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  • Khayr al-Dīn (prime minister of Tunisia)

    North Africa: Advent of European colonialism: …its talented, reform-minded prime minister, Khayr al-Dīn, in 1877, Tunis responded to these pressures with the Ahd al-Amān, or Fundamental Pact, in 1856 and the short-lived constitution of 1860, the first in the Arab world. The Fundamental Pact guaranteed the equality before the law of all subjects—Muslim, Christian, and Jew—while…

  • Khayr Bey (Ottoman governor)

    Egypt: The Ottoman conquest: …on by the Mamlūk traitor Khayr Bey, Selim marched against Egypt in 1517, defeated the Mamlūks, and installed Khayr Bey as Ottoman governor. Khayr Bey died in 1522; thereafter, the Ottoman viceroy (called vali), with the title of pasha, was sent from Constantinople.

  • Khayzurān, al- (?Abbāsid princess)

    Barmakids: Khālid ibn Barmak.: Al-Khayzurān, Prince al-Mahdī’s wife, helped him to raise the money. Subsequently Khālid was sent to Mosul to suppress Kurdish disturbances while his son Ya?yā was put in charge of Azerbaijan. The Barmakids were endowed with more privileges during al-Mahdī’s reign, when Khālid, helped by his…

  • Khazar (people)

    Khazar, member of a confederation of Turkic-speaking tribes that in the late 6th century ce established a major commercial empire covering the southeastern section of modern European Russia. Although the origin of the term Khazar and the early history of the Khazar people are obscure, it is fairly

  • Khazar Stage (geology)

    Caspian Sea: Geology: …successive phases known as Baku, Khazar, and Khvalyn—alternately shrank and expanded. That process left a legacy in the form of peripheral terraces that mark old shorelines and can also be traced in the geologically recent underlying sedimentary layers.

  • Khazarsk (sea, Eurasia)

    Caspian Sea, world’s largest inland body of water. It lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. The sea’s name derives from the ancient Kaspi peoples, who once lived in Transcaucasia to the west. Among its other historical names, Khazarsk and

  • Khazā?in al-futū? (work by Amīr Khosrow)

    Amīr Khosrow: …of prose works, including the Khazā?in al-futū? (“The Treasure-Chambers of the Victories”), also known by the title Tārīkh-e ?Alā?ī (“The History of Ala”). Two historical poems for which he is well known are Nuh Sipihr (“The Nine Heavens”) and the Tughluq-nāmah (“The Book of Tughluq”).

  • Khazina, Nadezhda Yakovlevna (Russian author)

    Osip Emilyevich Mandelshtam: …through the efforts of his widow, who died in 1980, that little of Mandelshtam’s poetry was lost; she kept his works alive during the repression by memorizing them and by collecting copies.

  • Khaznadār, Mu??afā (Tunisian government official)

    Tunisia: The growth of European influence: When the principal minister, Mu??afā Khaznadār (who had served from the earliest days of A?mad Bey’s reign), attempted to squeeze more taxes out of the hard-pressed peasants, the countryside rose in a revolt (1864). This uprising almost overthrew the regime, but the government ultimately suppressed it through a combination…

  • Khazraj, al- (people)

    Hijrah: …major Medinese tribes, the feuding al-Khazraj and al-Aws, whom Muhammad had been asked to reconcile when he was still a rising figure in Mecca. They came to be his devoted supporters, constituting three-fourths of the Muslim army at the Battle of Badr (624 ce). When no one of their number…

  • Khazret (Kazakhstan)

    Turkestan, city, southern Kazakhstan. It lies in the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) plain. Turkestan was an ancient centre of the caravan trade; it was known as Shavgar and later as Yasī. It became a religious centre called Khazret (Hazrat) because of the 12th-century Sufi (Muslim mystic) Ahmed

  • Khaz?al Khan (Arab sheikh of Mo?ammerah)

    Khaz?al Khan, Arab sheikh (ruler) of Mo?ammerah (now Khorramshahr) who attempted to create an independent state in the oil-rich Iranian region of Khūzestān. Khaz?al was said to be instrumental in having his brother, Sheikh Miz?al, assassinated in June 1897. He then became the ruler of Mo?ammerah

  • Kheda (India)

    Kheda, town, east-central Gujarat state, west-central India. It is situated in the lowlands between the Sabarmati and Mahi rivers. The town existed as early as the 5th century ce. Early in the 18th century it passed to the Babi family but was taken by the Marathas in 1763 and handed over to the

  • Khedive (card game)

    Biritch, card game similar to bridge whist and a forerunner of auction and contract bridge. Apparently developed in the eastern Mediterranean region, where it was known as khedive, it became popular in Greece and Egypt and, under the name of biritch, on the French Riviera in the last quarter of t

  • khedive (Egyptian title)

    Khedive, title granted by the Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz to the hereditary pasha of Egypt, Ismā?īl, in 1867. Derived from a Persian term for “lord” or “ruler,” the title was subsequently used by Ismā?īl’s successors, Tawfīq and ?Abbās II, although it had been used informally by his predecessors

  • kheer (South Asian dessert)

    Kheer, a chilled South Asian dessert made from slow-cooked rice, milk, and sugar, much like a rice pudding. It is typically flavoured with saffron, cardamom, raisins, and/or various nuts, notably pistachios, cashews, and almonds. The dish can also be made by using cracked wheat, tapioca, or

  • khejri (tree)

    Thar Desert: Land: The khajri (or khejri) tree (Prosopis cineraria) grows throughout the plains.

  • Khélifati, Mohamed (Algerian singer)

    Cheb Mami, Algerian popular singer who was a major force in the introduction of ra? music to Western audiences at the turn of the 21st century. As a youth, Mohamed Khélifati took a job as a welder, apparently ready to follow in the occupational footsteps of his father. However, since childhood he

  • Khem-Beldyr (Russia)

    Kyzyl, city and capital of Tyva (Tuva) republic, central Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Great Yenisey and Little Yenisey rivers where they form the upper Yenisey. Kyzyl’s industries include tanning, timber working, brickworking, and food processing. The city has an agricultural college

  • Khemchik River (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River: Physiography: …Sayano-Shushen Reservoir, which receives the Khemchik River. The Yenisey flows north through the reservoir, occupying a now-submerged canyon that cuts across the Western Sayan.

  • Khemisset (Morocco)

    Khemisset, town, north-central Morocco. The town is located between the imperial cities of Rabat and Meknès, at the edge of the Moroccan upland plateau. It is a market centre for the local Zemmour Amazigh (Berbers) (see Berber). To the north of Khemisset lies a sandy plateau with commercially

  • Khemmis (Egypt)

    Akhmīm, town, Sawhāj mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Upper Egypt, on the east bank of the Nile River, above Sawhāj on the west bank. Extensive necropolises dating from the 6th dynasty (c. 2325–c. 2150 bce) until the late Coptic period reveal the site’s antiquity. In 1981 remains of a temple (Roman period)

  • Khenifra (Morocco)

    Khenifra, town, central Morocco. It is situated in the western foothills of the southern Middle Atlas (Moyen Atlas) mountains and lies along the banks of the Oum er-Rbia River at an elevation of about 3,280 feet (1,000 metres). The site was originally the wintering headquarters for the A?t Affi, a

  • Khensu (Egyptian deity)

    Khons, in ancient Egyptian religion, moon god who was generally depicted as a youth. A deity with astronomical associations named Khenzu is known from the Pyramid Texts (c. 2350 bce) and is possibly the same as Khons. In Egyptian mythology, Khons was regarded as the son of the god Amon and the

  • Khentei Mountains (mountain range, Mongolia)

    Hentiyn Mountains, mountain range in north-central Mongolia. Extending northeast from near Ulaanbaatar, the national capital, to the border with Russia, the range is structurally related to the Yablonovy Range, on the Russian side of the frontier; a river valley between the two ranges forms part of

  • Khenti-Imentiu (Egyptian deity)

    Osiris: …ancient god of the dead, Khenty-Imentiu. This name, meaning “Foremost of the Westerners,” was adopted by Osiris as an epithet. Because the festivals took place in the open, public participation was permitted, and by the early 2nd millennium bce it had become fashionable to be buried along the processional road…

  • Khentii Mountains (mountain range, Mongolia)

    Hentiyn Mountains, mountain range in north-central Mongolia. Extending northeast from near Ulaanbaatar, the national capital, to the border with Russia, the range is structurally related to the Yablonovy Range, on the Russian side of the frontier; a river valley between the two ranges forms part of

  • Khenti?n Mountains (mountain range, Mongolia)

    Hentiyn Mountains, mountain range in north-central Mongolia. Extending northeast from near Ulaanbaatar, the national capital, to the border with Russia, the range is structurally related to the Yablonovy Range, on the Russian side of the frontier; a river valley between the two ranges forms part of

  • Khenty-Imentiu (Egyptian deity)

    Osiris: …ancient god of the dead, Khenty-Imentiu. This name, meaning “Foremost of the Westerners,” was adopted by Osiris as an epithet. Because the festivals took place in the open, public participation was permitted, and by the early 2nd millennium bce it had become fashionable to be buried along the processional road…

  • Khepri (deity)

    ancient Egyptian religion: The Gods: …god, the most important were Khepri (the morning form), Re-Harakhty (a form of Re associated with Horus), and Atum (the old, evening form). There were three principal “social” categories of deity: gods, goddesses, and youthful deities, mostly male.

  • Kheraskov, Mikhail Matveyevich (Russian writer)

    Mikhail Matveyevich Kheraskov, epic poet, playwright, and influential representative of Russian classicism who was known in his own day as the Russian Homer. The son of a Walachian noble who had settled in Russia, Kheraskov became director of Moscow University in 1763. He determined to give Russia

  • Kherla (historical state, India)

    India: External and internal rivalries: …recognition of the chieftainship of Kherla as a Bahmanī protectorate. A?mad I then forged an alliance with another northern neighbour, Khandesh, which acted as a buffer between Bahmanī and the kingdoms of Malwa and Gujarat. On the pretext of giving aid to a Hindu chieftain who had revolted against Gujarat,…

  • Kherson (Ukraine)

    Kherson, city, southern Ukraine. It lies on the right (west) bank of the lower Dnieper River about 15 miles (25 km) from the latter’s mouth. Kherson, named after the ancient settlement of Chersonesus (west of what is now Sevastopol), was founded in 1778 as a fortress to protect the newly acquired

  • Khetagurov, Kosta (Ossete poet)

    Ossetic language: …established by the national poet Kosta Khetagurov (1859–1906).

  • Khety (ancient Egyptian ruler)

    ancient Egypt: The 9th dynasty (c. 2130–2080 bce): …example, a local ruler called Khety styled himself in a regal manner and built a pyramid with a surrounding “courtly” cemetery. At Al-Mi?alla, south of Luxor, Ankhtify, the nomarch of the al-Jabalayn region, recorded his annexation of the Idfū nome and extensive raiding in the Theban area. Ankhtify acknowledged an…

  • Khety, House of (Egyptian history)

    ancient Egypt: The 10th (c. 2080–c. 1970 bce) and 11th (2081–1938 bce) dynasties: …a whole was termed the House of Khety. Several Heracleopolitan kings were named Khety; another important name is Merikare. There was intermittent conflict, and the boundary between the two realms shifted around the region of Abydos. As yet, the course of events in this period cannot be reconstructed.

  • Khevenhüller, Ludwig Andreas (Austrian field marshal)

    Ludwig Andreas Khevenhüller, Austrian field marshal and writer of military manuals; the scion of an Austrian aristocratic family that from the 16th to the 20th century provided the Habsburg monarchy with a number of efficient administrators, generals, and statesmen. Khevenhüller served under Prince

  • Khibinogorsk (Russia)

    Kirovsk, city, Murmansk oblast (region), northwestern Russia, at the edge of the Khibiny Mountains. Until the opening of apatite and nephelinite mines in the region in 1929, Kirovsk was merely open tundra peopled by reindeer herders. It soon became a booming mining city and was incorporated in

  • Khibiny Mountains (mountain range, Russia)

    Russia: The Kola-Karelian region: … is similar, but the small Khibiny mountain range rises to nearly 4,000 feet (1,200 metres). Mineral-rich ancient rocks lie at or near the surface in many places.

  • khidīw (Egyptian title)

    Khedive, title granted by the Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz to the hereditary pasha of Egypt, Ismā?īl, in 1867. Derived from a Persian term for “lord” or “ruler,” the title was subsequently used by Ismā?īl’s successors, Tawfīq and ?Abbās II, although it had been used informally by his predecessors

  • khidīwī (Egyptian title)

    Khedive, title granted by the Ottoman sultan Abdülaziz to the hereditary pasha of Egypt, Ismā?īl, in 1867. Derived from a Persian term for “lord” or “ruler,” the title was subsequently used by Ismā?īl’s successors, Tawfīq and ?Abbās II, although it had been used informally by his predecessors

  • Khi?r (Ottoman admiral)

    Barbarossa, (Italian: “Redbeard”) Barbary pirate and later admiral of the Ottoman fleet, by whose initiative Algeria and Tunisia became part of the Ottoman Empire. For three centuries after his death, Mediterranean coastal towns and villages were ravaged by his pirate successors. Khi?r was one of

  • Khi?r Ghīlān, al- (Moroccan tribal leader)

    Ismā?īl: …brother, a nephew, and al-Khi?r Ghīlān, a tribal leader of northern Morocco. These rivals were supported by the Ottoman Empire, acting through Algiers, who hoped to weaken the ?Alawīs by supporting internal subversion so that they could extend their rule over Morocco. As a result, relations with the Ottoman…

  • Khi?r, al- (Islamic mythology)

    Al-Khi?r, (Arabic: contraction of al-Kha?ir, “the Green One”) a legendary Islamic figure endowed with immortal life who became a popular saint, especially among sailors and Sufis (Muslim mystics). The cycle of myths and stories surrounding al-Khi?r originated in a vague narrative in the Qur?ān

  • Khieo, Mount (mountain, Thailand)

    Thailand: Relief: Notable peaks are Mount Khieo, which rises to 2,614 feet (797 metres), and Mount Soi Dao, which attains a height of 5,471 feet (1,668 metres). The hills, reaching nearly to the sea, create a markedly indented coastline fringed with many islands. With their long stretches of sandy beach,…

  • Khieu Thirith (Cambodian government official)

    Ieng Thirith, (Khieu Thirith), Cambodian government official (born March 10, 1932, Phnom Penh, Camb., French Indochina—died Aug. 22, 2015, Pailin City, Camb.), was a central figure in Pol Pot’s brutal Khmer Rouge rule (1975–79) in her roles as the country’s minister of social affairs, as the sister

  • Khiladi (film by Mustan [1992])

    Akshay Kumar: …thrillers and fast-paced dramas, including Khiladi (1992; “Player”), which brought him considerable attention. His athleticism and daredevil nature were well displayed in action films such as Main khiladi tu anari (1994; I’m the Expert, You’re the Novice), in which Kumar played a police inspector protecting a star witness. He again…

  • Khilafat movement (Indian Muslim movement)

    Khilafat movement, pan-Islamic force in India that arose in 1919 in an effort to salvage the Ottoman caliph as a symbol of unity among the Muslim community in India during the British raj. The movement was initially bolstered by Gandhi’s noncooperation movement but fell apart after the abolition of

  • Khiljī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Khaljī dynasty, (1290–1320), the second ruling family of the Muslim sultanate of Delhi. The dynasty, like the previous Slave dynasty, was of Turkish origin, though the Khaljī tribe had long been settled in Afghanistan. Its three kings were noted for their faithlessness, their ferocity, and their

  • Khilnani, Kauromal (author)

    Sindhi literature: …writers of that era were Kauromal Khilnani (1844–1916), Mirza Qalich Beg (1853–1929), Dayaram Gidumal (1857–1927), and Parmanand Mewaram (1856?–1938). They produced original works and adapted books from Sanskrit, Hindi, Persian, and English. Kauromal Khilnani published Arya nari charitra

  • Khimki (Russia)

    Khimki, city and centre of a rayon (sector), Moscow oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Moscow–St. Petersburg railway northwest of the capital. Incorporated in 1939, Khimki grew from a small nucleus of summer cottages (dachi). It is now an important industrial centre, with

  • Khin Nyunt (prime minister of Myanmar)

    Myanmar: Myanmar since 1988: Khin Nyunt was named prime minister in 2003. He promised to usher the country toward a new constitution and free elections, but his rule was cut short by allegations of corruption. In late 2004 he too was placed under house arrest and was replaced by…

  • Khinalug language

    Caucasian languages: The Lezgian languages: … (about 6,000); Budukh (about 2,000); Khinalug (about 1,500); and Udi (about 3,700). The majority of Lezgi languages are spoken in southern Dagestan, but some of them (Kryz, Budukh, Khinalug, Udi) are spoken chiefly in Azerbaijan; and one village of Udi speakers is located in Georgia. It is important to note…

  • Khionistra (mountain, Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Relief: The range’s summit, Mount Olympus (also called Mount Troodos), reaches an elevation of 6,401 feet (1,951 metres) and is the island’s highest point.

  • Khíos (island, Greece)

    Chios, island and dímos (municipality), situated 5 miles (8 km) off the western coast of Turkey in the Aegean Sea, North Aegean (Modern Greek: Vóreio Aigaío) periféreia (region), eastern Greece. Of volcanic and limestone origins, it is about 30 miles (50 km) long north-south and from 8 to 15 miles

  • khipu (Incan counting tool)

    Quipu, an Inca accounting apparatus in use from c. 1400 to 1532 ce and consisting of a long textile cord (called a top, or primary, cord) with a varying number of pendant cords. The pendant cords may also have cords (known as subsidiaries) attached. Experts believe that—in addition to the various

  • Khirbat al-Mafjar (palace, Middle East)

    Khirbat al-Mafjar, Umayyad desert palace complex located in the Wadi Al-Nuway?ima, approximately 3 miles (5 km) north of Jericho, in the West Bank. Built in the 8th century, this palace contained a residential unit consisting of a square building with an elaborate entrance, a porticoed courtyard,

  • Khirbat Qumran (ancient site, Middle East)

    Dead Sea Scrolls: Discovery and description: …wilderness from five principal sites: Khirbat Qumrān, Wadi Al-Murabba?āt, Na?al ?ever (Wadi Khabrah) and Na?al ?e?elim (Wadi Seiyal), Wadi Daliyeh, and Masada. The first manuscripts, accidentally discovered in 1947 by a shepherd boy in a cave at Khirbat Qumrān on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, were almost immediately…

  • Khirbet Kerak (ancient site, Palestine)

    Beth Yerah, ancient fortified settlement located at the southern tip of the Sea of Galilee. Beth Yerah was settled in the Early Bronze Age (c. 3100–2300 bc) and was also populated from the Hellenistic to the Arab periods (c. 2nd century bc to 12th century ad). Archaeological findings suggest that

  • Khirbet Kerak ware (pottery)

    Beth Yerah: …was discovered there and named Khirbet Kerak ware.

  • Khirokitia (Cyprus)

    Cyprus: Earliest periods: …9,000 years ago, was at Khirokitia (near the southern coast), a town of about 2,000 inhabitants who lived in well-built two-story round stone houses. The presence of small quantities of obsidian, a type of volcanic rock not native to the island, is the only sign of the island’s contact with…

  • khirqah (Islam)

    Khirqah, (Arabic: “rag”), a woolen robe traditionally bestowed by Sufi (Muslim mystic) masters on those who had newly joined the Sufi path, in recognition of their sincerity and devotion. While most sources agree that the khirqah was a patched piece of cloth, there is no uniform description of the

  • Khitai (people)

    Khitan, any member of a Mongol people that ruled Manchuria and part of North China from the 10th to the early 12th century under the Liao dynasty. See also

  • khitān (Islam)

    Khitān, in Islam, circumcision of the male; by extension it may also refer to the circumcision of the female (properly khaf?). Muslim traditions (?adīth) recognize khitān as a pre-Islamic rite customary among the Arabs and place it in the same category as the trimming of mustaches, the cutting of

  • Khitan (people)

    Khitan, any member of a Mongol people that ruled Manchuria and part of North China from the 10th to the early 12th century under the Liao dynasty. See also

  • Khiuma (island, Estonia)

    Hiiumaa, island of the Muhu archipelago, Estonia. It lies in the Baltic Sea, northwest of the Gulf of Riga. Hiiumaa is the northernmost of the three larger islands forming the archipelago. It is separated from the island of Saaremaa to the south by Soela Strait and from the mainland to the east by

  • Khiva (Uzbekistan)

    Khiva, city, south-central Uzbekistan. It lies west of the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) on the Palvan Canal, and it is bounded on the south by the Karakum Desert and on the northeast by the Kyzylkum desert. A notorious slave market was centred there from the 17th to the 19th century. The city is

  • Khiva, khanate of (ancient state, Uzbekistan)

    Chagatai literature: …the somewhat peripheral khanate of Khiva, while the khanate of Bukhara usually patronized writing in Persian. The major literary texts in Chagatai during the 17th century were the historical writing of the Khivan khan Abū al-Ghāzī Bahādur—notably his Shajare-i Tarākime (1659; “Genealogical Tree of the Turkmen”) and Shajare-i Turk (completed…

  • Khiwa (Uzbekistan)

    Khiva, city, south-central Uzbekistan. It lies west of the Amu Darya (ancient Oxus River) on the Palvan Canal, and it is bounded on the south by the Karakum Desert and on the northeast by the Kyzylkum desert. A notorious slave market was centred there from the 17th to the 19th century. The city is

  • Khiyār, Mu?ammad ibn Is?āq ibn Yasār ibn (Arab author)

    Ibn Is?āq, Arab biographer of the Prophet Mu?ammad whose book, in a recension by Ibn Hishām, is one of the most important sources on the Prophet’s life. Ibn Is?āq was the grandson of an Arab prisoner captured by Muslim troops in Iraq and brought to Medina, where he was freed after accepting Islām.

  • Khizr Khan (Sayyid ruler)

    India: The rise of regional states: …of Sind were held by Khizr Khan Sayyid for Timur (and later for himself). Khizr Khan also took over Delhi and a small area surrounding it after the last of the Tughluqs died in 1413, and he founded the dynasty known as the Sayyid. The Sayyids ruled the territory of…

  • Khizr, the Guide (poem by Iqbal)

    Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Early life and career: …Answer to the Complaint”), and Khizr-e rāh (“Khizr, the Guide”), were published later in 1924 in the Urdu collection Bāng-e darā (“The Call of the Bell”). In those works Iqbal gave intense expression to the anguish of Muslim powerlessness. Khizr (Arabic: Khi?r), the Qur?ānic prophet who asks the most difficult…

  • Khizr-e rāh (poem by Iqbal)

    Sir Muhammad Iqbal: Early life and career: …Answer to the Complaint”), and Khizr-e rāh (“Khizr, the Guide”), were published later in 1924 in the Urdu collection Bāng-e darā (“The Call of the Bell”). In those works Iqbal gave intense expression to the anguish of Muslim powerlessness. Khizr (Arabic: Khi?r), the Qur?ānic prophet who asks the most difficult…

  • KHJ (American radio station)

    KHJ, “Boss Radio”: Los Angeles’ KHJ, better known as “Boss Radio” in the mid-1960s, was the most imitated station of its time. After years of “personality” radio—dominated by deejay chatter and replete with long jingles—it ushered in the mainstreaming of Top 40 radio. Its designer, Bill Drake, a…

  • KHJ, Boss Radio

    Los Angeles’ KHJ, better known as “Boss Radio” in the mid-1960s, was the most imitated station of its time. After years of “personality” radio—dominated by deejay chatter and replete with long jingles—it ushered in the mainstreaming of Top 40 radio. Its designer, Bill Drake, a Georgia-born deejay,

  • Khlebnikov, Velimir Vladimirovich (Russian poet)

    Velimir Vladimirovich Khlebnikov, poet who was the founder of Russian Futurism and whose esoteric verses exerted a significant influence on Soviet poetry. Born into a scientific family, Khlebnikov studied both mathematics and linguistics during his university years. At that time he also began

  • Khlebnikov, Viktor Vladimirovich (Russian poet)

    Velimir Vladimirovich Khlebnikov, poet who was the founder of Russian Futurism and whose esoteric verses exerted a significant influence on Soviet poetry. Born into a scientific family, Khlebnikov studied both mathematics and linguistics during his university years. At that time he also began

  • Khlesl, Melchior (Austrian cardinal)

    Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, bishop of Vienna and later a cardinal, who tried to promote religious toleration during the Counter-Reformation in Austria. Converted from Protestantism by the Jesuits, he became an outstanding preacher and served as bishop of Vienna from the 1590s. Klesl became

  • Khlong Phadung Krung Kasem (moat, Bangkok, Thailand)

    Bangkok: History: …and a new city moat, Khlong Phadung Krung Kasem, parallel to the city’s first canal, was dug and fortified; a long canal led from it to the present port area (Khlong Toei), thus allowing small boats to bypass the large bend in the river immediately south of the city. A…

  • Khlysty (Russian sect)

    Grigori Rasputin: …he was introduced to the Khlysty (Flagellants) sect. Rasputin perverted Khlysty beliefs into the doctrine that one was nearest God when feeling “holy passionlessness” and that the best way to reach such a state was through the sexual exhaustion that came after prolonged debauchery. Rasputin did not become a monk.…

  • Khmelnitsky (Ukraine)

    Khmelnytskyy, city, western Ukraine. It lies along the upper Southern (Pivdennyy) Buh River. Originally a Polish military post, it dates from the late 15th century. The fort was seized by Cossacks during the mid-17th century. In 1793 it passed to Russia by the Second Partition of Poland, and in

  • Khmelnitsky, Bogdan (Cossack leader)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leader (1648–57) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who organized a rebellion against Polish rule in Ukraine that ultimately led to the transfer of the Ukrainian lands east of the Dnieper River from Polish to Russian control. Although he had been educated in Poland and had served with

  • Khmelnitsky, Bogdan (Cossack leader)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leader (1648–57) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who organized a rebellion against Polish rule in Ukraine that ultimately led to the transfer of the Ukrainian lands east of the Dnieper River from Polish to Russian control. Although he had been educated in Poland and had served with

  • Khmelnytsky Insurrection (Ukrainian history)

    Ukraine: The Khmelnytsky insurrection: Tensions stemming from social discontent, religious strife, and Cossack resentment of Polish authority finally coalesced and came to a head in 1648. Beginning with a seemingly typical Cossack revolt, under the leadership of Bohdan Khmelnytsky, Ukraine was quickly engulfed in an unprecedented war…

  • Khmelnytsky, Bohdan (Cossack leader)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leader (1648–57) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who organized a rebellion against Polish rule in Ukraine that ultimately led to the transfer of the Ukrainian lands east of the Dnieper River from Polish to Russian control. Although he had been educated in Poland and had served with

  • Khmelnytsky, Bohdan Zinoviy Mykhaylovych (Cossack leader)

    Bohdan Khmelnytsky, leader (1648–57) of the Zaporozhian Cossacks who organized a rebellion against Polish rule in Ukraine that ultimately led to the transfer of the Ukrainian lands east of the Dnieper River from Polish to Russian control. Although he had been educated in Poland and had served with

  • Khmelnytskyy (Ukraine)

    Khmelnytskyy, city, western Ukraine. It lies along the upper Southern (Pivdennyy) Buh River. Originally a Polish military post, it dates from the late 15th century. The fort was seized by Cossacks during the mid-17th century. In 1793 it passed to Russia by the Second Partition of Poland, and in

  • Khmer (people)

    Khmer, any member of an ethnolinguistic group that constitutes most of the population of Cambodia. Smaller numbers of Khmer also live in southeastern Thailand and the Mekong River delta of southern Vietnam. The Khmer language belongs to the Mon-Khmer family, itself a part of the Austroasiatic

  • Khmer Islam (people)

    Cambodia: Ethnic groups: …early 21st century was the Cham-Malay group. Known in Cambodia as Khmer Islam or Western Cham, the Cham-Malay group also maintained a high degree of ethnic homogeneity and was discriminated against under the regime of Democratic Kampuchea. Receiving only slightly better treatment than the Khmer Islam during that period were…

  • Khmer Issarak (Cambodian history)

    Khmer Issarak, (Khmer: “Independent Khmer”) anti-French nationalist movement organized in Cambodia in 1946. It quickly split into factions, and by the time of independence in 1953 all but one of these were incorporated into Prince Norodom Sihanouk’s political structure. The dissident group, under

  • Khmer language

    Khmer language, Mon-Khmer language spoken by most of the population of Cambodia, where it is the official language, and by some 1.3 million people in southeastern Thailand, and also by more than a million people in southern Vietnam. The language has been written since the early 7th century using a

  • Khmer literature

    Khmer literature, body of literary works of Khmer peoples of Southeast Asia, mainly Cambodia. The classical literature of Cambodia comprises works composed in verse and recorded between the 16th and mid-19th century; much of it reflects the cultural influence of India. It can be classified

  • Khmer National Party (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Tensions between the CPP and the opposition: …Funcinpec—as well as with the Sam Rainsy Party (SRP), another opposition party that had won nearly as many seats as Funcinpec in the elections—dragged into 2004, however, and were resolved only by midyear. In October 2004 Sihanouk resigned as king, and his youngest son, Norodom Sihamoni, succeeded him. Sihanouk continued…

  • Khmer People’s National Liberation Front (political party, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: Vietnamese intervention: …National Liberation Front (renamed the Buddhist Liberal Democratic Party in 1992) under the leadership of Son Sann (a former prime minister). Those groups were supported financially by foreign powers, including the United States, who were eager to oppose Vietnam. Thousands of Cambodians continued to enter Thailand in the 1980s, and…

  • Khmer Republic

    Cambodia, country on the Indochinese mainland of Southeast Asia. Cambodia is largely a land of plains and great rivers and lies amid important overland and river trade routes linking China to India and Southeast Asia. The influences of many Asian cultures, alongside those of France and the United

  • Khmer Rouge (political group, Cambodia)

    Khmer Rouge, (French: “Red Khmer”) radical communist movement that ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979 after winning power through a guerrilla war. It was purportedly set up in 1967 as the armed wing of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. Cambodia’s communist movement originated in the Khmer People’s

  • Khmer Rouge Tribunal (Cambodian history)

    Khmer Rouge: …of Cambodia (commonly called the Khmer Rouge Tribunal) was established in 2006 as a joint operation between the United Nations and the government of Cambodia. The first indictments were handed down in 2007, and the first trial—against Kaing Guek Eav (better known as Duch), the former commander of a notorious…

  • Khmer Serei (political organization, Cambodia)

    Cambodia: World War II and its aftermath: …formed a dissident movement, the Khmer Serei (“Free Khmer”), that opposed both Sihanouk and the French.

  • Khmers Rouges (political group, Cambodia)

    Khmer Rouge, (French: “Red Khmer”) radical communist movement that ruled Cambodia from 1975 to 1979 after winning power through a guerrilla war. It was purportedly set up in 1967 as the armed wing of the Communist Party of Kampuchea. Cambodia’s communist movement originated in the Khmer People’s

  • Khmu language

    Khmuic languages: Khmu is the most prominent of the languages, having more than 500,000 speakers, most of whom are spread across northern Laos, Vietnam, Thailand, and China. Smaller numbers live in Myanmar (Burma) and in Western countries. Other Khmuic languages include Khang, Phong (also called Kaniang, Piat,…

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