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  • Kazakh (people)

    Kazakh, an Asiatic Turkic-speaking people inhabiting mainly Kazakhstan and the adjacent parts of the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China. The Kazakhs emerged in the 15th century from an amalgam of Turkic tribes who entered Transoxiana about the 8th century and of Mongols who entered the

  • Kazakh language

    Kazak language, member of the Turkic language family (a subfamily of the Altaic languages), belonging to the northwestern, or Kipchak, branch. The Kazak language is spoken primarily in Kazakhstan and in the Uighur Autonomous Region of Sinkiang in China but is also found in Uzbekistan, Mongolia, a

  • Kazakh literature

    Kazakh literature, the body of literature, both oral and written, produced in the Kazakh language by the Kazakh people of Central Asia. The Kazakh professional bard once preserved a large repertoire of centuries-old poetry. In the mid-19th century, for example, a bard might recite a number of works

  • Kazakh rug

    Kazakh rug, floor covering woven by villagers living in western Azerbaijan and in a number of towns and villages in northern Armenia and the adjacent southern part of Georgia. The weavers are probably mostly Azerbaijanian Turks, although it is clear that both Armenians and Georgians have taken part

  • Kazakh Uplands (region, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakh Uplands, hilly upland in central and eastern Kazakhstan, occupying about one-fifth of the republic. It is a peneplain, the mountainous Paleozoic foundation of which had already been worn down into an undulating plain by the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, beginning about 250 million years

  • Kazakhsky Melkosopochnik (region, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakh Uplands, hilly upland in central and eastern Kazakhstan, occupying about one-fifth of the republic. It is a peneplain, the mountainous Paleozoic foundation of which had already been worn down into an undulating plain by the beginning of the Mesozoic Era, beginning about 250 million years

  • Kazakhstan

    Kazakhstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea, and Turkmenistan; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the

  • Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences (academy, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakhstan: Education: The institutes in the Kazakhstan Academy of Sciences (founded 1946) focus their research on subjects important to Kazakhstan, in science as well as in the humanities. The renunciation of Marxist-Leninist ideology in Kazakhstan has freed scholars from the restrictions that hampered their research and interpretation of findings. Many serious…

  • Kazakhstan, flag of

    national flag consisting of a light blue field with a yellow sun and flying eagle in the centre and a yellow ornamental band at the hoist. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is approximately 1 to 2.The Kazakhs are (in part) descended from the “Blue Horde”—Turkic-Mongol peoples who, centuries ago,

  • Kazakhstan, history of

    Kazakhstan: History: The immense size and varied landscape of Kazakhstan exclude the possibility of a unified prehistoric culture covering the whole area. The Bronze Age Andronovo culture (2nd millennium bce) spread over much of Kazakhstan; it was followed by periods dominated…

  • Kazakhstan, Republic of

    Kazakhstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea, and Turkmenistan; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the

  • Kazakhstania (paleocontinent)

    Silurian Period: Siberia, Kazakhstania, and other continents: Similarly, Kazakhstania was a neighbouring continent to the east in the same northern middle latitudes. North China (including Manchuria and Korea) and South China (the Yangtze platform) were two separate continents situated in a more equatorial position. In contrast to Siberia and Kazakhstania, most of North…

  • Kazaki (work by Tolstoy)

    Leo Tolstoy: First publications: …dominates Tolstoy’s novel Kazaki (1863; The Cossacks). The hero of this work, the dissolute and self-centred aristocrat Dmitry Olenin, enlists as a cadet to serve in the Caucasus. Living among the Cossacks, he comes to appreciate a life more in touch with natural and biological rhythms. In the novel’s central…

  • Kazakov, Matvey Fyodorovich (Russian architect)

    Matvey Fyodorovich Kazakov, one of the first Russian architects of Neoclassicism, often called the “master of the rotunda” because of his use of that architectural feature. At age 13 Kazakov began to study under the architect Dmitry Ukhtomsky, a devotee of the Baroque, and from 1768 he served as an

  • Kazakov, Yury Pavlovich (Russian author)

    Yury Pavlovich Kazakov, Soviet short-story writer who worked in the classic Russian lyrical style of Anton Chekhov and Ivan Bunin. Kazakov was initially a jazz musician, but he began to publish short stories in 1952. He graduated from the Gorky Institute of World Literature in 1958 and traveled

  • Kazakstan

    Kazakhstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded on the northwest and north by Russia, on the east by China, and on the south by Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea, and Turkmenistan; the Caspian Sea bounds Kazakhstan to the southwest. Kazakhstan is the largest country in Central Asia and the

  • Kazakstan, flag of

    national flag consisting of a light blue field with a yellow sun and flying eagle in the centre and a yellow ornamental band at the hoist. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is approximately 1 to 2.The Kazakhs are (in part) descended from the “Blue Horde”—Turkic-Mongol peoples who, centuries ago,

  • Kazan (Russia)

    Kazan, capital city, Tatarstan republic, western Russia. It lies just north of the Samara Reservoir on the Volga River, where it is joined by the Kazanka River. The city stretches for about 15 miles (25 km) along hills, which are much dissected by ravines. Ancient Kazan (Iske Kazan) was founded in

  • Kazan Basin (geological feature, Europe)

    Permian Period: Basin sedimentation: … of northwestern Europe; and the Kazan Basin of eastern Europe—show similar general changes. In most basins the inner parts became sites of red bed deposition during the Early Permian, followed by periods of extensive evaporite production. Sand sources along the ancestral Rocky Mountains supplied eolian sand and silt in great…

  • Kazan Cathedral (building, Saint Petersburg, Russia)

    St. Petersburg: Admiralty Side: …Catholic Church (1763–83), and the Kazan Cathedral (1801–11). The last edifice, undoubtedly the street’s finest feature, was designed by Andrey Voronikhin in Russian Neoclassical style and has an interior rich in sculptures and paintings. A magnificent semicircular Corinthian colonnade dominates its exterior. Another interesting building is the department store Gostiny…

  • Kazan River (river, Nunavut, Canada)

    Kazan River, river in Nunavut, Canada. It is a major tributary of the Thelon River, draining part of the Barren Grounds (a subarctic prairie region). Arising from Snowbird and Kasba lakes, north of the Manitoba-Saskatchewan provincial boundary, the river flows northeastward for 455 miles (730 km)

  • Kazan State University (university, Kazan, Russia)

    Vladimir Lenin: The making of a revolutionary: …imperial Kazan University (later renamed Kazan [V.I. Lenin] State University), but within three months he was expelled from the school, having been accused of participating in an illegal student assembly. He was arrested and banished from Kazan to his grandfather’s estate in the village of Kokushkino, where his older sister…

  • Kazan Tatar (people)

    history of Central Asia: Tsarist rule: …been carried out through intermediaries—Kazan Tatars, who, paradoxically, had contributed to strengthening the Kazakhs’ awareness of being part of a greater Muslim world community and their sense of being a “nation” rather than a welter of tribes and clans. Moreover, through the Tatars they were exposed to current Pan-Turkish and…

  • Kazan Tatar language

    Tatar language: The major Tatar dialects are Kazan Tatar (spoken in Tatarstan), Western or Misher Tatar, as well as the minor eastern or Siberian dialects, Kasimov, Tepter (Teptyar), and Astrakhan and Ural Tatar. Kazan Tatar is the literary language.

  • Kazan, Elia (American director and author)

    Elia Kazan, Turkish-born American director and author noted for his successes on the stage—especially with plays by Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller—as well as for his critically acclaimed films and for his role in developing a revolutionary style of acting that embodied psychological and

  • Kazan-rettō (archipelago, Japan)

    Volcano Islands, archipelago, Tokyo to (metropolis), far southern Japan. The islands lie in the western Pacific between the Bonin Islands (north) and the Mariana Islands (south). The three small volcanic islands are, in north–south sequence, Kita-Iō (San Alexander) Island, Iō Island (Iō-tō;

  • Kazania sejmowe (work by Skarga)

    Piotr Skarga: Kazania sejmowe (1597; “Diet Sermons”) is considered Skarga’s best work. These sermons are said to have been delivered before the King and his Diet. Other works include ?ywoty ?wi?tych (1579; “The Lives of Saints”), still widely read in Poland today, and collections of sermons such…

  • Kazania ?wi?tokrzyskie (Polish sermons)

    Polish literature: Religious writings: …example of Polish prose, the Kazania ?wi?tokrzyskie (“Sermons of the Holy Cross”), dating from the end of the 13th or the beginning of the 14th century, was discovered in 1890. Among many similar works, a partial translation of the Bible, made about 1455 for Queen Sophia, widow of W?adys?aw Jagie??o,…

  • Kazanian Stage (geology)

    Permian Period: Early work: The Ufimian-Kazanian Stage (a regional stage overlapping the current Roadian Stage and the remainder of the Wordian Stage) in between Murchison’s upper and lower parts of the Permian System was considered to be a close lithologic and age equivalent of the Zechstein of northwestern Europe.

  • Kazanjian, Arlene Francis (American actress)

    Arlene Francis, (Arlene Francis Kazanjian), American actress and television personality (born Oct. 20, 1907, Boston, Mass.—died May 31, 2001, San Francisco, Calif.), enjoyed widespread popularity as a regular panelist on the long-running television quiz show What’s My Line? and as host of the v

  • Kazanjoglous, Elia (American director and author)

    Elia Kazan, Turkish-born American director and author noted for his successes on the stage—especially with plays by Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller—as well as for his critically acclaimed films and for his role in developing a revolutionary style of acting that embodied psychological and

  • Kazankina Kovalenko, Tatyana Vasilyevna (Soviet athlete)

    Tatyana Kazankina, Soviet athlete who won three Olympic gold medals and set seven world records in women’s running events during the 1970s and ’80s. A seemingly fragile individual standing 1.61 metres (5 feet 3 inches) tall and weighing just 48 kg (106 pounds), Kazankina made an international

  • Kazankina, Tatyana (Soviet athlete)

    Tatyana Kazankina, Soviet athlete who won three Olympic gold medals and set seven world records in women’s running events during the 1970s and ’80s. A seemingly fragile individual standing 1.61 metres (5 feet 3 inches) tall and weighing just 48 kg (106 pounds), Kazankina made an international

  • Kazanl?k (Bulgaria)

    Kazanl?k, town, central Bulgaria. It lies in the Kazanl?k basin, 2 miles (3 km) north of the Tundzha River. The area is famous for its roses, which are made into attar of roses for the perfume industry. This industry, which developed in the 17th century, now uses approximately 20,000 acres (8,000

  • Kazanl?k Tomb (tomb, Kazanl?k, Bulgaria)

    Kazanl?k: The Kazanl?k Tomb, discovered in 1944 on the outskirts of town, is a Thracian burial tomb of an unknown ruler from the 4th or 3rd century bc. The fine murals that decorate the entire tomb distinguish it from 13 similar known examples. The town also has…

  • Kazantzakes, Nikos (Greek writer)

    Níkos Kazantzákis, Greek writer whose prolific output and wide variety of work represent a major contribution to modern Greek literature. Kazantzákis was born during the period of revolt of Crete against rule by the Ottoman Empire, and his family fled for a short time to the Greek island of Náxos.

  • Kazantzákis, Níkos (Greek writer)

    Níkos Kazantzákis, Greek writer whose prolific output and wide variety of work represent a major contribution to modern Greek literature. Kazantzákis was born during the period of revolt of Crete against rule by the Ottoman Empire, and his family fled for a short time to the Greek island of Náxos.

  • Kazantzidis, Stelios (Greek singer)

    Stelios Kazantzidis, Greek folk singer (born Aug. 29, 1931, Athens, Greece—died Sept. 14, 2001, Athens), used his expressive vocal interpretations to capture the joys as well as the melancholy longings of Greeks everywhere, especially those in the working class and emigrants in the Greek d

  • Kazaure (Nigeria)

    Kazaure, town and traditional emirate in Jigawa state, northern Nigeria. The town has been the emirate’s headquarters since 1819. It was founded by Dan Tunku, a Fulani warrior who was one of the 14 flag bearers for the Fulani jihad (holy war) leader Usman dan Fodio. Dan Tunku arrived from the

  • Kazbek, Mount (mountain, Georgia)

    Mount Kazbek, mountain in northern Georgia. One of the country’s highest peaks, Mount Kazbek attains an elevation of 16,512 feet (5,033 metres). It is an extinct volcano with a double conical form and lava flows up to 1,000 feet (300 metres) thick. It is covered by icefields from which rise the

  • Kaze no tani no Naushika (film by Miyazaki)

    Miyazaki Hayao: …no tani no Naushika (Nausica? of the Valley of the Wind), a monthly manga (Japanese cartoon) strip he wrote for Animage magazine. The story followed Naushika, a princess and reluctant warrior, on her journey through an ecologically ravaged world. Its success inspired a film of the same name (released…

  • Kaze no uta o kike (novel by Murakami)

    Haruki Murakami: …no uta o kike (1979; Hear the Wind Sing; film 1980), won a prize for best fiction by a new writer. From the start his writing was characterized by images and events that the author himself found difficult to explain but which seemed to come from the inner recesses of…

  • Kaze tachinu (film by Miyazaki [2013])

    Miyazaki Hayao: Kaze tachinu (2013; The Wind Rises) was an impressionistic take on the life of engineer Horikoshi Jiro, who designed fighter planes used by the Japanese during World War II. The film was based on Miyazaki’s manga of the same name, and it was nominated for an Academy Award…

  • Kazeh (Tanzania)

    Tabora, town, west-central Tanzania. Lying on the Central Plateau at an elevation of 4,000 feet (1,200 m), it has a mean annual temperature of 73 °F (23 °C). The town has been the capital of the Nyamwezi people and was the major trade link between the coast and the Congo River basin prior to

  • Kazembe (historical kingdom, Africa)

    Kazembe, the largest and most highly organized of the Lunda kingdoms (see Luba-Lunda states) in central Africa, and the title of all its rulers. At the height of its power (c. 1800), Kazembe occupied almost all of the territory now included in the Katanga region of Congo (Kinshasa) and in n

  • Kazembe II (king of Kazembe)

    Kazembe: …was Kazembe II, known as Kaniembo (reigned c. 1740–60), who conquered most of the territory that the kingdom eventually occupied, extending citizenship to those he conquered and establishing the complicated network of tribute and trade that held the vast kingdom together. His grandson, Kazembe IV, known as Kibangu Keleka (reigned…

  • Kazembe III (king of Kazembe)

    Zambia: External contacts: Their activities were reported to Kazembe III, the Lunda king on the Luapula, by Bisa traders who exported his ivory and copper to the Yao in Malawi. Kazembe already had indirect access to European goods from the west coast; he now hoped to cut out his African middlemen. One Goan…

  • Kazembe IV (king of Kazembe)

    Kazembe: His grandson, Kazembe IV, known as Kibangu Keleka (reigned 1805–50), encouraged contacts with Portuguese traders from Angola, and Kazembe became an important centre of trade between the peoples in the central African interior and the Portuguese and Arabs on the eastern coast.

  • Kāzerūn (Iran)

    Kāzerūn, town, southwestern Iran. It is situated on a plain among high limestone ridges on the north-south trunk road. The town is extensive, with well-built houses. It is surrounded by date palms, citrus orchards, and wheat and tobacco fields; rice, cotton, and vines also are grown. The ruins of

  • kaziasker (Ottoman military judge)

    Kaziasker, (from Arabic qā?ī, “judge,” and ?askar, “army”), the second highest officer in the judicial hierarchy of the Ottoman Empire; he ranked immediately after the shaykh al-Islām, the head of the ?ulamā? (men of religious learning). The title was created by Sultan Murad I (reigned 1360–89),

  • Kazim Karabekir (Turkish general)

    Kemal Atatürk: The nationalist movement and the war for independence: …Sivas to Erzurum, where General Kazim Karabekir, commander of the XV Army Corps of 18,000 men, was headquartered. At this critical moment, when Mustafa Kemal had no military support or official status, Kazim threw in his lot with Mustafa Kemal, placing his troops at Mustafa Kemal’s disposal. This was a…

  • Kā?im Rashtī, Sayyid (Islamic leader)

    the Bāb: …Islam and with its leader, Sayyid Kā?im Rashtī, whom he had met on a pilgrimage to Karbalā? (in modern Iraq). ?Alī Mo?ammad borrowed heavily from the Shaykhīs’ teaching in formulating his own doctrine, and they, especially Sayyid Kā?im’s disciple Mullā ?usayn, seem to have encouraged his proclamation of himself as…

  • Kazimierz Dolny (Poland)

    Lubelskie: Geography: …the province are Zamo?? and Kazimierz Dolny. The Old City of Zamo??, a fine example of an Italianate Renaissance town, became a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1992. Kazimierz Dolny, a picturesque town in the Vistula valley, is popular with artists, writers, and tourists. The town features the ruins of…

  • Kazimierz Jagiellończyk (king of Poland)

    Casimir IV, grand duke of Lithuania (1440–92) and king of Poland (1447–92), who, by patient but tenacious policy, sought to preserve the political union between Poland and Lithuania and to recover the lost lands of old Poland. The great triumph of his reign was the final subjugation of the Teutonic

  • Kazimierz Mnich (duke of Poland)

    Casimir I, duke of Poland who reannexed the formerly Polish provinces of Silesia, Mazovia, and Pomerania (all now in Poland), which had been lost during his father’s reign, and restored the Polish central government. Only surviving son of Duke Mieszko II and Richeza (Ryksa) of Palatine Lorraine,

  • Kazimierz Odnowiciel (duke of Poland)

    Casimir I, duke of Poland who reannexed the formerly Polish provinces of Silesia, Mazovia, and Pomerania (all now in Poland), which had been lost during his father’s reign, and restored the Polish central government. Only surviving son of Duke Mieszko II and Richeza (Ryksa) of Palatine Lorraine,

  • Kazimierz Sprawiedliwy (duke of Poland)

    Casimir II, duke of Kraków and of Sandomierz from 1177 to 1194. A member of the Piast dynasty, he drove his brother Mieszko III from the throne and spent much of his reign fighting him. Mieszko actually regained power briefly in 1190–91, retaking Kraków. Casimir became Poland’s most powerful ruler

  • Kazimierz Wielki (king of Poland)

    Casimir III, king of Poland from 1333 to 1370, called “the Great” because he was deemed a peaceful ruler, a “peasant king,” and a skillful diplomat. Through astute diplomacy he annexed lands from western Russia and eastern Germany. Within his realm he unified the government, codified its unwritten

  • Kazin, Alfred (American critic and author)

    Alfred Kazin, American critic and author noted for his studies of American literature and his autobiographical writings. The son of Russian Jewish immigrants, Kazin attended the City College of New York during the Great Depression and then worked as a freelance book reviewer for The New Republic

  • Kazincbarcika (Hungary)

    Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén: Major cities include Miskolc, Edelény, Kazinbarcika, Mez?k?vesd, ózd, Sárospatak, Szerencs, Sátoraljaújhely, Tiszaújváros, and Tokaj.

  • Kazinczy, Ferenc (Hungarian literary scholar)

    Ferenc Kazinczy, Hungarian man of letters whose reform of the Hungarian language and attempts to improve literary style had great influence. Born of a well-to-do family of the nobility, Kazinczy learned German and French as a child and entered a famous Protestant college at Sárospatak in 1769.

  • Kazinga Channel (waterway, Africa)

    East African lakes: Physiography: … by the 3,000-foot- (915-metre-) wide Kazinga Channel. At an elevation of approximately 3,000 feet above sea level, the surfaces of both lakes are nearly 1,000 feet (300 metres) higher than that of Lake Albert.

  • Kaziranga National Park (national park, India)

    Kaziranga National Park, scenic natural area in north-central Assam state, northeastern India. It is situated on the south bank of the Brahmaputra River, about 60 miles (100 km) west of Jorhat on the main road to Guwahati. First established in 1908 as a reserved forest, it subsequently was

  • Kazmir, Scott (American baseball player)

    Tampa Bay Rays: …the play of young stars Scott Kazmir, Matt Garza, Evan Longoria, and Carl Crawford, the Rays posted a 95–67 record—a 29-game improvement from their 2007 mark of 66–96—and qualified for the first playoff appearance in the franchise’s history as AL East Division champions. In the American League Championship Series, the…

  • kazoku (Japanese nobility)

    Kazoku, in Japan, the unified, crown-appointed aristocracy of the period 1869–1947, which replaced the feudal lords. The kazoku (“flower family”) class was created in 1869 as part of the Westernizing reforms of the Meiji Restoration. In this class the old feudal lords (daimyo) and court nobles

  • Kazoku shinema (novel by Yū Miri)

    Yū Miri: …new author, and her novel Kazoku shinema (1997; “Family Cinema”) established her reputation and won her public recognition. Kazoku shinema tells the story of a young woman’s reunion with long-estranged relatives to film a semifictional documentary. Written in clear and simple language, the novel alternates briskly between real-life scenes and…

  • kazoo (musical instrument)

    mirliton: A common mirliton is the kazoo, in which the membrane is set in the wall of a short tube into which the player vocalizes. Tissue paper and a comb constitute a homemade mirliton. Mirlitons are also set in the walls of some flutes (e.g., the Chinese ti) and xylophone resonators…

  • Kazvīn (Iran)

    Qazvīn, city, capital of Qazvīn province, north-central Iran. The city sits in a wide, fertile plain at the southern foot of the Elburz Mountains. Originally called Shad Shāhpūr, it was founded by the Sāsānian king Shāpūr I about 250 ce. It flourished in early Muslim times (7th century), serving as

  • Kazym (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …(Bolshaya) Ob, which receives the Kazym and Kunovat rivers from the right, and the Little (Malaya) Ob, which receives the Northern (Severnaya) Sosva, the Vogulka, and the Synya rivers from the left. These main channels are reunited below Shuryshkary into a single stream that is up to 12 miles (19…

  • Kā?ūs I (Seljuq sultan)

    Anatolia: Seljuq expansion: …sons and successors, ?Izz al-Dīn Kā?ūs I (1211–20) and ?Alā? al-Dīn Kay-Qubādh I (1220–37), the Anatolian Seljuqs achieved the zenith of their power. Ghiyās? al-Dīn Kay-Khusraw I reunified the Seljuq state and began to expand at the expense of what was left of the Byzantine Empire in the west and…

  • Kā?ūsīyeh dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Kā?ūsīyeh dynasty, (ad 665–c. 1006), branch of the Bāvand dynasty, which ruled in ?abaristān (now Māzandarān, northern Iran). The origins and early history of the Kā?ūsīyeh branch are obscure. Its founder and the founder of the main dynasty was a certain Bāv (ruled 665–680). The dynasty was centred

  • Ka?b (Arab poet)

    Islamic arts: Age of the caliphs: …followed: a famous ode by Ka?b, the son of Zuhayr, is different from pre-Islamic poetry only insofar as it ends in praise of the Prophet, imploring his forgiveness, instead of eulogizing some Bedouin leader. Muhammad’s rather mediocre eulogist, ?assān ibn Thābit (died c. 659), also slavishly repeated the traditional patterns…

  • Ka?bah (shrine, Mecca, Saudi Arabia)

    Kaaba, small shrine located near the centre of the Great Mosque in Mecca and considered by Muslims everywhere to be the most sacred spot on Earth. Muslims orient themselves toward this shrine during the five daily prayers, bury their dead facing its meridian, and cherish the ambition of visiting it

  • Ka?be-ye Zardusht (building, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Wars of Shāpūr I: …Achaemenian building known as the Ka?be-ye Zardusht (“Kaaba of Zoroaster”). The text is in three languages, Sāsānian Pahlavi (Middle Persian), Parthian, and Greek. Besides the narrative of the military operations, the inscription provides a description of the Persian empire of the time and an inventory of the Zoroastrian religious foundations…

  • Ka?beh-ye Zardusht (building, Iran)

    ancient Iran: Wars of Shāpūr I: …Achaemenian building known as the Ka?be-ye Zardusht (“Kaaba of Zoroaster”). The text is in three languages, Sāsānian Pahlavi (Middle Persian), Parthian, and Greek. Besides the narrative of the military operations, the inscription provides a description of the Persian empire of the time and an inventory of the Zoroastrian religious foundations…

  • KB (computer science)

    expert system: …relies on two components: a knowledge base and an inference engine. A knowledge base is an organized collection of facts about the system’s domain. An inference engine interprets and evaluates the facts in the knowledge base in order to provide an answer. Typical tasks for expert systems involve classification, diagnosis,…

  • KB-11 (Russian organization)

    Yuly Borisovich Khariton: …KB-11, Arzamas-16, and currently the All-Russian Scientific Research Institute of Experimental Physics, which was responsible for designing the first Soviet fission and thermonuclear bombs.

  • KBL (political organization, Philippines)

    Philippines: Political process: …Nacionalista and Liberal parties, Marcos’s New Society Movement (Kilusan Bagong Lipunan; KBL), an organization created from elements of the Nacionalista Party and other supporters, emerged as predominant. Organized political opposition was revived for legislative elections held in 1978, and, since the downfall of Marcos, partisan politics has returned to its…

  • KBO (astronomy)

    Kuiper belt: …may represent the transition from Kuiper belt objects [KBOs] to short-period comets.) Although its existence had been assumed for decades, the Kuiper belt remained undetected until the 1990s, when the prerequisite large telescopes and sensitive light detectors became available.

  • KBR (American business organization)

    Halliburton: Cheney, KBR, and Deepwater Horizon: Dick Cheney, who served as U.S. secretary of defense in the administration of George H.W. Bush (1989–93), became chairman and chief executive of Halliburton Co. in 1995. He continued the program of expansion by acquisition. His most notable purchase was Dresser…

  • KC-135 Stratotanker (aircraft)

    Boeing 707: … subsequently ordered 29 jet tanker KC-135s (the military model). Boeing continued developing the passenger version of the Dash 80, and in 1955 Pan American World Airways (Pan Am) ordered 20 Boeing 707s. At the same time, however, it also ordered 25 Douglas DC-8s, a similar jet airliner being developed by…

  • KCA (Kenyan political organization)

    Kenya: Political movements: …the first one being the Young Kikuyu Association (later the East African Association), established in 1921, with Harry Thuku as its first president. The group, which received most of its support from young men and was not supported by most of the older chiefs, demanded African representation in the legislature…

  • KCIA (government organization, South Korea)

    intelligence: South Korea: The agency, renamed the National Intelligence Service in 1999, collects and coordinates national security intelligence. The Defense Security Command of the Ministry of National Defense and the National Intelligence Service are responsible for the collection of national security intelligence, particularly with regard to the threat from North Korea. The…

  • KCNJ1 (gene)

    Bartter syndrome: Types of Bartter syndrome: …by mutation of the gene KCNJ1 (potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 1). These genes play fundamental roles in maintaining physiological homeostasis of sodium and potassium concentrations.

  • KDF-Wagen (automobile)

    automotive industry: Europe after World War II: …most emphasis centring on the Volkswagen. At the end of the war the Volkswagen factory and the city of Wolfsburg were in ruins. Restored to production, in a little more than a decade the plant was producing one-half of West Germany’s motor vehicles and had established a strong position in…

  • KDH (political party, Slovakia)

    Slovakia: Political process: …a Democratic Slovakia, and the Christian Democratic Movement.

  • KDKA (radio station, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Pennsylvania: Media and publishing: …world’s first commercial radio station, KDKA, began broadcasting in Pittsburgh in 1920.

  • KDNP (political party, Hungary)

    Hungary: Political process: …Free Democrats, Independent Smallholders’ Party, Christian Democratic People’s Party, Federation of Young Democrats (Fiatal Demokraták Sz?vetsége; Fidesz), and Hungarian Socialist Party—the latter being the party of reformed ex-communists. The same six parties were returned to Parliament in 1994, and for the following decade most of them remained represented in the…

  • KDP (political party, Iraq)

    Mustafa al-Barzani: He also founded the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was to remain the most powerful group in Kurdish politics for decades.

  • KDPG (chemical compound)

    metabolism: The phosphogluconate pathway: …loses water, forming the compound 2-keto-3-deoxy-6-phosphogluconate (KDPG).

  • Ke Ga, Point (headland, Vietnam)

    Point Ke Ga, the easternmost point of Vietnam, lying along the South China Sea. The promontory, rising to 2,316 feet (706 m) above the sea, lies southeast of Tuy Hoa and is a continuation of a massive southwest-northeast–trending granite spur of the Annamese Cordillera. Ke Ga is also the name of

  • ke-yi (Chinese Buddhism)

    Geyi, (Chinese: “matching the meanings”) in Chinese Buddhism, the practice of borrowing from Daoist and other philosophical texts phrases with which to explain their own ideas. According to tradition, geyi was first used by Zhu Faya, a student of many religions of the 4th century ce, as he came to

  • Kéa (island, Greece)

    Kéa, westernmost of the Cyclades (Modern Greek: Kykládes) group of Greek islands in the Aegean Sea. It constitutes a dímos (municipality) in the South Aegean (Nótio Aigaío) periféreia (region). Kéa lies about 13 miles (21 km) east of the southern tip of Attica (Attikí). With an area of 50.4 square

  • kea (bird)

    Kea, New Zealand parrot species of the subfamily Nestorinae. See

  • keaki (plant)

    Zelkova: The Japanese zelkova, or keaki (Z. serrata), up to 30 m (100 feet) tall and with sharply toothed deep green leaves, is an important timber tree and bonsai subject in Japan. It is widely planted elsewhere as a shade tree substitute for the disease-ravaged American elm,…

  • Kean College (university, Union, New Jersey, United States)

    Kean University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Union, New Jersey, U.S. It comprises schools of Business, Government and Technology; Education; Liberal Arts; and Natural Sciences, Nursing and Mathematics. Master’s degree programs are available in education, psychology,

  • Kean University (university, Union, New Jersey, United States)

    Kean University, public, coeducational institution of higher learning in Union, New Jersey, U.S. It comprises schools of Business, Government and Technology; Education; Liberal Arts; and Natural Sciences, Nursing and Mathematics. Master’s degree programs are available in education, psychology,

  • Kean, Charles (British actor)

    Charles Kean, English actor-manager best known for his revivals of Shakespearean plays. The son of the famed actor Edmund Kean, he was educated at Eton and made his debut as Young Norval in Douglas in London in 1827. He toured the provinces extensively but first won general acceptance during an

  • Kean, Charles John (British actor)

    Charles Kean, English actor-manager best known for his revivals of Shakespearean plays. The son of the famed actor Edmund Kean, he was educated at Eton and made his debut as Young Norval in Douglas in London in 1827. He toured the provinces extensively but first won general acceptance during an

  • Kean, Edmund (British actor)

    Edmund Kean, one of the greatest of English tragic actors, a turbulent genius noted as much for his megalomania and ungovernable behaviour as for his portrayals of villains in Shakespearean plays. Though no official record of his birth exists, it has been well established that he was born out of

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