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  • Khaibar Pass (mountain pass, Pakistan-Afghanistan)

    Khyber Pass, most northerly and important of the passes between Afghanistan and Pakistan. The pass connects Kābul with Peshāwar. The pass has historically been the gateway for invasions of the Indian subcontinent from the northwest. The name Khyber is also applied to the range of arid, broken

  • khair (tree)

    Nepal: Plant life: These forests consist mainly of khair (Acacia catechu), a spring tree with yellow flowers and flat pods; sissoo (Dalbergia sissoo), an East Indian tree yielding dark brown durable timber; and sal (Shorea robusta), an East Indian timber tree with foliage providing food for lac insects (which deposit lac, a resinous…

  • Kha?r-Eddine, Mohammed (Moroccan writer)

    Mohammed Kha?r-Eddine, French-language poet and novelist who was a leader among postindependence Moroccan writers seeking a new and distinctly Moroccan poetic voice. Kha?r-Eddine completed his secondary studies in Casablanca and then worked for the government in Agadir, helping to restore order

  • Khairónia (ancient town, Greece)

    Chaeronea, in ancient Greece, fortified town on Mt. Petrachus, guarding the entry into the northern plain of Boeotia. Controlled by the Boeotian city of Orchomenus (q.v.) in the 5th century bc, it was the scene of the battle in which Philip II of Macedon defeated Thebes and Athens (338 bc). The

  • Khairpur (Pakistan)

    Khairpur, city, Sindh province, south-central Pakistan. The city lies along the Khairpur East Canal, 11 miles (18 km) south of the Indus River. It was founded in 1783 by Mīr (chief) Sohrāb Khān, who established the Khairpur branch of the Tālpur family. The settlement was selected as the seat of the

  • Khairpur Mirs (Pakistan)

    Khairpur, city, Sindh province, south-central Pakistan. The city lies along the Khairpur East Canal, 11 miles (18 km) south of the Indus River. It was founded in 1783 by Mīr (chief) Sohrāb Khān, who established the Khairpur branch of the Tālpur family. The settlement was selected as the seat of the

  • Khaishan Külüg (Mongol khan)

    Giovanni da Montecorvino: …that in 1311 Montecorvino baptized Khaishan Külüg, the third great khan (1307–11), and his mother. This event has been disputed, but he was unquestionably successful in northern and eastern China. He was apparently the only effective European proselytizer in medieval Peking, but the results of his mission were lost in…

  • Khajimb, Raul (Georgian politician)

    Abkhazia: History: Raul Khajimba, a former vice president who had led the opposition against Ankvab, was narrowly elected president months later and likewise faced organized efforts to force his resignation. He survived those efforts, however, and sought a second term in an election set originally for July…

  • Khajraho (India)

    Khajuraho, historic town, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is a famous tourist and archaeological site known for its sculptured temples dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Jaina patriarchs. The monuments at Khajuraho were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. Khajuraho, or

  • khajri (tree)

    Thar Desert: Land: The khajri (or khejri) tree (Prosopis cineraria) grows throughout the plains.

  • Khajuraho (India)

    Khajuraho, historic town, northern Madhya Pradesh state, central India. It is a famous tourist and archaeological site known for its sculptured temples dedicated to Shiva, Vishnu, and Jaina patriarchs. The monuments at Khajuraho were designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1986. Khajuraho, or

  • Khakani language

    history of Central Asia: Timur: …a dialect derived partly from Khakani, the language spoken at the Karakhanid court (and a precursor of modern Uzbek), emerging as a flexible vehicle for sophisticated literary expression. These Timurid epigones, however, were locked in unceasing rivalry with each other and were unable to combine against intruders from beyond their…

  • Khakas (people)

    Khakass, people who have given their name to Khakassia republic in central Russia. The general name Khakass encompasses five Turkic-speaking groups that differ widely in their ethnic origin as well as in their culture and everyday life: the Kacha, Sagay (Sagai), Beltir, Kyzyl, and Koybal. Before

  • Khakasiya (republic, Russia)

    Khakasiya, republic in central Russia. The republic occupies the western half of the broad Minusinsk Basin on the upper Yenisey River. The Abakan River, a tributary of the Yenisey, forms the axis of the republic. Southeast of the Abakan’s valley rise the Western (Zapadny) Sayan mountains, reaching

  • Khakass (people)

    Khakass, people who have given their name to Khakassia republic in central Russia. The general name Khakass encompasses five Turkic-speaking groups that differ widely in their ethnic origin as well as in their culture and everyday life: the Kacha, Sagay (Sagai), Beltir, Kyzyl, and Koybal. Before

  • Khakassia (republic, Russia)

    Khakasiya, republic in central Russia. The republic occupies the western half of the broad Minusinsk Basin on the upper Yenisey River. The Abakan River, a tributary of the Yenisey, forms the axis of the republic. Southeast of the Abakan’s valley rise the Western (Zapadny) Sayan mountains, reaching

  • khaki (fabric)

    Khaki, (Hindi: “dust-coloured”, ) light brown fabric used primarily for military uniforms. It is made with cotton, wool, or combinations of these fibres, as well as with blends of synthetic fibres. It is made in a variety of weaves, such as serge. Khaki uniforms were introduced by Sir Harry

  • Khāl, Yūsuf al- (Syrian poet)

    Arabic literature: Modern Arabic poetry: …core of this group were Yūsuf al-Khāl and Adonis (the pen name of ?Alī A?mad Sa?īd), arguably the most influential figure in modern Arabic poetry. In its radical approach to poetic form (including the prose poem) and its experiments with language and imagery, this group was emblematic of the many…

  • Khalaf al-A?mar (Islamic author)

    Abū Nuwās: …Wālibah ibn al-?ubāb, later under Khalaf al-A?mar. He also studied the Qur?ān (Islāmic sacred scripture), ?adīth (traditions relating to the life and utterances of the Prophet), and grammar and is said to have spent a year with the Bedouins in the desert to acquire their traditional purity of language.

  • Khalaf, ?alā? (Palestinian political activist)

    ?alā? Khalaf, Palestinian political activist who was a founding member of the Fatah faction of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) and a close associate of PLO leader Yāsir ?Arafāt. Khalaf’s family fled to the Gaza Strip in 1948 during the conflict that accompanied Israel’s independence. In

  • Khalagari (people)

    Botswana: Ethnic groups: …besides Tswana, that of the Khalagari (Western Sotho), has become so incorporated as to be almost indistinguishable from the Tswana. Even their name is now usually rendered in the Tswana form as “Kgalagadi.”

  • Khalaj (people)

    Ghilzay: …least in part from the Khalaj or Khilji Turks, who entered Afghanistan in the 10th century. The Lodi, who established a dynasty on the throne of Delhi in Hindustan (1450–1526), were a branch of the Ghilzay, and in the early 18th century Mir Vais Khan, a Ghilzay chieftain, captured Kandahar…

  • Khalaj language

    Turkic languages: Classification: …middle course of the Volga; Khalaj, descended from the Old Turkic Arghu dialect, is spoken in central Iran.

  • khalam (musical instrument)

    African music: Lutes: …lutes such as the konting, khalam, and the nkoni (which was noted by Ibn Ba??ū?ah in 1353) may have originated in ancient Egypt. The khalam is claimed to be the ancestor of the banjo. Another long-necked lute is the ramkie of South Africa.

  • Khalandriani (ancient site, Greece)

    Aegean civilizations: Period of the Early Palaces in Crete (c. 2000–1700): …point the fortified settlement at Khalandrianí on Syrus was destroyed by fire and abandoned, but Aegina, Ceos, and other fortified island towns flourished.

  • Khalatbari, Simin (Iranian poet)

    Simin Behbahani, Iranian poet who earned the sobriquet “the lioness of Iran” for eloquently challenging national authorities and expressing her steadfast opposition to oppression and violence in more than 600 poems. Prior to her birth, Khalili’s father, an editor and writer, was temporarily exiled

  • Khalayleh, Ahmad Fadil Nazal al- (Jordanian militant)

    Abu Musab al-Zarqawi, (Ahmad Fadil Nazal al-Khalayleh), Jordanian-born Iraqi militant (born Oct. 20/30, 1966, Al-Zarqa, Jordan—died June 7, 2006, Ba?qubah, Iraq), as the self-styled leader in Iraq of the Islamic militant group al-Qaeda, was thought by many to have been the mastermind behind n

  • Khaldey, Yevgeny (Ukrainian photographer)

    Yevgeny Khaldey, Ukrainian photographer best known for his World War II images, most notably one of Soviet soldiers raising the hammer-and-sickle flag over the Reichstag during Berlin’s fall in 1945 (b. March 10, 1917--d. Oct. 7,

  • Khaldūn, Ibn (Muslim historian)

    Ibn Khaldūn, the greatest Arab historian, who developed one of the earliest nonreligious philosophies of history, contained in his masterpiece, the Muqaddimah (“Introduction”). He also wrote a definitive history of Muslim North Africa. Ibn Khaldūn was born in Tunis in 1332; the Khaldūniyyah quarter

  • Khaled (Algerian singer)

    Khaled, Algerian popular singer who introduced Western audiences to ra?—a form of Algerian popular music blending North African, Middle Eastern, and Western traditions. Khaled was known for exuding happiness, especially when performing. By age 10 he was playing a variety of instruments, including

  • Khaled Hadj Brahim (Algerian singer)

    Khaled, Algerian popular singer who introduced Western audiences to ra?—a form of Algerian popular music blending North African, Middle Eastern, and Western traditions. Khaled was known for exuding happiness, especially when performing. By age 10 he was playing a variety of instruments, including

  • Khaled, Amr (Egyptian televangelist)

    Amr Khaled, Egyptian televangelist who achieved global fame with his message of religious tolerance and dialogue with the West. Khaled’s family was not religious, but, as a high-school student, he found himself seeking more meaning in his life. He studied the Qur?ān, visited mosques, and began

  • Khaled, Cheb (Algerian singer)

    Khaled, Algerian popular singer who introduced Western audiences to ra?—a form of Algerian popular music blending North African, Middle Eastern, and Western traditions. Khaled was known for exuding happiness, especially when performing. By age 10 he was playing a variety of instruments, including

  • Khaleda Majumdar (prime minister of Bangladesh)

    Khaleda Zia, Bangladeshi politician who served as prime minister of Bangladesh in 1991–96 and 2001–06. She was the first woman to serve as prime minister of the country, and she governed during a period of natural disasters, economic distress, and civil unrest. Khaleda was the third of five

  • Khaleda Zia (prime minister of Bangladesh)

    Khaleda Zia, Bangladeshi politician who served as prime minister of Bangladesh in 1991–96 and 2001–06. She was the first woman to serve as prime minister of the country, and she governed during a period of natural disasters, economic distress, and civil unrest. Khaleda was the third of five

  • Khaleda Zia ur-Rahman (prime minister of Bangladesh)

    Khaleda Zia, Bangladeshi politician who served as prime minister of Bangladesh in 1991–96 and 2001–06. She was the first woman to serve as prime minister of the country, and she governed during a period of natural disasters, economic distress, and civil unrest. Khaleda was the third of five

  • Khalépa, Pact of (Balkan history)

    Pact of Halepa, convention signed in October 1878 at Khalépa, a suburb of Canea, by which the Turkish sultan Abdülhamid II (ruled 1876–1909) granted a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means to quell their insurrection against Turkish overlords. It supplemented previous

  • Khalépa, Treaty of (Balkan history)

    Pact of Halepa, convention signed in October 1878 at Khalépa, a suburb of Canea, by which the Turkish sultan Abdülhamid II (ruled 1876–1909) granted a large degree of self-government to Greeks in Crete as a means to quell their insurrection against Turkish overlords. It supplemented previous

  • khali (Indian music)

    South Asian arts: North India: …have a further feature, the khali (“empty”), a conscious negation of stress occurring at one or more points in each tala where one would expect a beat. It often falls at the halfway point in the time cycle and is marked by a wave of the hand. There is nothing…

  • Khaliastre (Polish literary group)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in Poland and the Soviet Union: …the Warsaw-based group known as Khaliastre (“The Gang”). After he moved to Palestine in 1924, he concentrated on writing in Hebrew.

  • Khālid (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Khalid of Saudi Arabia, king of Saudi Arabia (1975–82), who succeeded his half brother Faisal as king when Faisal was assassinated in 1975. A moderate influence in Middle East politics and a relatively retiring man, he left much of the administration of the country to his half brother Prince Fahd,

  • Khālid al-Qasrī (Umayyad governor of Iraq)

    Khālid al-Qasrī, a governor of Iraq under the Umayyad caliphate. Khālid began his official career in 710 as governor of Mecca, a position he held until 715, when the caliph al-Walīd, who had appointed him, was succeeded by Sulaymān, who dismissed him. Until 724 he lived in retirement but was then g

  • Khālid ibn al-Walīd (Arab Muslim general)

    Khālid ibn al-Walīd, one of the two generals (with ?Amr ibn al-?ā?) of the enormously successful Islamic expansion under the Prophet Muhammad and his immediate successors, Abū Bakr and ?Umar. Although he fought against Muhammad at U?ud (625), Khālid was later converted (627/629) and joined

  • Khālid ibn Barmak (?Abbāsid noble)

    Barmakids: Khālid ibn Barmak.: Khālid ibn Barmak is the first Barmakid about whom much is known. He first appears in the mid-8th century as a supporter of the revolutionary movement that established the ?Abbāsid caliphate. In 747 Khālid was put in charge of the distribution of…

  • Khālid ibn Sa?ūd (Arab leader)

    Saudi Arabia: Second Sa?ūdī state: Khālid, son of Sa?ūd and brother of ?Abd Allāh, was installed as ruler of Najd by the Egyptians on the condition that he recognize Egyptian hegemony.

  • Khālid ibn ?Abd al-?Azīz as-Sa?ūd (king of Saudi Arabia)

    Khalid of Saudi Arabia, king of Saudi Arabia (1975–82), who succeeded his half brother Faisal as king when Faisal was assassinated in 1975. A moderate influence in Middle East politics and a relatively retiring man, he left much of the administration of the country to his half brother Prince Fahd,

  • Khālid ibn ?Abd Allah al-Qasrī (Umayyad governor of Iraq)

    Khālid al-Qasrī, a governor of Iraq under the Umayyad caliphate. Khālid began his official career in 710 as governor of Mecca, a position he held until 715, when the caliph al-Walīd, who had appointed him, was succeeded by Sulaymān, who dismissed him. Until 724 he lived in retirement but was then g

  • Khalifa Abdullah (Sudanese ruler)

    Battle of Omdurman: …was observed with concern by Khalifa Abdullah, leader of the Mahdists. He ordered an army to attack Kitchener’s force at Atbara in early April, but they were routed by a preemptive counterattack mounted by the British. The Mahdists then fell back to wait for the invaders at their capital, Omdurman,…

  • Khalīfa ibn Harūb (East African leader)

    Tanzania: British protectorate: Khalīfa ibn Harūb became sultan in 1911. He was the leading Muslim prince in East Africa, and his moderating influence did much to steady Muslim opinion in that part of Africa at times of political crisis, especially during the two World Wars. He died on…

  • khalīfah (Islamic title)

    Caliph, in Islamic history the ruler of the Muslim community. Although khalīfah and its plural khulafā? occur several times in the Qur?ān, referring to humans as God’s stewards or vice-regents on earth, the term did not denote a distinct political or religious institution during the lifetime of the

  • Khalīfah family (Bahraini family)

    Qatar: Early history and British protectorate: …families from Kuwait, notably the āl Khalīfah. Their settlement at the new town of Al-Zubārah grew into a small pearl-diving and trade centre. In 1783 the āl Khalīfah led the conquest of nearby Bahrain, where they remained the ruling family throughout the 20th century. Following the departure of the āl…

  • Khalīfah, Sheikh ?amad ibn ?Isā āl (king of Bahrain)

    Sheikh ?amad ibn ?Isā āl Khalīfah, king of Bahrain from 2002, previously emir of Bahrain (1999–2002). ?amad became head of state as the emir of Bahrain after the 1999 death of his father, Sheikh ?Isā ibn Sulmān āl Khalīfah, and then proclaimed himself king in 2002. ?amad’s childhood was spent in

  • Khalifah, Sheikh ?Isā ibn Sulmān Al- (emir of Bahrain)

    Sheikh Isa ibn Sulman al-Khalifah, Bahraini chief of state (born June 3, 1933, Manama, Bahrain—died March 6, 1999, Manama), served as leader of his country for 37 years, including 27 as emir, a title he received when Bahrain became independent in 1971. He guided the country through a series of e

  • Khalīfah, Tall al- (ancient city, Jordan)

    Ezion-geber, seaport of Solomon and the later kings of Judah, located at the northern end of the Gulf of Aqaba in what is now Ma?ān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Jordan. The site was found independently by archaeologists Fritz Frank and Nelson Glueck. Glueck’s excavations (1938–40) proved that the site

  • Khalīj al-?Aqabah (gulf, Red Sea)

    Gulf of Aqaba, northeastern arm of the Red Sea, penetrating between Saudi Arabia and the Sinai Peninsula. It varies in width from 12 to 17 miles (19 to 27 km) and is 110 miles (177 km) long. The gulf lies in a pronounced cleft between hills rising abruptly to about 2,000 feet (600 metres).

  • Khalīj as-Suways (gulf, Egypt)

    Gulf of Suez, northwestern arm of the Red Sea between Africa proper (west) and the Sinai Peninsula (east) of Egypt. The length of the gulf, from its mouth at the Strait of Jubal to its head at the city of Suez, is 195 miles (314 km), and it varies in width from 12 to 20 miles (19 to 32 km). The

  • Khalīj Qābis (gulf, Tunisia)

    Gulf of Gabes, inlet, on the east coast of Tunisia, northern Africa. It is 60 miles (100 km) long and 60 miles wide and is bounded by the Qarqannah (Kerkena) Islands on the northeast and by Jarbah (Djerba) Island on the southeast. Except for the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Venice, it is the

  • Khalīj Surt (gulf, Libya)

    Gulf of Sidra, arm of the Mediterranean Sea, indenting the Libyan coast of northern Africa. It extends eastward for 275 mi (443 km) from Mi?rātah to Banghāzī. A highway links scattered oases along its shore, which is chiefly desert, with salt marshes. In August the gulf’s water temperature reaches

  • Khalīj-e Fārs (gulf, Middle East)

    Persian Gulf, shallow marginal sea of the Indian Ocean that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and southwestern Iran. The sea has an area of about 93,000 square miles (241,000 square km). Its length is some 615 miles (990 km), and its width varies from a maximum of about 210 miles (340 km) to a

  • Khalīl al-Ra?mān, Al- (city, West Bank)

    Hebron, city in the West Bank, situated in the southern Judaean Hills south-southwest of Jerusalem. Located about 3,050 feet (930 metres) above sea level, Hebron long benefited from its mountainous clime, which encouraged the cultivation of fruit trees and vineyards. In addition, its location at a

  • Khalīl ibn A?mad, al- (Arab philologist)

    Al-Khalīl ibn A?mad, Arab philologist who compiled the first Arabic dictionary and is credited with the formulation of the rules of Arabic prosody. When he moved to Basra, al-Khalīl left the ?ufriyyah division of the Khārijites, which was popular in his native Oman. He lived simply and piously in

  • Khalīl, Al- (city, West Bank)

    Hebron, city in the West Bank, situated in the southern Judaean Hills south-southwest of Jerusalem. Located about 3,050 feet (930 metres) above sea level, Hebron long benefited from its mountainous clime, which encouraged the cultivation of fruit trees and vineyards. In addition, its location at a

  • Khalīl, al-Ashraf ?alā? ad-Dīn (sultan of Egypt)

    Al-Ashraf ?alā? ad-Dīn Khalīl, Mamlūk sultan of Egypt who completed his father Qalā?ūn’s campaign to drive the Franks from Syria. He captured Acre (now ?Akko, Israel) in the spring of 1291, and the remaining crusader fortresses were surrendered by the end of the year. He was murdered by his emirs,

  • Khalil, Mustafa (Egyptian politician)

    Mustafa Khalil, Egyptian politician (born Nov. 18, 1920, Qalyub, Egypt—died June 7, 2008, Cairo, Egypt), as Egypt’s prime minister (1978–80) and foreign minister (1979–80), helped to secure the Camp David Accords (1978) and subsequent peace treaty (1979) between his country and Israel, an action

  • Khalil, Patrona (Turkish rebel)

    Patrona Halil, Turkish bath waiter, who, after a Turkish defeat by Persia, led a mob uprising (1730) that replaced the Ottoman sultan Ahmed III (ruled 1703–30) with Mahmud I (ruled 1730–54). This was the only Turkish rising not originating in the army. Patrona Halil was assassinated soon

  • Khalili, Siminbar (Iranian poet)

    Simin Behbahani, Iranian poet who earned the sobriquet “the lioness of Iran” for eloquently challenging national authorities and expressing her steadfast opposition to oppression and violence in more than 600 poems. Prior to her birth, Khalili’s father, an editor and writer, was temporarily exiled

  • khāli?ah (Indian political unit)

    India: Taxation and distribution of revenue resources: The khāli?ah, the territory whose revenues accrued directly to the sultan’s own treasury, was expanded significantly, enabling the sultan to pay a much larger number of his soldiers and cavalry troops in cash. Through these measures the sultan struck hard at all the others—his officials and…

  • Khalistan (Sikh political ideology)

    Khalistan, (Punjabi: Khālistān, “Land of the Khālsā,” meaning “pure”) in Sikh political ideology, autonomous Sikh homeland. The declaration of the Khālsā by Gurū Gobind Singh in 1699 and the religio-political vision that came with it fired the Sikh imagination with the belief that it was their

  • Khaljī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Khaljī dynasty, (1290–1320), the second ruling family of the Muslim sultanate of Delhi. The dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkish origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan. Its three kings were noted for their faithlessness, their ferocity, and their

  • Khaljī, Ghiyā?-ud-Dīn ?Iwāz (Ghūrid leader)

    India: Consolidation of Turkish rule: …launched a successful campaign against Ghiyāth al-Dīn ?Iwāz Khaljī, one of Bhaktiyār Khaljī’s lieutenants, who had assumed sovereign authority in Lakhnauti (northern Bengal) and was encroaching on the province of Bihar. ?Iwāz Khaljī was defeated and slain in 1226, and in 1229 Iltutmish invaded Bengal and slew Balka, the last…

  • Khaljī, Ghiyāth al-Dīn ?Iwāz (Ghūrid leader)

    India: Consolidation of Turkish rule: …launched a successful campaign against Ghiyāth al-Dīn ?Iwāz Khaljī, one of Bhaktiyār Khaljī’s lieutenants, who had assumed sovereign authority in Lakhnauti (northern Bengal) and was encroaching on the province of Bihar. ?Iwāz Khaljī was defeated and slain in 1226, and in 1229 Iltutmish invaded Bengal and slew Balka, the last…

  • Khaljī, Ikhtiyār al-Dīn Mu?ammad Bakhtiyār (Muslim general)

    Deoghar: The Muslim invader Bakhtīyār Khaljī made Deoghar his capital in 1201 after the conquest of Bihar. It was constituted a municipality in 1869.

  • Khaljī, Jalāl-al-Dīn Fīrūz (Khaljī sultan)

    India: The Khaljīs: …struggle between the two factions, Jalāl al-Dīn Fīrūz Khaljī assumed the sultanate in 1290. During his short reign (1290–96), Jalāl al-Dīn suppressed a revolt by some of Balban’s officers, led an unsuccessful expedition against Ranthambhor, and defeated a substantial Mongol force on the banks of the Sind River in central…

  • Khaljī, ?Alā?-al-Dīn (Khaljī sultan of Delhi)

    Gujarat: History: …defeated in about 1299 by ?Alā? al-Dīn Khaljī, sultan of Delhi; Gujarat then came under Muslim rule. It was A?mad Shah, the first independent sultan of Gujarat, who founded Ahmadabad (1411). By the end of the 16th century, Gujarat was ruled by the Mughals. Their control of the region lasted…

  • Khalk Maslahaty (Turkmen government)

    Turkmenistan: Constitutional framework: A People’s Council (Khalk Maslahaty)—made up of the president, members of the parliament, regional representatives, chairmen of the high courts, the cabinet, and other officials—had the authority to call national referenda, plan economic and social policy, and declare war. Despite having significant de jure powers, this council largely…

  • Khalkha (language)

    Mongol language: The Khalkha dialect constitutes the basis for the official language of Mongolia. The other dialects, the number and grouping of which are controversial, are spoken predominantly in China. With the closely related Buryat language, Mongol forms the eastern group of Mongolian languages.

  • Khalkha (people)

    Khalkha, largest group of the Mongol peoples, constituting more than 80 percent of the population of Mongolia. The Khalkha dialect is the official language of Mongolia. It is understood by 90 percent of the country’s population as well as by many Mongols elsewhere. Traditionally, the Khalkha were a

  • Khalkhali, Sadeq (Iranian judge)

    Sadeq Khalkhali, Iranian cleric and judge (born July 27, 1926, Givi, Azerbaijani S.S.R., U.S.S.R. [now in Azerbaijan]—died Nov. 26, 2003, Tehran, Iran), ordered the summary execution of hundreds (perhaps thousands) of “counterrevolutionaries” in his dual role as lead prosecutor and chief justice (

  • Khalkidhikí (peninsula, Greece)

    Chalcidice, peninsula and a perifereiakí enótita (regional unit), Central Macedonia (Modern Greek: Kendrikí Makedonía) periféreia (region), northern Greece. It terminates in (east–west) the three fingerlike promontories of Kassándra, Sithonía, and áyion óros (Mount Athos). The promontories were

  • Khalkís (Greece)

    Chalcis, city and dímos (municipality) on the island of Euboea (évvoia), periféreia (region) of Central Greece (Modern Greek: Stereá Elláda), western Greece. It lies at the narrowest point (measured only in yards) of the Euripus (Evrípos) channel, which separates Euboea from the Greek mainland and

  • Khalmg Tangch (republic, Russia)

    Kalmykiya, republic in southwestern Russia, lying northwest of the Caspian Sea and west of the lower Volga River. On the east it reaches the Caspian shore, and in the northeast it touches the Volga. Most of the republic lies in the vast lowland of the northern Caspian Depression, the greater part

  • khalq (Islam)

    kasb: …term kasb to avoid attributing khalq (creation) to anyone but God. His main concern was to maintain God’s total omnipotence and at the same time allow men a degree of responsibility for their actions. Al-Ash?arī rejected the assertion of the Mu?tazilah theological school, of which he had been a member,…

  • Khalq Party (political party, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Mohammad Zahir Shah (1933–73): …two factions, known as the People’s (Khalq) and Banner (Parcham) parties. Another was a conservative religious organization known as the Islamic Society (Jam?iyyat-e Eslāmī), which was founded by a number of religiously minded individuals, including members of the University of Kabul faculty of religion, in 1971. The Islamists were highly…

  • Khalsa (Sikhism)

    Khalsa, (Punjabi: “the Pure”) the purified and reconstituted Sikh community instituted by Guru Gobind Singh on March 30, 1699 (Baisakhi Day; Khalsa Sikhs celebrate the birth of the order on April 13 of each year). His declaration had three dimensions: it redefined the concept of authority within

  • Khālsā Samācār (periodical)

    Bhai Vir Singh: …Singh founded the weekly paper Khālsā Samācār (“News of the Khalsa”) in Amritsar (1899), where it is still published. Among his novels are Kalgīdlur Camathār (1935), a novel on the life of the 17th-century gurū Gobind Singh, and Gurū Nānak Camathār, 2 vol. (1936; “Stories of Guru Nanak”), a biography…

  • Khalwatīyah (?ūfī order)

    Suhrawardīyah: The orthodox Khalwatīyah, also strictly disciplined, was founded in Iran by ?Umar al-Khalwatī, then spread into Turkey and Egypt in many branches. The ?afawīyah, organized by ?afī od-Dīn, at Ardabīl, Iran, gave rise to the Iranian ?afavid dynasty (1502–1736) and several Turkish branches active against the Ottomans…

  • Kham phiphaksa (novel by Chart Korbjitti)

    Thai literature: …award-winning novel Kham phiphaksa (1982; The Judgment), in which a well-meaning rural school janitor is turned into a social outcast through the narrow-minded gossip and hypocrisy of the community in which he has grown up. By publishing his own works, Chart achieved a degree of financial independence that most writers…

  • Kham Um (Vietnamese tribal chief)

    Deo Van Tri, fiercely independent tribal chief of Tai peoples in the Black River region of Tonkin (now northern Vietnam) who created a semiautonomous feudal kingdom and coexisted with the French, who ruled the rest of Vietnam. Deo Van Tri was the son of Deo Van Seng (or Deo Van Sanh), chief of the

  • Khama III (Ngwato chief)

    Khama III, Southern African Tswana (“Bechuana” in older variant orthography) chief of Bechuanaland who allied himself with British colonizers in the area. Khama was converted to Christianity in 1860, and, after more than a decade of dissension between his supporters and those loyal to his father,

  • Khama the Good (Ngwato chief)

    Khama III, Southern African Tswana (“Bechuana” in older variant orthography) chief of Bechuanaland who allied himself with British colonizers in the area. Khama was converted to Christianity in 1860, and, after more than a decade of dissension between his supporters and those loyal to his father,

  • Khama, Ian (president of Botswana)

    Botswana: Botswana since independence: …was succeeded by vice president Ian Khama, a member of the BDP and the son of Botswana’s first president, Seretse Khama. In elections held on October 16, 2009, the BDP won a decisive victory, extending its majority in the National Assembly and securing for Khama a full term as president;…

  • Khama, Sir Seretse (president of Botswana)

    Sir Seretse Khama, first president of Botswana (1966–80), after the former Bechuanaland protectorate gained independence from Great Britain. Seretse Khama was the grandson of Khama III the Good, who had allied his kingdom in Bechuanaland with British colonizers in the late 19th century. Seretse

  • Khamag Mongol Uls (Mongol confederation)

    Mongolia: Ethnography and early tribal history: …known in Mongol tradition as Khamag Mongol Uls (“Nation of All the Mongols”), which did not, however, include all of the population who spoke the Mongol language.

  • Khamanelsk Ob (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …arms of which are the Khamanelsk Ob, which receives the Shchuchya from the left, and the Nadym Ob, which is the more considerable of the pair. At the base of the delta lies the Gulf of Ob, which is some 500 miles (800 km) long and has a width reaching…

  • Khāmastāshar Māyo, Madīnat (Egypt)

    Madīnat Khāmastāshar Māyo, residential town, ?ulwān mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Egypt. The town is a suburb of the industrial town of ?ulwān and is located in the Wadi ?awf 2 miles (3 km) north of ?ulwān, on a desert tract of 15 square miles (39 square km). Constructed in the late 1970s, it is part of

  • Khamba (people)

    monasticism: Quasi-monastic: Among the Khamba (khams pa) of eastern Tibet, for example, men with minimal monastic initiation (lung) organized themselves as a military or police force to protect monastic territory and the unarmed higher-initiated clergy. They were conspicuous during Tibet’s confrontation with the Chinese communists from 1959 to 1965.

  • Khambhat (India)

    Khambhat, town, east-central Gujarat state, west-central India. It lies at the head of the Gulf of Khambhat (Cambay) and the mouth of the Mahi River. The town was mentioned in 1293 by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo, who referred to it as a busy port. It was still a prosperous port in the late

  • Khambhat, Gulf of (gulf, India)

    Gulf of Khambhat, trumpet-shaped gulf of the Arabian Sea, indenting northward the coast of Gujarat state, western India, between Mumbai (Bombay) and the Kathiawar Peninsula. It is 120 miles (190 km) wide at its mouth between Diu and Daman, but it rapidly narrows to 15 miles (24 km). The gulf

  • Khambu (people)

    Rai, a people indigenous to eastern Nepal, living west of the Arun River in the area drained by the Sun Kosi River, at elevations of 5,500–7,700 feet (1,700–2,300 m), and also in southwestern Bhutan. The most populous group of the Kiranti people, the Rai numbered about 635,000 at the turn of the

  • Khambula, Battle of (South African history)

    Battles of Isandlwana and Rorke's Drift: …of the Zulu at the Battle of Kambula (Khambula) on March 29. On April 2 a British column under Chelmsford’s command inflicted a heavy defeat on the Zulu at Gingindlovu, where more than 1,000 Zulu were killed. Chelmsford’s troops then moved on Cetshwayo’s royal villages at Ulundi, where on July…

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