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  • Khowsgol Mountains (mountain range, Mongolia)

    H?vsg?l Mountains, mountain range in northern Mongolia. To the north of the mountains lies H?vsg?l Lake, Mongolia’s largest and deepest freshwater

  • Khoy (Iran)

    Khoy, city, northwestern Iran. The city is well laid out, with cool streams and lines of willows along broad, regular streets. There are several mosques, an extensive brick bazaar, a fine caravansary, and gardens. Khoy is a trade centre and has been of considerable strategic importance. Fortified

  • Khoybun (political group)

    Badr Khānī Jāladat: …president of the Khoybun (Kurdish National League) and three years later participated in the unsuccessful Kurdish rebellion in Turkey. He became the first editor (May 1932) of the bilingual Kurdish–French review ?awār (“Summons”), which, together with his later illustrated publication Runahi (“Light”), promoted understanding among the diverse and often…

  • khozhdenie v narod (Russian political movement)

    Narodnik: …a diffuse movement known as khozhdenie v narod (“going to the people”) in the course of which hundreds of young intellectuals, dressed in peasant clothes, canvased rural regions and incited the peasantry to rise against the system. This led to police persecution, arrests, and political trials of the Narodniki, the…

  • Khozhdeniye po mukam (work by Tolstoy)

    Aleksey Nikolayevich, Count Tolstoy: …in 1946 under the title The Road to Calvary (1946). For the trilogy and for his long unfinished historical novel Pyotr I (1929–45; Peter the First, 1956), he received Stalin prizes. During World War II he was a prolific author of patriotic articles and also composed his two-part play Ivan…

  • Khozhdeniye za tri morya (work by Nikitin)

    Russian literature: Works reflecting Muscovite power: In his Khozhdeniye za tri morya (“Journey Beyond Three Seas”) a merchant, Afanasy Nikitin, describes his travels to India and Persia during 1466–72. However, what is most striking about this period is what did not take place: Russia experienced no Renaissance and became quite isolated from the…

  • khra (bird)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …teals, sing-bya (tiny owl-like birds), khra (crow-sized, hawklike birds), bya-long (birds about the size of a duck), and skya-ka (black-and-white crow-sized birds). The calls of the rmos-’debs—a small gray bird that inhabits agricultural regions—signal the opening of the planting season.

  • Khrapovitsky, Aleksey Pavlovich (Russian archbishop)

    Antony Khrapovitsky, Russian Orthodox metropolitan of Kiev, antipapal polemicist, and controversialist in theological and political affairs who attempted an exclusively ethical interpretation of Christian doctrine. After graduating from St. Petersburg Theological Academy, Antony entered a

  • Khrapovitsky, Antony (Russian archbishop)

    Antony Khrapovitsky, Russian Orthodox metropolitan of Kiev, antipapal polemicist, and controversialist in theological and political affairs who attempted an exclusively ethical interpretation of Christian doctrine. After graduating from St. Petersburg Theological Academy, Antony entered a

  • Khrebet Akademii Nauk (mountains, Tajikistan)

    Akademii Nauk Range, mountain range, western Pamirs, central Tajikistan. The mountains, extending north-south, are approximately 68 miles (110 km) in length and are composed mostly of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks, together with some granite. Glaciation from permanent snowcaps extends over an

  • Khrebet Cherskogo (mountains, Russia)

    Chersky Range, range running northwest to southeast through the Sakha republic and Magadan oblast (province), Russia. The range, extending more than 900 miles (1,500 km), forms a part of the extensive Verkhoyansk mountain system and comprises a series of highly dissected parallel ranges with

  • Khrebet Karatau (mountain range, Kazakhstan)

    Qarataū, mountain range, a northwestern spur of the Tien Shan, in southern Kazakhstan. The name is of Turkic origin, meaning “Black Mountain.” The range extends for 260 miles (420 km) along the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River) and rises to 7,139 feet (2,176 metres), with an average elevation of

  • Khrennikov, Tikhon Nikolayevich (Soviet composer and bureaucrat)

    Tikhon Nikolayevich Khrennikov, Soviet composer and bureaucrat (born May 28 [June 10, New Style], 1913, Yelets, Russia—died Aug. 14, 2007, Moscow, Russia), as head (1948–91) of the Union of Soviet Composers, enforced Stalinist ideas of socialist music, denouncing and denying forums to composers who

  • khres-pa (tree)

    Tibet: Plant and animal life: …flowers that grow near water), khres-pa (strong durable forest trees used to make food containers), glang-ma (a willow tree used for basketry), and rtsi-shings (the seeds of which are used for making varnish). Fruit-bearing trees and certain roots are used for food, as are the leaves of the lca-wa, khumag,…

  • Khreshchatyk (street, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Kyiv: City layout: …is the street known as Khreshchatyk, which runs along the bottom of a small valley the sides of which have in part been landscaped with terraced gardens interspersed with tall, modern office and apartment buildings. The greenery of the gardens, the trees lining the street, the squares that it intersects—all…

  • Khri-srong-lde-btsan (king of Tibet)

    Buddhism: Kings and yogis: …other great “kings of religion”: Khri-srong-lde-btsan (reigned 755–797 ce) and Ral-pa-can, who was assassinated in 838 ce.

  • Khrisong Detsen (king of Tibet)

    Buddhism: Kings and yogis: …other great “kings of religion”: Khri-srong-lde-btsan (reigned 755–797 ce) and Ral-pa-can, who was assassinated in 838 ce.

  • Khristos i Antikhrist (work by Merezhkovsky)

    Dmitry Sergeyevich Merezhkovsky: With his trilogy Khristos i Antikhrist (1896–1905; “Christ and Antichrist”), Merezhkovsky revived the historical novel in Russia. Its three parts, set in widely separated epochs and geographical areas, reveal historical erudition and serve as vehicles for the author’s historical and theological ideas. Another group of fictional works from…

  • Khristov Zhivkov, Todor (Bulgarian political leader)

    Todor Zhivkov, first secretary of the ruling Bulgarian Communist Party’s Central Committee (1954–89) and president of Bulgaria (1971–89). His 35 years as Bulgaria’s ruler made him the longest-serving leader in any of the Soviet-bloc nations of eastern Europe. The son of poor peasants, Zhivkov rose

  • Khronus (Greek god)

    Cronus, in ancient Greek religion, male deity who was worshipped by the pre-Hellenic population of Greece but probably was not widely worshipped by the Greeks themselves; he was later identified with the Roman god Saturn. Cronus’s functions were connected with agriculture; in Attica his festival,

  • Khroumirie (mountain region, Tunisia)

    Kroumirie, mountainous region with extensive forests of cork-oak in northwestern Tunisia. One of the best-watered regions in North Africa (40 to 60 inches [1,000 to 1,500 mm] a year), it extends south of the Mediterranean Sea and north of Wadi Majardah (Medjerda) and east from the Algerian border t

  • Khrushchev thaw (Soviet history)

    Khrushchev's secret speech: …liberalization known as the “Khrushchev thaw,” during which censorship policy was relaxed, sparking a literary renaissance of sorts. Thousands of political prisoners were released, and thousands more who had perished during Stalin’s reign were officially “rehabilitated.” The speech also contributed to the revolts that occurred later that year in…

  • Khrushchev’s secret speech (Soviet history)

    Khrushchev’s secret speech, (February 25, 1956), in Russian history, denunciation of the deceased Soviet leader Joseph Stalin made by Nikita S. Khrushchev to a closed session of the 20th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. The speech was the nucleus of a far-reaching

  • Khrushchev, Nikita (premier of Soviet Union)

    Nikita Khrushchev, first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953–64) and premier of the Soviet Union (1958–64) whose policy of de-Stalinization had widespread repercussions throughout the communist world. In foreign affairs he pursued a policy of “peaceful coexistence” with the

  • Khrushchev, Nikita Sergeyevich (premier of Soviet Union)

    Nikita Khrushchev, first secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1953–64) and premier of the Soviet Union (1958–64) whose policy of de-Stalinization had widespread repercussions throughout the communist world. In foreign affairs he pursued a policy of “peaceful coexistence” with the

  • Khshathra Vairya (Zoroastrianism)

    amesha spenta: Khshathra Vairya (Desirable Dominion), who presides over metal, is the power of Ahura Mazdā’s kingdom. The believer can realize this power in action guided by Excellent Order and Good Mind. Spenta Armaiti (Beneficent Devotion), the spirit of devotion and faith, guides and protects the believer.…

  • Khshathrita (king of Media)

    Phraortes, king of Media from 675 to 653 bc. Phraortes, who was known by that name as a result of the writings of the 5th-century-bc Greek historian Herodotus, was originally a village chief of Kar Kashi, but he later subjugated the Persians and a number of other Asian peoples, eventually forming

  • Khshayathiya (Iranian title)

    Shāh, title of the kings of Iran, or Persia. When compounded as shāhanshāh, it denotes “king of kings,” or emperor, a title adopted by the 20th-century Pahlavi dynasty in evocation of the ancient Persian “king of kings,” Cyrus II the Great (reigned 559–c. 529 bc). Another related title or form of

  • Khuang Abhaiwong (Thai premier)

    Khuang Aphaiwong, Thai politician who founded and led Thailand’s strongest opposition party and was three times premier of Thailand (1944–45, 1946, 1947–48). Khuang was a member of the Khmer family that under Thai auspices ruled western Cambodia from the 18th century and moved to Thailand when the

  • Khuang Aphaiwong (Thai premier)

    Khuang Aphaiwong, Thai politician who founded and led Thailand’s strongest opposition party and was three times premier of Thailand (1944–45, 1946, 1947–48). Khuang was a member of the Khmer family that under Thai auspices ruled western Cambodia from the 18th century and moved to Thailand when the

  • Khubar, Al- (Saudi Arabia)

    Khobar, oasis and port city, Al-Sharqiyyah min?aqah (province) and region, eastern Saudi Arabia, situated on the Persian Gulf south of Dammam. The city is a commercial and industrial centre lying in a valley on the main road to Jordan. Khobar has good water wells and fertile soil, producing an

  • Khubedu River (river, South Africa)

    Orange River: Physiography: The Seati (Khubedu) headwater rises near Mont-aux-Sources to the north. Still farther north is the lesser-known Malibamatso headwater, one site of the Lesotho Highland Project. The Lesotho headwaters flow over the turf soil that covers Drakensberg lava and cut through the lava to expose underlying sedimentary…

  • Khubilai Khan (emperor of Yuan dynasty)

    Kublai Khan, Mongolian general and statesman, who was the grandson and greatest successor of Genghis Khan. As the fifth emperor (reigned 1260–94) of the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty (1206–1368), he completed the conquest of China (1279) started by Genghis Khan in 1211 and thus became the first Yuan

  • Khubsugul Dalai (lake, Mongolia)

    H?vsg?l Lake, lake in northern Mongolia. With an area of 1,012 square miles (2,620 square km), it is Mongolia’s largest freshwater lake, with depths exceeding 800 feet (244 m). It lies near the Russian border at an elevation of 5,397 feet (1,645 m), at the southern foot of the east Sayan Range. The

  • Khubur River (river, Turkey-Syria)

    Khābūr River, river, an important tributary of the Euphrates River. It rises in the mountains of southeastern Turkey near Diyarbak?r and flows southeastward to Al-?asakah, Syria, where it receives its main tributary, the Jaghjagh; it then meanders south to join the Euphrates downstream from Dayr

  • Khuc Thua Du (Vietnamese ruler)

    Khuc Thua Du, Vietnamese ruler in 906–907 whose rise to power, as a result of a successful rebellion in 906, constituted one of the first attempts of the Vietnamese to achieve independence. A wealthy landowner who, according to the annals of old Vietnam, was “respected for his virtuousness and his

  • Khudai Khitmatgar (Indian nationalist movement)

    Red Shirt movement, in support of the Indian National Congress, an action started by Abdul Ghaffar Khan of the North-West Frontier Province of India in 1930. Ghaffar Khan was a Pashtun who greatly admired Mahatma Gandhi and his nonviolent principles and saw support for the Congress as a way of

  • Khuddaka Nikaya (Buddhist literature)

    Khuddaka Nikaya, (Pali: “Short Collection”) diverse group of separate Buddhist texts constituting the fifth and last section of the Pali Sutta Pitaka (“Basket of Discourse”). Although it contains some very early works, it as a collection is later than the other four Nikayas and much more varied in

  • Khuddaka-patha (Buddhist text)

    Khuddaka Nikaya: Khuddaka-patha (“Short Passages”), a compilation of 9 items, including 10 precepts for novices, a hymn of praise to the Buddha, and verses accompanying oblations to departed spirits.

  • Khu?rah, Jazīrat al- (island, Tanzania)

    Pemba Island, island in the Indian Ocean, lying 35 miles (56 km) off the coast of East Africa, opposite the port of Tanga, Tanzania. The island is 42 miles (67 km) long and 14 miles (22 km) wide. As the Arabic name, which means “Green Island,” suggests, it is more fertile than its sister island,

  • Khudzhand (Tajikistan)

    Khujand, city, northwestern Tajikistan. The city lies along both banks of the Syr Darya (river) at the entrance to the fertile and heavily populated Fergana Valley. One of the most ancient cities of Central Asia, it lay along the great Silk Road from China to Europe. It was captured by the Arabs in

  • Khufu (pyramid, Egypt)

    Pyramids of Giza: Called the Great Pyramid, it is the largest of the three, the length of each side at the base averaging 755.75 feet (230 metres) and its original height being 481.4 feet (147 metres). The middle pyramid was built for Khafre (Greek: Chephren), the fourth of the eight…

  • Khufu (king of Egypt)

    Khufu, second king of the 4th dynasty (c. 2575–c. 2465 bce) of Egypt and builder of the Great Pyramid at Al-Jīzah (see Pyramids of Giza), the largest single building to that time. Khufu’s reign and that of his son Khafre were represented by the Greek historian Herodotus as 106 years of oppression

  • Khüiten Peak (mountain, Mongolia)

    Mongolia: The mountains: …14,350 feet (4,374 metres) at Khüiten Peak (Nayramadlyn Orgil) at the western tip of the country, Mongolia’s highest point. Extending eastward from the Mongolian Altai are the Gobi Altai Mountains (Govi Altain Nuruu), a lesser range of denuded hills that lose themselves in the expanses of the Gobi.

  • Khujand (Tajikistan)

    Khujand, city, northwestern Tajikistan. The city lies along both banks of the Syr Darya (river) at the entrance to the fertile and heavily populated Fergana Valley. One of the most ancient cities of Central Asia, it lay along the great Silk Road from China to Europe. It was captured by the Arabs in

  • Khujand Gates (pass, Central Asia)

    Fergana Valley: …(Myrzash?l) steppe by the narrow Khujand Gates.

  • Khulagu (Mongol ruler of Iran)

    Hülegü, Mongol ruler in Iran who founded the Il-Khanid dynasty and, as part of a Mongol program of subduing the Islāmic world, seized and sacked Baghdad, the religious and cultural capital of Islām. Some historians consider that he did more than anyone else to destroy medieval Iranian culture. H

  • Khuldalchi, Dalan (Mongolian folk hero)

    Mongolia: The arts: …17th to the 19th century, Dalan Khuldalchi (literally, “Innumerable Liar” or “Multifibber”) was the source of humorous folktales, such as, “How to Make Felt from Fly’s Wool.” There are stories about the badarchin, wily mendicant monks, while khuurchins—bards—carried down the oral epics and ballads. The religious mysteries, tsam and maidari,…

  • Khulna (Bangladesh)

    Khulna, city, southwestern Bangladesh. It lies along the Bhairab River in the south-central Padma (Ganges [Ganga])–Jamuna (Brahmaputra) delta. An important river port and produce-collection and trade centre, it is connected by riverboat, road, and rail to the major cities of the region. Shipyards

  • khul? (Islamic law)
  • Khumārawayh (Egyptian ruler)

    ?ūlūnid Dynasty: The subsequent ?ūlūnids, Khumārawayh (884–896), Jaysh (896), Hārūn (896–905), and Shaybān (905), were ineffectual rulers, totally reliant on a Turkish-black military caste. Under the administration of Khumārawayh, A?mad’s son, the Syro-Egyptian state’s financial and military stability was destroyed, and the state finally reverted to the ?Abbāsids in 905.

  • Khumbannumena (king of Elam)

    ancient Iran: The Middle Elamite period: Political expansion under Khumbannumena (c. 1285–c. 1266 bc), the fourth king of this line, proceeded apace, and his successes were commemorated by his assumption of the title “Expander of the Empire.” He was succeeded by his son, Untash-Gal (Untash [d] Gal, or Untash-Huban), a contemporary of Shalmaneser I…

  • Khumbu Glacier (glacier, Asia)

    Mount Everest: Drainage and climate: … to the northwest; and the Khumbu Glacier to the west and south, which is fed by the glacier bed of the Western Cwm, an enclosed valley of ice between Everest and the Lhotse-Nuptse Ridge to the south. Glacial action has been the primary force behind the heavy and continuous erosion…

  • Khumbu Icefall (icefall, Asia)

    Apa Sherpa: …accelerated melting of the giant Khumbu Icefall near the mountain’s base. The expeditions employed ecologically friendly practices (e.g., the use of solar cookers) and collected and took down tons of trash and camping and climbing gear left behind by earlier expeditions. Apa’s climb in May 2010 was especially notable because…

  • Khumbutse (mountain, Asia)

    Mount Everest: Geology and relief: Khumbutse (21,867 feet [6,665 metres]), Nuptse (25,791 feet [7,861 metres]), and Lhotse (27,940 feet [8,516 metres]) surround Everest’s base to the west and south.

  • khums (Shī?ism)

    zakat: …an additional one-fifth tax, the khums, to the Hidden Imam and his deputies. It is intended to be spent for the benefit of the imams in addition to orphans, the poor, and travelers.

  • Khums, Al- (Libya)

    Al-Khums, town, northwestern Libya. It is located on the Mediterranean coast about 60 miles (97 km) southeast of Tripoli. The town was founded by the Turks and gained importance after 1870 by exporting esparto grass (used for cordage, shoes, and paper). Modern economic activities in Al-Khums

  • Khun Sa (Myanmar drug trafficker and militant separatist)

    Khun Sa, (Chang Chi-fu or Chufu or Shi-fu), Myanmar drug trafficker and militant separatist (born Feb. 17, 1934, Shan state, Burma [now Myanmar]—died Oct. 26, 2007, Yangon [Rangoon], Myanmar), was the “king of the Golden Triangle,” dominating the trade in heroin coming out of the area that

  • Khūn-e Nā?aq (play by Agha Hashr)

    South Asian arts: Parsi theatre: …modelled on King Lear, and Khūn-e Nā?aq (“The Innocent Murder”) on Hamlet. His last play, Rustam-o-Sohrab, the tragic story of two legendary Persian heroes, Rustam and his son Sohrab, is a drama of passion and fatal irony.

  • Khunrath, Heinrich (German alchemist)

    alchemy: Modern alchemy: Neither did the German alchemist Heinrich Khunrath (c. 1560–1601), whose works have long been esteemed for their illustrations, make such a claim.

  • Khurasan (historical region, Asia)

    Khorāsān, historical region and realm comprising a vast territory now lying in northeastern Iran, southern Turkmenistan, and northern Afghanistan. The historical region extended, along the north, from the Amu Darya (Oxus River) westward to the Caspian Sea and, along the south, from the fringes of

  • Khūrda Avesta (Zoroastrianism)

    Avesta: The Khūrda Avesta (or Little Avesta) is a group of minor texts, hymns, and prayers for specific occasions.

  • Khurha (ancient city, Iran)

    Iranian art and architecture: Seleucid period: …“Greek” temples, at Kangāvar and Khurha, in Iran, in which classical orders (Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian) are handled with so little understanding that they can hardly be called Hellenistic. There are, however, isolated examples of contemporary sculpture from eastern sites to which this term could be more justifiably applied. Bronze…

  • Khuri, Bishara al- (president of Lebanon)

    Bishara al-Khuri, Lebanese statesman, president of Lebanon from 1943 to 1952. The son of a prominent Lebanese Christian civil official, Khuri studied law in Paris and there learned to speak French fluently. In 1920 Khuri became secretary-general to the government of Mount Lebanon (the predecessor

  • Khurīyā Murīyā (island group, Oman)

    Khurīyā Murīyā, island group of Oman, in the Arabian Sea, situated 25 miles (40 km) off the country’s southeastern coast. The five islands, which have a total land area of 28 square miles (73 square km), are composed largely of granite and represent the peaks of a submarine ridge. From west to east

  • Khurr, Wadi Al- (river, Saudi Arabia)

    Arabia: Northern Arabia: …these are Wadi ?Ar?ar and Wadi Al-Khurr.

  • Khurram, Prince (Mughal emperor)

    Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58) who built the Taj Mahal. He was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. In 1612 he married Arjūmand Bānū Begum, niece of Jahāngīr’s wife Nūr Jahān, and became, as Prince Khurram, a member of the influential Nūr

  • Khurram, Shihāb al-Din Mu?ammad (Mughal emperor)

    Shah Jahān, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58) who built the Taj Mahal. He was the third son of the Mughal emperor Jahāngīr and the Rajput princess Manmati. In 1612 he married Arjūmand Bānū Begum, niece of Jahāngīr’s wife Nūr Jahān, and became, as Prince Khurram, a member of the influential Nūr

  • Khurramābād (Iran)

    Khorramābād, city, capital of Lorestān province, western Iran. It commands a river gap in the Lorestān mountains used by the main road from Khūzestān to the highland plateau. A summer market for the nomadic Lur tribes, it has lively bazaars and a strong garrison. On a ridge between town and river

  • Khurshīd Bībī v. Mu?ammad Amīn (law case)

    Sharī?ah: Reform of Sharī?ah law: For example, in Khurshīd Bībī v. Mu?ammad Amīn (1967), the country’s Supreme Court held that a Muslim wife could as a right obtain a divorce simply by payment of suitable compensation to her husband. This decision was based on the court’s interpretation of a relevant Qur?ānic verse. However,…

  • Khur?ūm Ba?rī, Al- (Sudan)

    Khartoum North, city, east-central Sudan. It lies on the north bank of the Blue Nile and on the east bank of the Nile proper, with bridge connections to its sister cities of Khartoum and Omdurman. The main industrial centre of the region and the country, the city contains dockyards, marine and rail

  • Khur?ūm, Al- (national capital, Sudan)

    Khartoum, (“Elephant’s Trunk”), city, executive capital of Sudan, just south of the confluence of the Blue and White Nile rivers. It has bridge connections with its sister towns, Khartoum North and Omdurman, with which it forms Sudan’s largest conurbation. Originally an Egyptian army camp (pitched

  • khus-khus (plant)

    Vetiver, (Chrysopogon zizanioides), perennial grass of the family Poaceae, the roots of which contain an oil used in perfumes. Vetiver is native to tropical Asia and has been introduced into the tropics of both hemispheres; it has escaped cultivation and become a weed in some regions. The plant is

  • Khushbagh Cemetery (cemetery, Murshidabad, India)

    Murshidabad: …south, with Muradbagh Palace; and Khushbagh Cemetery, containing the tombs of ?Alī Vardī Khan, the last great nawab, and Sirāj-al-Dawlah, his grandnephew, who was defeated by the British at the Battle of Plassey (Palashi). Constituted a municipality in 1869, Murshidabad has several colleges affiliated with the University of Calcutta. The…

  • Khush?āl Khān Kha?ak (Afghani poet)

    Pashto language: Grammar and literature: The national poet of Afghanistan, Khushhal Khan Khatak (1613–94), wrote spontaneous and forceful poetry of great charm. His grandson Afzal Khan was the author of an early history of the Pashtun.

  • Khusraw (Mughal leader)

    India: Jahāngīr: …led by his eldest son, Khusraw, who was reportedly supported by, among others, the Sikh Guru Arjun. Khusraw was defeated at Lahore and was brought in chains before the emperor. The subsequent execution of the Sikh Guru permanently estranged the Sikhs from the Mughals.

  • Khusraw Khan (Khaljī ruler)

    India: The Tughluqs: …general, a Hindu convert named Khusraw Khan, who had built substantial support among a group of Hindus outside the traditional nobility. Opposition to Khusraw’s rule arose immediately, led by Ghāzī Malik, the warden of the western marches at Deopalpur, and Khusraw was defeated and slain after four months.

  • Khust (city, Ukraine)

    Khust, city, western Ukraine, near the confluence of the Rika and Tisza rivers. It arose in the 10th century as a fortified Rus town. Subsequently it was under the rule of Hungary, the principality of Galicia-Volhynia, and Transylvania before coming under Austrian control in the 18th century.

  • khu?ū?iyyah (Arabic literary concern)

    Arabic literature: The 20th century and beyond: …concern, that of particularity (khu?ū?iyyah), is a telling reflection of the realization among writers and critics throughout the Arabic-speaking world that the region they inhabited was both vast and variegated (with Europe to the north and west as a living example). Debate over this issue, while acknowledging notions of…

  • khutba (Islamic sermon)

    Khutbah, in Islām, the sermon, delivered especially at a Friday service, at the two major Islāmic festivals (?īds), at celebrations of saintly birthdays (mawlids), and on extraordinary occasions. The khutbah probably derived, though without a religious context, from the pronouncements of the k

  • khu?bah (Islamic sermon)

    Khutbah, in Islām, the sermon, delivered especially at a Friday service, at the two major Islāmic festivals (?īds), at celebrations of saintly birthdays (mawlids), and on extraordinary occasions. The khutbah probably derived, though without a religious context, from the pronouncements of the k

  • khutbah (Islamic sermon)

    Khutbah, in Islām, the sermon, delivered especially at a Friday service, at the two major Islāmic festivals (?īds), at celebrations of saintly birthdays (mawlids), and on extraordinary occasions. The khutbah probably derived, though without a religious context, from the pronouncements of the k

  • Khutsuri alphabet (script)

    Georgian language: Asomtavruli evolved into Khutsuri, an ecclesiastical script of 38 letters, including 6 vowels. Neither script is currently in use. Mkhedruli, a lay alphabet originally of 40 letters (7 are now obsolete), 6 of them vowels, is the script commonly used at present in printing and handwriting. All scripts…

  • Khuzama, Al- (Spanish enclave, Morocco)

    Alhucemas, Spanish exclave on the Mediterranean coast of Morocco, comprising a bay, three islets, and a small port. The bay, a semicircular inlet (9 miles [14 km] wide and 5 miles [8 km] long), is protected by Cap Nuevo; its sandy bottom is an extension of the Nekor River alluvial plain. The

  • Khuzdār (Pakistan)

    Khuzdār, town, Balochistān province, southwestern Pakistan. The town lies along the Kolāchi River at the apex of a narrow valley in the Pab (Pubb) Range and lies at an elevation of 4,060 feet (1,237 m) above sea level. It is located on an old caravan route to the Arabian Sea and is surrounded by

  • Khūzestān (geographical region, Iran)

    Khūzestān, geographic region in southwestern Iran, lying at the head of the Persian Gulf and bordering Iraq on the west. It is notable for its oil resources. The area that is now Khūzestān was settled about 6000 bc by a people with affinities to the Sumerians, who came from the Zagros Mountains

  • Khūzī (ancient people)

    Ahvāz: …the Arabic name for the Hūzī (or Khūzī), a local warlike tribe that gave its name to the historical region of Khūzestān. Arab historians of the 12th century described Ahwāz as the centre of a large sugarcane- and rice-growing area irrigated by a system of great canals from a dam…

  • Khuzistan (geographical region, Iran)

    Khūzestān, geographic region in southwestern Iran, lying at the head of the Persian Gulf and bordering Iraq on the west. It is notable for its oil resources. The area that is now Khūzestān was settled about 6000 bc by a people with affinities to the Sumerians, who came from the Zagros Mountains

  • Khū?ī, Abū al-Qāsim al- (Iranian cleric)

    Abolqasem al-Khoei, Iranian-born cleric who, as a grand ayatollah based in the holy city of Al-Najaf, Iraq, was the spiritual leader of millions of Shī?ite Muslims. Khoei studied Persian poetry and religion as a child. At age 13 he was sent to study Islamic law (Sharī?ah) at Al-Najaf, where he

  • Khvājeh (Islam)

    Khoja, caste of Indian Muslims converted from Hinduism to Islam in the 14th century by the Persian pīr (religious leader or teacher) Sa?r-al-Dīn and adopted as members of the Nizārī Ismā?īliyyah sect of the Shī?ites. Forced to feign either Hinduism, Sunni Islam, or Ithnā ?Ashariyyah in order to

  • Khvājeh Abū Na?r Pārsā, shrine of (building, Balkh, Afghanistan)

    Balkh: The shrine of Khvājeh Abū Na?r Pārsā is a remnant of its historic past. Pop. (latest est.) 7,242.

  • Khvājeh Gūgerdak (region, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Resources and power: The Khvājeh Gūgerdak and Yatīm Tāq fields were major producers, with storage and refining facilities. Until the 1990s, pipelines delivered natural gas to Uzbekistan and Tajikistan and to a thermal power plant and chemical fertilizer plant in Mazār-e Sharīf. Petroleum resources, on the other hand, have…

  • Khvalyn Stage (geology)

    Caspian Sea: Geology: …known as Baku, Khazar, and Khvalyn—alternately shrank and expanded. That process left a legacy in the form of peripheral terraces that mark old shorelines and can also be traced in the geologically recent underlying sedimentary layers.

  • Khvalynsk (sea, Eurasia)

    Caspian Sea, world’s largest inland body of water. It lies to the east of the Caucasus Mountains and to the west of the vast steppe of Central Asia. The sea’s name derives from the ancient Kaspi peoples, who once lived in Transcaucasia to the west. Among its other historical names, Khazarsk and

  • Khvatāy-nāmak (Persian literature)

    Khosrow I: Patron of culture.: …Iran were gathered into a Khwatāy-nāmak (“Book of Kings”) in the time of Khosrow and thus provided the source for Ferdowsī’s immortal epic much later. Some of the names found in Ferdowsī’s Shāh-nāmeh appear among the royal family of Khosrow, which indicates at the least an interest on the part…

  • Khvoy (Iran)

    Khoy, city, northwestern Iran. The city is well laid out, with cool streams and lines of willows along broad, regular streets. There are several mosques, an extensive brick bazaar, a fine caravansary, and gardens. Khoy is a trade centre and has been of considerable strategic importance. Fortified

  • Khvylovy, Mykola (Ukrainian author)

    Ukraine: The New Economic Policy and Ukrainization: …literature, in which the writer Mykola Khvylovy employed the slogan “Away from Moscow!” and urged a cultural orientation toward Europe. An important factor in the national revival, despite antireligious propaganda and harassment, was the Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church, which had gained a wide following among the Ukrainian intelligentsia and peasantry…

  • Khwadja Khidr (Islamic mythology)

    Al-Khi?r, (Arabic: contraction of al-Kha?ir, “the Green One”) a legendary Islamic figure endowed with immortal life who became a popular saint, especially among sailors and Sufis (Muslim mystics). The cycle of myths and stories surrounding al-Khi?r originated in a vague narrative in the Qur?ān

  • Khwae Noi River (river, Thailand)

    Khwae Noi River, tributary of the Mae Klong River, flowing wholly in western Thailand. It rises near Three Pagodas Pass (Phra Chedi Sam Ong) on the mountainous Myanmar-Thailand border and runs southeast, parallel to the border, to its confluence near Kanchanaburi town with the Mae Klong, which

  • Khwāja Mu?in al-Din ?asan (Indian mystic)

    Indian philosophy: The ultralogical period: …Muslim Sufi (mystic) saints, including Khwāja Mu?in-ud-Din ?asan, who emphasized asceticism and taught a philosophy that included both love of God and love of humanity.

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