bride’s father to the household of the groom. This gift is also accompanied by a dowry, which generally consists of items suitable to start a young couple in married life. In some cases, however, dowries demanded by grooms and their families have…

  • Kanyakubja (India)

    Kannauj, town, central Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. Kannauj is situated near the Ganges (Ganga) River, about 50 miles (80 km) northwest of Kanpur, with which it has road and rail connections. Its name probably has more popular spellings than any other place-name in India. Kannauj has

  • Kanyakumari (India)

    Kanniyakumari, town, southern Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. The town is situated on Cape Comorin, which is the southernmost point on the Indian subcontinent. Kanniyakumari is a tourist and pilgrimage centre noted for its Shiva temple and its memorial to Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi. Legend

  • Kanye (Botswana)

    Kanye, village, southern Botswana. It lies along a main road southwest of Gaborone, the national capital. It is one of the country’s largest villages and the traditional headquarters of the Bangwaketse people. Kanye is equipped with a mission hospital, an airfield, banks, and schools. Pop. (2001)

  • Kanza (people)

    Kansa, North American Indians of Siouan linguistic stock who lived along the Kansas and Saline rivers in what is now central Kansas. It is thought that the Kansa had migrated to this location from an earlier prehistoric territory on the Atlantic coast. They are related to the Omaha, Osage, Quapaw,

  • Kanzan (mythological figure)

    Kaō Ninga: His portrait of Kanzan, a mythical figure who represents the Zen way of life, and the techniques used in the portrait (strong abbreviated outlines that contrast with soft washes, asymmetrical composition, and significant empty space) foreshadow those of the suiboku school, which flourished in the 15th and 16th…

  • Kanzan and Jittoku (painting by Soga Shōhaku)

    Soga Shōhaku: The two-scroll painting “Kanzan and Jittoku”—two Chinese monks of the T’ang dynasty—is a good example. He also drew pictures of weird and demoniac quality and, being of a haughty disposition and an eccentric, was regarded by many as either a madman or an anachronism. He had no successors…

  • Kanze Kiyotsugu (Japanese actor, playwright, and musician)

    Kan’ami, Japanese actor, playwright, and musician who was one of the founders of Noh drama. Kan’ami organized a theatre group in Obata to perform sarugaku (a form of popular drama that had apparently included tricks, acrobatics, and slapstick skits), which by his time had become plays with

  • Kanze Kojirō Nobumitsu (Japanese author)

    Japanese performing arts: 7th to 16th centuries: Later plays, especially those by Kanze Kojirō Nobumitsu (1435–1516), such as Momijigari (The Maple Viewing) and Ataka (The Ataka Barrier), emphasize action and spectacle (fūryū).

  • Kanze Motokiyo (Japanese playwright)

    Zeami, the greatest playwright and theorist of the Japanese Noh theatre. He and his father, Kan’ami (1333–84), were the creators of the Noh drama in its present form. Under the patronage of the shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu, whose favour Zeami enjoyed after performing before him in 1374, the Noh was

  • Kanze school (nō theatre)

    Kanze school, school of nō theatre (q.v.) known for its emphasis on beauty and elegance. The school was founded in the 14th century by Kan’ami (q.v.), who founded the Yūzaki-za (Yūzaki troupe), the precursor of the Kanze school. The second master, Zeami Motokiyo, completed the basic form of the art

  • Kanze-ryū (nō theatre)

    Kanze school, school of nō theatre (q.v.) known for its emphasis on beauty and elegance. The school was founded in the 14th century by Kan’ami (q.v.), who founded the Yūzaki-za (Yūzaki troupe), the precursor of the Kanze school. The second master, Zeami Motokiyo, completed the basic form of the art

  • kanzen chōaku (ethical principle)

    Japanese literature: Late Tokugawa period (c. 1770–1867): …embodiments of the principle of kanzen chōaku (“the encouragement of virtue and the chastisement of vice”), Bakin’s professed aim in writing fiction.

  • Kanzeon Bōsatsu (bodhisattva)

    Avalokiteshvara, (Sanskrit: avalokita, “looking on”; ishivara, “lord”) in Buddhism, and primarily in Mahayana (“Greater Vehicle”) Buddhism, the bodhisattva (“buddha-to-be”) of infinite compassion and mercy, possibly the most popular of all figures in Buddhist legend. Avalokiteshvara is beloved

  • kanzlei (calligraphy)

    Cancellaresca corsiva, in calligraphy, script that in the 16th century became the vehicle of the New Learning throughout Christendom. It developed during the preceding century out of the antica corsiva, which had been perfected by the scribes of the papal chancery. As written by the calligrapher

  • KAO (airplane)

    Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), a Lockheed C-141 jet transport aircraft specially instrumented for astronomical observations at high altitudes. Named for the American astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper, it was operated (1971–95) by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The

  • Kao Ch’i-p’ei (Chinese painter)

    Gao Qipei, technically innovative Chinese landscape painter who used his hands—palms, fingers, nails—in place of the traditional Chinese brush. Gao was precocious and gifted and served in an official capacity during the Qing period. His larger paintings for the Manchu court were somewhat more

  • Kao Hsing-chien (Chinese author and critic)

    Gao Xingjian, Chinese émigré novelist, playwright, and critic who in 2000 was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature “for an oeuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity.” He was also renowned as a stage director and as an artist. Gao was educated in state schools and from

  • Kao Island (island, Tonga)

    Tonga: Relief: …feet (1,033 metres), is on Kao Island in the Ha?apai Group. ?Eua Island (Tongatapu Group) has an old volcanic ridge rising to 1,078 feet (329 metres) above sea level. The Vava?u Group has hills ranging from 500 to 1,000 feet (150 to 300 metres), and Late Island, in its western…

  • Kao K’o-kung (Chinese artist)

    Chinese painting: Yuan dynasty (1206–1368): Gao Kegong followed Mi Fu and Mi Youren in painting cloudy landscapes that symbolized good government. Wang Mian, who served not the Mongols but anti-Mongol forces at the end of the dynasty, set the highest standard for the painting of plums, a symbol of irrepressible…

  • Kao Kang (Chinese political leader)

    Gao Gang, one of the early leaders of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and one of the most important figures in the communist government established after 1949. His purge in 1954–55 was the biggest scandal in the Chinese communist movement from the mid-1930s to the 1960s. Gao joined the CCP in

  • Kao Ming (Chinese author)

    Gao Ming, Chinese poet and playwright whose sole surviving opera, Pipaji (The Lute), became the model for drama of the Ming dynasty. Quitting a frustrating official career under the Mongol regime in 1356, Gao found a new vocation in the theatre. As a southerner, he shunned the fashionable zaju

  • Kaō Ninga (Japanese painter)

    Kaō Ninga, artist who painted some of the earliest Japanese suiboku works—a Chinese-inspired style of monochromatic ink painting favoured by Zen Buddhist priest-painters. His portrait of Kanzan, a mythical figure who represents the Zen way of life, and the techniques used in the portrait (strong

  • Kao no naka no akai tsuki (work by Noma)

    Noma Hiroshi: …naka no akai tsuki (1947; A Red Moon in Her Face), both of which present a protagonist’s conflict between self-image and carnal desire. The novel Kurai e combined the techniques of Symbolism and the Proletarian Literature Movement, using stream-of-consciousness prose. Shinkū chitai conveys a broad view of the Japanese wartime…

  • Kao’i (work by Sima Guang)

    Sima Guang: …compiled a separate work, the Kaoyi (“Scrutiny”), which dealt with the discrepancies in his numerous sources and gave his reasons for preferring certain authorities.

  • Kao, Charles (British-American physicist)

    Charles Kao, physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009 for his discovery of how light can be transmitted through fibre-optic cables. He shared the prize with physicists Willard Boyle and George E. Smith, who won for their work in inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD). Kao

  • Kao, Charles Kuen (British-American physicist)

    Charles Kao, physicist who was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2009 for his discovery of how light can be transmitted through fibre-optic cables. He shared the prize with physicists Willard Boyle and George E. Smith, who won for their work in inventing the charge-coupled device (CCD). Kao

  • Kao, Rano (volcano, Easter Island)

    Easter Island: Relief: …the extremely deep crater of Rano Kao, which is about 3,000 feet wide, is piped to Hanga Roa. The coast is formed by soft, eroded, ashy cliffs, with a vertical drop of about 500 to 1,000 feet; the cliffs are intercepted by long stretches of low, hard, and rugged lava…

  • Kao-hou (empress of Han dynasty)

    Gaohou, the first woman ruler of China, wife of Gaozu, the first emperor (reigned 206–195 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). After Gaozu’s death, his and Gaohou’s young son, the emperor Huidi (reigned 195–188 bc), ascended the throne. Gaohou, whose ambition had spurred her husband’s rise to

  • Kao-hsiung (county, Taiwan)

    Kao-hsiung, former county (hsien, or xian), southwestern Taiwan. Since 2010 it has been incorporated administratively into the Kao-hsiung special municipality. The enlarged special municipality is bordered by T’ai-nan (Tainan) special municipality and Chia-i (Jiayi) county to the north, T’ai-tung

  • Kao-hsiung (Taiwan)

    Kao-hsiung, special municipality (chih-hsia shih, or zhizia shi) and major international port in southwestern Taiwan. It is situated on the coast of the Taiwan Strait, its city centre about 25 miles (40 km) south-southeast from central T’ai-nan (Tainan) special municipality. The site has been

  • Kao-Hsiung Hsien (Taiwan)

    Feng-shan, former municipality (shih, or shi), southwestern Taiwan. Feng-shan served as the seat of Kao-hsiung (Gaoxiun) county until 2010, at which time the county was administratively reorganized, and Feng-shan became a city district of Kao-hsiung special municipality. Feng-shan is situated about

  • Kao-hsiung National Stadium (stadium, Taiwan)

    Toyo Ito: ” Similarly, the Kao-hsiung (Taiwan) National Stadium (2009) possessed a monumental spiral-shaped roof resembling a coiled snake. One of Ito’s most ambitious projects, the Metropolitan Opera House in T?ai-chung, Taiwan, which was under construction when he received the Pritzker in 2013, was likened by some to an enormous…

  • Kao-kuan Pass (mountain pass, China)

    Shaanxi: Relief and drainage: …and thus into Sichuan; the Gaoguan Pass south of Xi’an, which leads to the Hanzhong Basin; and the Lantian Pass southeast of Xi’an, which affords a route to Nanyang in Henan and to northern Anhui province.

  • Kao-lan-pu (national capital, Sri Lanka)

    Colombo, city, executive and judicial capital of Sri Lanka. (Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, a Colombo suburb, is the legislative capital.) Situated on the west coast of the island, just south of the Kelani River, Colombo is a principal port of the Indian Ocean. It has one of the largest artificial

  • Kao-tsu (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Gaozu, temple name (miaohao) of the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), under which the Chinese imperial system assumed most of the characteristics that it was to retain until it was overthrown in 1911/12. He reigned from 206 to 195 bc. His wife, the empress Gaohou

  • Kao-tsu (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Gaozu, temple name (miaohao) of the founder and first emperor (618–626) of the Tang dynasty (618–907). Although Gaozu claimed to be of Chinese descent, his family was intermarried with nomadic tribes of North China. As an official of the Sui dynasty (581–618), Li Yuan was expected to suppress

  • Kao-tsung (emperor of Tang dynasty)

    Gaozong, temple name (miaohao) of the third emperor of the Tang dynasty and husband of the empress Wuhou. During his 34-year reign (649–683) he expanded the Tang empire into Korea. In 649 Gaozong succeeded his father, the Taizong emperor. He continued his father’s foreign campaigns, conquering the

  • Kao-tsung (emperor of Southern Song dynasty)

    Gaozong, temple name (miaohao) of the first emperor of the Nan (Southern) Song dynasty (1127–1279). He fled to South China when the nomadic Juchen tribesmen overran North China and captured Gaozong’s father, the abdicated Bei (Northern) Song emperor Huizong (reigned 1100–1125/26), and Gaozong’s

  • Kaocen Ag Mohammed (Tuareg leader)

    Agadez: Led by Kaocen Ag Mohammed, the Tuareg revolted and laid siege to the town for four months before the French were able to crush the rebellion. The town was also a base of operations in the Tuareg rebellion against the Niger government in the 1990s and another…

  • Kaohsiung (Taiwan)

    Kao-hsiung, special municipality (chih-hsia shih, or zhizia shi) and major international port in southwestern Taiwan. It is situated on the coast of the Taiwan Strait, its city centre about 25 miles (40 km) south-southeast from central T’ai-nan (Tainan) special municipality. The site has been

  • Kaokoland (region, Namibia)

    Kaokoland, geographic region, northwestern Namibia. It is inhabited by the Bantu-speaking Herero, Ovahimba, and Ovatjimba nomadic pastoralists. Kaokoland is bordered by Angola and the Kunene River to the north, the Owambo geographic region to the east, the Hoanib River to the south, and the

  • Kaokoveld (region, Namibia)

    Kaokoland, geographic region, northwestern Namibia. It is inhabited by the Bantu-speaking Herero, Ovahimba, and Ovatjimba nomadic pastoralists. Kaokoland is bordered by Angola and the Kunene River to the north, the Owambo geographic region to the east, the Hoanib River to the south, and the

  • Kaolack (Senegal)

    Kaolack, town, west-central Senegal. It lies on the right bank of the Saloum River, 95 miles (150 km) southeast of Dakar. An ocean and river port with an important export trade in peanuts (groundnuts) and salt, it is linked by rail with Guinguinéo (13 miles [21 km] northeast) and the Dakar-Niger

  • kaoliang (grain)

    Sorghum, (Sorghum bicolor), cereal grain plant of the grass family (Poaceae) and its edible starchy seeds. The plant likely originated in Africa, where it is a major food crop, and has numerous varieties, including grain sorghums, used for food; grass sorghums, grown for hay and fodder; and

  • kaolin (clay)

    Kaolin, soft white clay that is an essential ingredient in the manufacture of china and porcelain and is widely used in the making of paper, rubber, paint, and many other products. Kaolin is named after the hill in China (Kao-ling) from which it was mined for centuries. Samples of kaolin were first

  • kaolinite (mineral)

    Kaolinite, group of common clay minerals that are hydrous aluminum silicates; they comprise the principal ingredients of kaolin (china clay). The group includes kaolinite and its rarer forms, dickite and nacrite, halloysite, and allophane, which are chemically similar to kaolinite but amorphous.

  • kaolinitic soil (soil)

    Kaolisol, soil that is formed under the heat and heavy rainfall of the tropics, which leaches out the silica and the bases. Thus, the soil is silica-poor; highly weathered, sometimes to a depth of many metres and therefore poor in weatherable minerals; rich in iron, which is released by

  • kaolisol (soil)

    Kaolisol, soil that is formed under the heat and heavy rainfall of the tropics, which leaches out the silica and the bases. Thus, the soil is silica-poor; highly weathered, sometimes to a depth of many metres and therefore poor in weatherable minerals; rich in iron, which is released by

  • kaon (subatomic particle)

    annihilation: K-mesons—which are classified within the hadron group of subatomic particles. Other annihilation reactions also occur. Nucleons (protons and neutrons), for example, annihilate antinucleons (antiprotons and antineutrons), and the energy is also carried away in the form of particles such as pi-mesons and K-mesons and their…

  • Kaonde (people)

    Kaonde, a Bantu-speaking people the vast majority of whom inhabit the northwestern region of Zambia. A numerically much smaller group lives in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). The Zambian wooded highlands average 4,000 feet (1,220 metres) in elevation; to the southeast begin open plains

  • Kaoyi (work by Sima Guang)

    Sima Guang: …compiled a separate work, the Kaoyi (“Scrutiny”), which dealt with the discrepancies in his numerous sources and gave his reasons for preferring certain authorities.

  • Kaoze, Stefano (Congolese philosopher)

    Bantu philosophy: …was inaugurated in 1910 by Stefano Kaoze, the first Congolese to gain substantial training in modern philosophy. In his essay titled “La Psychologie des Bantu” (“Bantu Psychology”), Kaoze articulated what he regarded as the Bantu way of thinking about knowledge, moral values, God, life, and the afterlife. Working in the…

  • kaozheng xue (Chinese history)

    China: State and society: …empirical school of scholarship (kaozheng xue). Influenced by their knowledge of European mathematics and mathematical astronomy, these scholars laid down new rules for verifying the authenticity of the Classical texts and, by revealing flaws in previously accepted canons, challenged the Neo-Confucian orthodoxy. Turning away from the Confucian quest for…

  • kapa haka (Maori performance art)

    Te Matatini: …the diversity of both the kapa haka (literally “row dance”; see also haka) competitors and their audience. Te Matatini is hosted by a different region of New Zealand each time it is held and lasts three to four days. Over that period, regional winners of kapa haka competitions in New…

  • Kapa‘a (Hawaii, United States)

    Kapaa, city, Kauai county, on the east-central coast of Kauai island, Hawaii, U.S. Sugarcane and pineapple plantations once dotted the region around Kapaa. Rice was also grown, and Chinese merchants once dominated the commercial centre. Since the 1960s, tourism, diversified agriculture, and service

  • Kapaa (Hawaii, United States)

    Kapaa, city, Kauai county, on the east-central coast of Kauai island, Hawaii, U.S. Sugarcane and pineapple plantations once dotted the region around Kapaa. Rice was also grown, and Chinese merchants once dominated the commercial centre. Since the 1960s, tourism, diversified agriculture, and service

  • Kapadia, Kasturba (Indian political activist)

    Kasturba Gandhi, Indian political activist who was a leader in the struggle for civil rights and for independence from British rule in India. She was the wife of Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. Kasturba Kapadia was born to Gokuladas Kapadia, a wealthy merchant, and his wife, Vrajkunwerba, in the city

  • kapāla (skull cup)

    Kapāla, cup made of a human skull, frequently offered by worshipers to the fierce Tantric deities of Hindu India and Buddhist Tibet. In Tibet the skull cup is displayed on the Buddhist altar and is used in ritual to offer to the ferocious dharmapāla (“defender of the faith”) divinities either wine,

  • Kapalikas (Hindu ascetics)

    Kapalika and Kalamukha, members of either of two groups of Shaivite (devotees of Shiva) ascetics, most prominent in India from the 8th through the 13th century, who became notorious for their practices of esoteric rituals that allegedly included both animal and human sacrifice, though there is no

  • Kapampangan (people)

    Kapampangan, ethnolinguistic group living in the Philippines, principally in the central plain of Luzon, especially in the province of Pampanga, but also in parts of other adjoining provinces. Kapampangans numbered some two million in the early 21st century. The Kapampangan language is closely

  • Kapampangan language

    Austronesian languages: Major languages: Bicol, Waray-Waray, Kapampangan, and Pangasinan of the Philippines; Malay, Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese, Minangkabau, the Batak languages, Acehnese, Balinese, and Buginese of western Indonesia; and Malagasy of Madagascar. Each of these languages

  • Kaparu Palace (palace, Tall ?alaf, Syria)

    Anatolian art and architecture: Hittite period: …these bit hilani is the Kaparu Palace at Tall ?alaf, near the source of the Khābūr River. The almost barbaric array of sculpture shows the city to have been predominantly Aramaean.

  • Kapellbrücke (bridge, Lucerne, Switzerland)

    Lucerne: …by fire in 1993, the Kapellbrücke (1333; “Chapel Bridge”) was the oldest bridge. It was similarly decorated. The old town on the right bank is distinguished by well-preserved 14th-century town walls (Musegg) with nine watchtowers, quaint alleys, and squares with medieval, Renaissance, and Baroque houses. Notable buildings are the old…

  • Kaper, Bronislau (Polish-American composer)
  • kapetan (Ottoman government)

    Bosnia and Herzegovina: Ottoman Bosnia: In 1831 a charismatic young kapetan called Husein seized power in Bosnia, imprisoning the vizier in Travnik. With an army of 25,000 men, Husein then marched into Kosovo to negotiate with the Ottoman grand vizier, demanding local autonomy for Bosnia and an end to the reform process there. But the…

  • Kapetan Mikhalis, O (work by Kazantzakis)

    Níkos Kazantzákis: …philosopher; O Kapetán Mikhális (1950; Freedom or Death), a depiction of Cretan Greeks’ struggle against their Ottoman overlords in the 19th century; O Khristós Xanastavrónetai (1954; The Greek Passion); and O televtaíos pirasmós (1955; The Last Temptation of Christ), a revisionist psychological study of Jesus Christ. Published after his death…

  • Kapfenberg (Austria)

    Kapfenberg, town, southeast-central Austria, at the confluence of the Mürz and Th?rlbach rivers just northeast of Bruck. Founded around a fortress in the late 12th century, it was first mentioned in 1256. It had ironworks as early as the 15th century. Kapfenberg is resort town, has important

  • Kapghan (Turkish ruler)

    China: Military reorganization: Kapghan (Mochuo), the Turkish khan who had invaded Hebei in the aftermath of the Khitan invasion in the time of Wuhou and had attacked the Chinese northwest at the end of her reign, turned his attention northward. By 711 he controlled the steppe from the…

  • kapha (humour)

    Siddha medicine: Humoral pathology: >kapha (representing air, fire, and water, respectively)—are known as humours, and their inharmonious interaction produces various pathological states.

  • kap?kulu (Ottoman army)

    Ottoman Empire: Military organization: …the sultan under the name kap?kulu. Murad based the new force on his right to a fifth of the war booty, which he interpreted to include captives taken in battle. As those men entered his service, they were converted to Islam and trained as Ottomans, gaining the knowledge and experience…

  • Kapila (Vedic sage)

    Kapila, Vedic sage who is often identified as one of the founders of the system of Samkhya, one of six darshans (systems) of Indian philosophy. He is not, however, the author of the text primarily responsible for giving the school its philosophical definition, Ishvarakrishna’s Samkhya-karika (c.

  • Kapila (India)

    Haridwar, city, northwestern Uttarakhand state, northern India. Haridwar lies along the Ganges (Ganga) River, at the boundary between the Indo-Gangetic Plain (south) and the Himalayan foothills (north). It is the site of the headworks of the Ganges Canal system. Haridwar is one of the seven sacred

  • Kapilavastu (India)

    Buddha: Sources of the life of the Buddha: …to his native city of Kapilavastu (Pali: Kapilavatthu), which is said to have taken place either one year or six years after his enlightenment. The partial biographies add stories that were to become well-known, such as the child prince’s meditation under a rose-apple tree and his four momentous chariot rides…

  • Kapilavatthu (India)

    Buddha: Sources of the life of the Buddha: …to his native city of Kapilavastu (Pali: Kapilavatthu), which is said to have taken place either one year or six years after his enlightenment. The partial biographies add stories that were to become well-known, such as the child prince’s meditation under a rose-apple tree and his four momentous chariot rides…

  • Kapilendra (Indian ruler)

    Ganga dynasty: …left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35. The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture.

  • Kapile?vara (Indian ruler)

    Ganga dynasty: …left no inscriptions; his minister Kapilendra usurped the throne and founded the Suryavamsha dynasty in 1434–35. The Eastern Gangas were great patrons of religion and the arts, and the temples of the Ganga period rank among the masterpieces of Hindu architecture.

  • Kapiri Mposhi (town, Zambia)

    Kapiri Mposhi, town situated about 40 miles (64 km) north-northeast of Kabwe in central Zambia. It serves an area that supports tobacco, wheat, corn (maize), and livestock. The town is a terminus of the 1,155-mile (1,859-km) Tan-Zam railway from Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, completed in 1974. Pop.

  • Kapital, Das (drama by Malaparte)

    Curzio Malaparte: …1948) and Karl Marx (Das Kapital, performed 1949) and on life in Vienna during the Soviet occupation (Anche le donne hanno perso la guerra, performed 1954; “The Women Lost the War Too”). He also wrote the screenplay for a film, Il Cristo proibito (1951) and, in addition to other…

  • Kapital, Das (work by Marx)

    Das Kapital, (German: Capital) one of the major works of the 19th-century economist and philosopher Karl Marx (1818–83), in which he expounded his theory of the capitalist system, its dynamism, and its tendencies toward self-destruction. He described his purpose as to lay bare “the economic law of

  • Kapiti Island (island, New Zealand)

    Kapiti Island, uninhabited island at the northern entrance to Cook Strait, 5 miles (8 km) off the mouth of the Waikanae River, southwestern North Island, New Zealand. It is 9 square miles (23 square km) in area and may be part of a land bridge that once connected North and South islands. Generally

  • Kapitsa, Pyotr Leonidovich (Soviet physicist)

    Pyotr Leonidovich Kapitsa, Soviet physicist who invented new machines for liquefaction of gases and in 1937 discovered the superfluidity of liquid helium. He was a corecipient of the 1978 Nobel Prize for Physics for his basic inventions and discoveries in the area of low-temperature physics. After

  • kapkap (body ornament)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Admiralty Islands: A favourite ornament was the kapkap, a breastplate consisting of a carved tortoiseshell plate mounted on a giant clam shell.

  • Kaplan turbine

    turbine: Axial-flow machines: In such a Kaplan turbine each blade can be swiveled about a post at right angles to the main turbine shaft, thus producing a variable pitch. The angle of the blades is controlled by an oil-pressure operated servomotor, usually mounted in the rotor hub with the oil fed…

  • Kaplan, David (American philosopher)

    semantics: Truth-conditional semantics: American philosophers Hilary Putnam and David Kaplan independently proposed the same solution to the problem. According to them, the truth conditions of the two utterances are different, and so are their meanings. And yet both speakers understand the meanings of their utterances, despite the fact that their psychological states are…

  • Kaplan, Ira (American musician)

    Yo La Tengo: …longest-running lineup consisted of singer-guitarist Ira Kaplan (b. January 7, 1957, Queens, New York, U.S.), drummer Georgia Hubley (b. February 25, 1960, New York), and bassist (from 1992) James McNew (b. July 6, 1969, Baltimore, Maryland).

  • Kaplan, Justin (American writer, biographer, and editor)

    Justin Kaplan, American writer, biographer, and book editor who was best known for his acclaimed literary biographies of Mark Twain, Lincoln Steffens, and Walt Whitman and for his editing of the 16th edition of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations (1992). Kaplan grew up in New York City. After graduating

  • Kaplan, Justin Daniel (American writer, biographer, and editor)

    Justin Kaplan, American writer, biographer, and book editor who was best known for his acclaimed literary biographies of Mark Twain, Lincoln Steffens, and Walt Whitman and for his editing of the 16th edition of Bartlett’s Familiar Quotations (1992). Kaplan grew up in New York City. After graduating

  • Kaplan, Mordecai Menahem (American rabbi)

    Mordecai Menahem Kaplan, American rabbi, educator, theologian, and religious leader who founded the influential Reconstructionist movement in Judaism. Kaplan emigrated with his family to the United States in 1889. After graduating from the College of the City of New York (1900) and Columbia

  • Kaplan, Morton (American political scientist)

    political science: Systems analysis: The American political scientist Morton Kaplan delineated types of international systems and their logical consequences in System and Process in International Politics (1957). According to Kaplan, for example, the Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union brought about a bipolar international system that governed much…

  • Kaplansky, Irving (American mathematician)

    Irving Kaplansky, Canadian-born American mathematician (born March 22, 1917, Toronto, Ont.—died June 25, 2006, Los Angeles, Calif.), made important contributions to such algebraic areas as ring, group, and field theory as well as commutative algebra, and in 1989 he was the winner of the American M

  • Kapleau, Philip (American religious leader)

    Philip Kapleau, American religious leader, a leading popularizer of Zen Buddhism in the United States and the founder of the Rochester Zen Center, a major venue of Zen meditation and education. During his youth Kapleau rejected his family’s Christianity, going so far as to found an atheists’ club

  • Kaplicky, Jan (Czech-born architect)

    Jan Kaplicky, Czech-born architect (born April 18, 1937, Prague, Czech. [now Czech Rep.]—died Jan. 14, 2009, Prague), created futuristic organically inspired designs that challenged some of the most basic ideas of modern architecture. His best-known designs were for the spaceshiplike semimonocoque

  • Kapodístrias, Ioánnis Antónios, Komis (Greek statesman)

    Ioánnis Antónios, Komis Kapodístrias, (Komis: “Count”) Greek statesman who was prominent in the Russian foreign service during the reign of Alexander I (reigned 1801–25) and in the Greek struggle for independence. The son of Komis Antonio Capo d’Istria, he was born in Corfu (at that time under

  • Kapoeas Rivier (river, Indonesia)

    Kapuas River, chief waterway of western Indonesian Borneo (Kalimantan). The river rises in the Kapuas Hulu Mountains in the central part of the island and flows 710 miles (1,143 km) west-southwest through West Kalimantan province. It reaches the South China Sea in a great marshy delta

  • kapok (tree)

    “Flying” Trees: For example, the kapok tree, found in tropical forests throughout the world, is an emergent—a tree whose crown rises well above the canopy. The kapok’s towering height enables it to gain access to winds above the canopy. The tiny seeds of the kapok are attached to fine fibres…

  • kapok (plant fibre)

    Kapok, (Ceiba pentandra), seed-hair fibre obtained from the fruit of the kapok tree or the kapok tree itself. The kapok is a gigantic tree of the tropical forest canopy and emergent layer. Common throughout the tropics, the kapok is native to the New World and to Africa and was transported to Asia,

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