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  • Kid, The (film by Chaplin [1921])

    The Kid, American silent film comedy-drama, released in 1921, that starred Charlie Chaplin in the first feature film with his popular “Little Tramp” character. It elevated Jackie Coogan to the status of the film industry’s first child superstar. A tramp (played by Chaplin) reluctantly rescues a

  • Kid, The (film by D’Onofrio [2019])

    Ethan Hawke: Movies from 2019 included The Kid, wherein Hawke played a sheriff on the trail of a notorious outlaw.

  • Kid, The (novel by Sapphire)

    Sapphire: The Kid (2011)—told from the perspective of Precious’s son following his mother’s death from AIDS complications—received an even more-polarized reception. The novel’s blistering scenes of violence and sexual abuse were characterized by some commentators as brave reflections of a hidden reality, while others saw them…

  • Kidal, Candi (temple, Indonesia)

    Southeast Asian arts: East Javanese period: 927–16th century: …mid-13th century was like is Candi Kidal. The nucleus of the building is a square cell, with slightly projecting porticoes each hooded by an enormous Kala-monster head. But the cell itself is dwarfed both by the massive molded plinth upon which it stands and by the huge tower with which…

  • Kidan (people)

    Khitan, any member of a Mongol people that ruled Manchuria and part of North China from the 10th to the early 12th century under the Liao dynasty. See also

  • Kidd blood group system (physiology)

    Kidd blood group system, classification of human blood based on the presence of glycoproteins known as Kidd (Jk) antigens on the surfaces of red blood cells. The Kidd glycoprotein functions to maintain the osmotic stability of red blood cells by acting as a transporter of urea. Antibodies that bind

  • Kidd, Benjamin (British sociologist)

    sociology: Founding the discipline: …creative thinkers, including Herbert Spencer, Benjamin Kidd, Lewis H. Morgan, E.B. Tylor, and L.T. Hobhouse, developed analogies between human society and the biological organism. They introduced into sociological theory such biological concepts as variance, natural selection, and inheritance—asserting that these evolutionary factors resulted in the progress of societies from stages…

  • Kidd, Jason (American basketball player and coach)

    Jason Kidd, American professional basketball player and coach who is considered one of the greatest point guards in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. When Kidd entered the NBA in 1994, he immediately became one of the most gifted and respected point guards in the game. His ability to

  • Kidd, Jason Frederick (American basketball player and coach)

    Jason Kidd, American professional basketball player and coach who is considered one of the greatest point guards in National Basketball Association (NBA) history. When Kidd entered the NBA in 1994, he immediately became one of the most gifted and respected point guards in the game. His ability to

  • Kidd, Michael (American choreographer and dancer)

    Michael Kidd, (Milton Greenwald), American choreographer (born Aug. 12, 1915, New York, N.Y.—died Dec. 23, 2007, Los Angeles, Calif.), collected five Tony Awards for his stage choreography for Finian’s Rainbow (1947), Guys and Dolls (1951), Can-Can (1953), Li’l Abner (1957), and Destry Rides Again

  • Kidd, William (English pirate)

    William Kidd, 17th-century British privateer and semilegendary pirate who became celebrated in English literature as one of the most colourful outlaws of all time. Fortune seekers have hunted his buried treasure in vain through succeeding centuries. Kidd’s early career is obscure. It is believed he

  • Kidder, Alfred V. (American archaeologist)

    Alfred V. Kidder, foremost American archaeologist of his day involved in the study of the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica, and the force behind the first comprehensive, systematic approach to North American archaeology. Kidder began his career of fieldwork in 1907, with studies in Utah,

  • Kidder, Alfred Vincent (American archaeologist)

    Alfred V. Kidder, foremost American archaeologist of his day involved in the study of the southwestern United States and Mesoamerica, and the force behind the first comprehensive, systematic approach to North American archaeology. Kidder began his career of fieldwork in 1907, with studies in Utah,

  • Kidderminster (carpet)

    floor covering: Nomenclature and types: …the construction method, such as ingrain or Brussels.

  • Kidderminster (England, United Kingdom)

    Kidderminster, town, Wyre Forest district, administrative and historic county of Worcestershire, west-central England. It is situated along the River Stour and the Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. Recorded as Stour-in-Usmere in 736 ce, it was given to the comes (count) Cyneberght by King

  • Kidding (American television series)

    Jim Carrey: …tragedy in the television series Kidding (2018– ). In 2020 Carrey returned to the big screen with the family comedy Sonic the Hedgehog.

  • Kiddush (Judaism)

    Kiddush, Jewish benediction and prayer recited over a cup of wine immediately before the meal on the eve of the sabbath or of a festival; the ceremony acknowledges the sanctity of the day that has just begun. Chanting, or recitation, usually performed by the head of the household, may involve

  • Kidenas (Babylonian astronomer and mathematician)

    Kidinnu, Babylonian astronomer who may have been responsible for what modern scholars call System B, a Babylonian theory that described the speed of the Moon’s motion around the zodiac as increasing gradually and then decreasing gradually in the course of a month, following a regular sawtooth

  • Kidepo Valley National Park (national park, Uganda)

    Kidepo Valley National Park, national park located in northeastern Uganda. The park, which was established in 1962, occupies an area of 540 square miles (1,399 square km) in wooded grasslands and mountainous scenery in the northeastern corner of the country. Its rivers, including the Kidepo river,

  • Kiderlen-W?chter, Alfred von (German statesman)

    Alfred von Kiderlen-W?chter, German statesman and foreign secretary remembered for his role in the Second Moroccan crisis (1911) before World War I. After service in the Franco-German War (1870–71), Kiderlen studied law and entered the Prussian diplomatic service (1879). He was an exponent of the

  • Kidin (Babylonian astronomer and mathematician)

    Kidinnu, Babylonian astronomer who may have been responsible for what modern scholars call System B, a Babylonian theory that described the speed of the Moon’s motion around the zodiac as increasing gradually and then decreasing gradually in the course of a month, following a regular sawtooth

  • Kidin-Khutran (king of Elam)

    ancient Iran: The Middle Elamite period: The Elamites under Kidin-Khutran, the second king after Untash-Gal, countered with a successful and devastating raid on Babylonia. In the end, however, Assyrian power seems to have been too great. Tukulti-Ninurta managed to expand, for a brief time, Assyrian control well to the south in Mesopotamia. Kidin-Khutran faded…

  • Kidinnu (Babylonian astronomer and mathematician)

    Kidinnu, Babylonian astronomer who may have been responsible for what modern scholars call System B, a Babylonian theory that described the speed of the Moon’s motion around the zodiac as increasing gradually and then decreasing gradually in the course of a month, following a regular sawtooth

  • Kidjo, Angélique (Beninese singer)

    Angélique Kidjo, Beninese popular singer known for her collaborations with internationally prominent popular musicians and for her innovative blending of diverse musical styles. Kidjo was born into a family of performing artists. Her father was a musician, and her mother worked as a choreographer

  • Kidman, Nicole (Australian actress)

    Nicole Kidman, American-born Australian actress known for her considerable range and versatility as well as for her glamorous looks and cool demeanour. Kidman was born in Honolulu to Australian parents. She was raised in Sydney and launched her acting career as a teenager. She appeared in

  • Kidnap (film by Prieto [2017])

    Halle Berry: …thrillers The Call (2013) and Kidnap (2017), portraying an emergency call-centre operator attempting to thwart a serial killer and a mother whose son is abducted, respectively. She then appeared in the spy movie Kingsman: The Golden Circle and starred in Kings (both 2017), playing a foster parent living in Los…

  • Kidnapped (novel by Stevenson)

    Kidnapped, novel by Robert Louis Stevenson, first published in serial form in the magazine Young Folks in 1886. Kidnapped and its sequel, Catriona (1893; U.S. title, David Balfour), are both set in Scotland in the mid-1700s. After the death of his father, young David Balfour discovers that his

  • Kidnapped (film by Stevenson [1960])

    Robert Stevenson: Films for Disney: In 1960 Stevenson directed Kidnapped, a popular adaptation of the Robert Louis Stevenson novel; its top-notch cast included Peter Finch, Peter O’Toole, and James MacArthur. Next was The Absent-Minded Professor (1961), which was a huge success at the box office; it starred

  • kidnapping (criminal offense)

    Kidnapping, criminal offense consisting of the unlawful taking and carrying away of a person by force or fraud or the unlawful seizure and detention of a person against his will. The principal motives for kidnapping are to subject the victim to some form of involuntary servitude, to expose him to

  • Kidnapping Act (United Kingdom [1872])

    blackbirding: …of the 1870s—especially the 1872 Pacific Islanders Protection Act (the Kidnapping Act)—provided for agents on British recruiting vessels, stricter licensing procedures, and patrol of British-controlled islands; these measures reduced the incidence of blackbirding by British subjects. Because of the continuing heavy demand for labour in Queensland, however, the practice continued…

  • kidney (anatomy)

    Kidney, in vertebrates and some invertebrates, organ that maintains water balance and expels metabolic wastes. Primitive and embryonic kidneys consist of two series of specialized tubules that empty into two collecting ducts, the Wolffian ducts (see Wolffian duct). The more advanced kidney

  • kidney bean (vegetable)

    bean: …French bean, haricot bean, or kidney bean in various countries; in the United States, however, kidney bean refers to a specific type that is definitely kidney-shaped and is red, dark red, or white. Green beans, anasazi beans, navy beans, black beans, northern beans, kidney beans, pinto beans, and cannellini beans…

  • kidney clearance (medical test)

    renal system: Quantitative tests: The renal clearance of any substance is the volume of plasma containing that amount of the substance that is removed by the kidney in unit time (e.g., in one minute). Clearance, or the volume of plasma cleared, is an artificial concept since no portion of the…

  • kidney dialysis (hemodialysis)

    Dialysis, in medicine, the process of removing blood from a patient whose kidney functioning is faulty, purifying that blood by dialysis, and returning it to the patient’s bloodstream. The artificial kidney, or hemodialyzer, is a machine that provides a means for removing certain undesirable

  • kidney failure

    Kidney failure, partial or complete loss of kidney function. Kidney failure is classified as acute (when the onset is sudden) or chronic. Acute kidney failure results in reduced output of urine, rapidly and abnormally increased levels of nitrogenous substances, potassium, sulfates, and phosphates

  • kidney function test

    Kidney function test, any clinical and laboratory procedure designed to evaluate various aspects of renal (kidney) capacity and efficiency and to aid in the diagnosis of kidney disorders. Such tests can be divided into several categories, which include (1) concentration and dilution tests, whereby

  • kidney pelvis (physiology)

    pregnancy: Urinary tract: …of the kidney, called the kidney pelvis, also becomes dilated. With this dilation of the kidney pelvis and the ureters there is also a loss of tonicity or contractility in the pelvis of the kidney and the ureters. This loss of tonicity during pregnancy is similar to that mentioned in…

  • kidney sinus (anatomy)

    renal system: General description and location: …the kidney known as the renal (kidney) sinus. The hilus is the point of entry and exit of the renal arteries and veins, lymphatic vessels, nerves, and the enlarged upper extension of the ureters.

  • kidney stone (medical disorder)

    Kidney stone, concretion of minerals and organic matter that forms in the kidneys. Such stones may become so large as to impair normal renal function. Urine contains many salts in solution, and if the concentration of mineral salts becomes excessive, the excess salt precipitates as crystals that

  • kidney transplant (medicine)

    Kidney transplant, replacement of a diseased or damaged kidney with a healthy one obtained either from a living relative or a recently deceased person. Kidney transplant is a treatment for persons who have chronic renal failure requiring dialysis. Although kidney transplants were carried out in the

  • kidney tubule (anatomy)

    renal system: Tubule function: The role of the tubules may be assessed by comparing the amounts of various substances in the filtrate and in the urine (Table 2).

  • kidney vetch (plant)

    Kidney vetch, (Anthyllis vulneraria), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), found in meadows, alpine pastures, and dry places of Europe and northern Africa. It was formerly used as a remedy for kidney disorders but is now frequently cultivated in rock gardens. Kidney vetch is a low hairy

  • kido (Korean religion)

    Ch'?ndogyo: …on God, offer prayers (kido) upon leaving and entering their homes, dispel harmful thoughts (e.g., of greed and lust), and worship God in church on Sundays.

  • Kido Kōin (Japanese statesman)

    Kido Takayoshi, one of the heroes of the Meiji Restoration, the overthrow of the 264-year rule by the Tokugawa family and return of power to the Japanese emperor. After the imperial restoration of 1868, Kido became one of the most effective officials in the new government. Born into an i

  • Kido Takayoshi (Japanese statesman)

    Kido Takayoshi, one of the heroes of the Meiji Restoration, the overthrow of the 264-year rule by the Tokugawa family and return of power to the Japanese emperor. After the imperial restoration of 1868, Kido became one of the most effective officials in the new government. Born into an i

  • Kids (film by Clark [1995])

    Larry Clark: …work to filmmaking by directing Kids (1995), a fictionalized account of teenagers involved in a skateboarding and nightclub culture in New York City, which was critically acclaimed, though the film’s powerful and candid portrayal of teenage sexuality and drug abuse made it controversial. Clark went on to make other films,…

  • Kids Are All Right, The (film by Cholodenko [2010])

    Julianne Moore: Movies of the early 21st century: …on her lesbian partner in The Kids Are All Right (2010); and an unhappy woman married to Steve Carell’s character in Crazy, Stupid, Love. (2011).

  • Kidston, Robert (British paleobotanist)

    Robert Kidston, English paleobotanist, noted for his discoveries and descriptions of plant fossils from the Devonian Period (about 416 million to 359 million years ago). Kidston studied botany at the University of Edinburgh, and in 1880 he became honorary paleobotanist to the British Geological

  • Kiebach, Jürgen (German art director)
  • Kiecal, Stanislaus (American boxer)

    Stanley Ketchel, American professional boxer, considered by some boxing historians to be the greatest fighter in the history of the middleweight division. Upon the death of his parents, Ketchel left Michigan and began riding boxcars to the west. He settled in Butte, Montana, and in 1903 he began

  • Kiedis, Anthony (American singer and musician)

    Red Hot Chili Peppers: The original members were vocalist Anthony Kiedis (b. November 1, 1962, Grand Rapids, Michigan, U.S.), bassist Flea (original name Michael Balzary; b. October 16, 1962, Melbourne, Australia), guitarist Hillel Slovak (b. April 13, 1962, Haifa, Israel—d. June 25, 1988, Los Angeles, California, U.S.), and drummer Jack Irons (b. July 18,…

  • Kiefer, Anselm (German painter)

    Anselm Kiefer, German painter who became one of the most prominent figures in the Neo-Expressionist art movement of the late 20th century. Kiefer abandoned his law studies at the University of Freiburg in 1966 to pursue art. He subsequently studied at art academies in Freiburg, Karlsruhe, and

  • Kiejstut (duke of Lithuania)

    K?stutis, grand duke of Lithuania (1381–82) who defended his country’s western borders against the Teutonic Knights. K?stutis was one of the seven sons of Gediminas, the grand duke of Lithuania (reigned 1316–41), who had built that nation into a powerful east European empire. K?stutis fought to

  • Kiel (Germany)

    Kiel, city, capital (1945) of Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), northern Germany. Kiel is a port on both sides of the Kiel Fjord, an inlet of the western Baltic Sea, and lies at the eastern end of the Kiel Canal. The name Kyle (meaning “fjord,” or “spring,” possibly derived from the Anglo-Saxon

  • Kiel Canal (canal, Germany)

    Kiel Canal, waterway in northern Germany, extending eastward for 98 km (61 miles) from Brunsbüttelkoog (on the North Sea, at the mouth of the Elbe River) to Holtenau (at Kiel Harbour on the Baltic Sea). The canal has been enlarged twice and is today 160 metres (526 feet) wide and 11 metres (37

  • Kiel Mutiny (German history)

    World War I: The end of the German war: …with a sailors’ mutiny at Kiel on October 29 in reaction to the naval command’s order for the High Seas Fleet to go out into the North Sea for a conclusive battle. Though the U-boat crews remained loyal, the mutiny of the surface-ship crews spread to other units of the…

  • Kiel Sun-chu (Korean minister)

    Kiel Sun-chu, Presbyterian minister who was one of the most prominent leaders of the early Korean Christian Church. Prior to his conversion to Christianity in 1897, Kiel had been a follower of Son (Zen) Buddhism. He was a member of the first graduation class of the newly founded Presbyterian

  • Kiel, Treaty of (Denmark-Sweden [1814])

    Treaty of Kiel, (Jan. 14, 1814), the peace treaty ending the hostilities between Denmark and Sweden during the Napoleonic Wars. By the treaty, Denmark ceded Norway to Sweden, thus ending the union initiated in 1380 and further reducing Denmark’s status as a Baltic and European power. By the

  • Kielce (Poland)

    Kielce, city, capital of ?wi?tokrzyskie województwo (province), southeastern Poland, lying in the ?wi?tokrzyskie (“Holy Cross”) Mountains. Kielce is located on the Warsaw-Kraków rail line and is a major industrial centre that has metallurgical, machine-making, building materials, and

  • Kielder Reservoir (reservoir, England, United Kingdom)

    Tynedale: The dam at Kielder Reservoir was built on the North Tyne to supplement water flow to industries along the Tyne and by pipeline to the Rivers Wear and Tees; the reservoir is a major recreational resource in the area.

  • Kielland, Alexander Lange (Norwegian writer)

    Alexander Lange Kielland, novelist, short-story writer, and dramatist, one of the “big four” (with Henrik Ibsen, B.M. Bj?rnson, and Jonas Lie) of 19th-century Norwegian literature. The scion of an aristocratic family, Kielland took a law degree in 1871 and purchased a brickyard, which he managed

  • Kielmansegg, Johann-Adolf, Count von (German military officer)

    Johann-Adolf, Count von Kielmansegg, German military officer (born Dec. 30, 1906, Hofgeismar, Ger.—died May 26, 2006, Bonn, Ger.), was the first German commander in chief of NATO forces in Central Europe (1966–68), after having served in the armies of the Weimar Republic, the Third Reich, and W

  • Kiely, Benedict (Irish writer)

    Benedict Kiely, Irish novelist and short-story writer (born Aug. 15, 1919 , near Dromore, County Tyrone, Ire. [now in Northern Ireland]—died Feb. 9, 2007 , Dublin, Ire.), explored everyday life in Ireland, especially after partition in the 1920s, in a rich narrative voice that drew on Irish oral

  • Kiely, Thomas (Irish athlete)

    Olympic Games: St. Louis, Missouri, U.S., 1904: Thomas Kiely of Ireland, who paid his own fare to the Games rather than compete under the British flag, won the gold medal in an early version of the decathlon. Kiely and his competitors performed the 100-yard sprint, shot put, high jump, 880-yard walk, hammer…

  • Kienholz, Edward (American sculptor)

    Edward Kienholz, American self-taught sculptor known for his elaborate found-object assemblages, which convey a harsh scrutiny of American society. Kienholz grew up in a working-class family on a farm in Washington state and learned auto repair, carpentry, and metalwork skills that served his art

  • Kienholz, Nancy Reddin (American mixed-media artist)

    Edward Kienholz: …collaborated with his fifth wife, Nancy Reddin. In 1973 he and his wife began splitting their time between Berlin, where they set up a studio, and Hope, Idaho, where in 1977 they established the Faith and Charity in Hope Gallery. In 1981 he declared in writing in an exhibition catalog…

  • Kienthal Conference (conference, Switzerland)

    Vladimir Lenin: Challenges of the Revolution of 1905 and World War I: …anti-war conferences in Zimmerwald and Kienthal, Switzerland. Lenin failed at both meetings to persuade his comrades to adopt his slogan: “transform the imperialist war into civil war!” They adopted instead the more moderate formula: “An immediate peace without annexations or indemnities and the right of the peoples to self-determination.” Lenin…

  • Kienzle, Raymond Nicholas (American author and director)

    Nicholas Ray, American motion-picture writer and director whose reputation as one of the most expressive and distinctive filmmakers of the late 1940s and the ’50s is grounded on a clutch of stylish heartfelt films that frequently focused on alienated outcasts, including They Live by Night (1948),

  • Kieran the Younger (Irish abbot)

    Saint Ciaran of Clonmacnoise, ; feast day September 9), abbot who was one of the most illustrious founders of monasticism in Ireland. With Saints Columba and Brendan, Ciaran was educated by Abbot St. Finnian at the celebrated Monastery of Clonard. From there he went to the island of Aranmore, in

  • KieranTimberlake (American company)

    KieranTimberlake, American architecture firm based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, that became known for projects emphasizing sustainability, energy efficiency, and the reuse and conservation of existing structures and materials. The firm was founded in 1984 by Stephen Kieran and James Timberlake,

  • Kierkegaard, S?ren (Danish philosopher)

    S?ren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. He attacked the literary, philosophical, and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the highest task of human

  • Kierkegaard, S?ren Aabye (Danish philosopher)

    S?ren Kierkegaard, Danish philosopher, theologian, and cultural critic who was a major influence on existentialism and Protestant theology in the 20th century. He attacked the literary, philosophical, and ecclesiastical establishments of his day for misrepresenting the highest task of human

  • kieselguhr (mineralogy)

    Diatomaceous earth, light-coloured, porous, and friable sedimentary rock that is composed of the siliceous shells of diatoms, unicellular aquatic plants of microscopic size. It occurs in earthy beds that somewhat resemble chalk, but it is much lighter than chalk and will not effervesce in acid.

  • Kieser, Ellwood Eugene (American clergyman and producer)

    Ellwood Eugene Kieser, (“Bud”), American clergyman and film producer (born March 27, 1929, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Sept. 16, 2000, Los Angeles, Calif.), was the Roman Catholic priest who founded (1960) Paulist Productions, the nonprofit company that produced the public-service television series I

  • kieserite (mineral)

    Kieserite, a sulfate mineral, hydrated magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·H2O), that is abundant in evaporite deposits. It often occurs as intergrowths with halite or associated with carnallite and other potassium salts. Sites of occurrence include Stassfurt, Ger.; Ozinki, Russia; western Texas; and New

  • Kiesinger, Kurt Georg (German statesman)

    Kurt Georg Kiesinger, conservative politician and chancellor (1966–69) of the Federal Republic of Germany whose “grand coalition” brought the Social Democratic Party (SPD) into the government for the first time since 1930. Kiesinger was educated at Berlin and Tübingen, after which he began to

  • Kiesler, Frederick John (American architect and sculptor)

    Frederick John Kiesler, Austrian-born American architect, sculptor, and stage designer, best known for his “Endless House,” a womblike, free-form structure. After study at the Technical Academy and the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna, Kiesler worked on a slum clearance and rebuilding project in

  • Kiesler, Hedwig Eva Maria (Austrian-born American actress)

    Hedy Lamarr, Austrian-born American film star who was often typecast as a provocative femme fatale. Years after her screen career ended, she achieved recognition as a noted inventor of a radio communications device. The daughter of a prosperous Viennese banker, Lamarr was privately tutored from age

  • Kie?lowski, Krzysztof (Polish director)

    Krzysztof Kie?lowski, leading Polish director of documentaries, feature films, and television films of the 1970s, ’80s, and ’90s that explore the social and moral themes of contemporary times. Kie?lowski studied theatre technology in Warsaw, and in 1968 he graduated from the State Theatrical and

  • Kieta (Papua New Guinea)

    Kieta, town, southeast coast of Bougainville Island, Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. The former administrative centre of Bougainville Island, it is situated on Arawa Bay (Rawa Harbour) and is a port of call with a long wharf for coastal and Australian shipping. The town trades chiefly

  • Kiev (Ukrainian football team)

    Dynamo Kiev, Ukrainian professional football (soccer) team located in Kiev. Dynamo Kiev was one of the strongest teams in the former Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) and is the dominant team in the Ukrainian league. In 1923 a system of sports and physical education clubs and

  • Kiev (national capital, Ukraine)

    Kyiv, chief city and capital of Ukraine. A port on the Dnieper (Dnipro) River and a large railroad junction, it is a city with an ancient and proud history. As the centre of Kyivan (Kievan) Rus, the first eastern Slavic state, 1,000 years ago, it acquired the title “Mother of Rus Cities.” It was

  • Kiev Academy (school, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Eastern Orthodoxy: Origin of the Muscovite patriarchate: …the modern period, the famous Academy of Kiev. Modelled after the Latin seminaries of Poland, with instruction given in Latin, this school served as the theological training centre for almost the entire Russian high clergy in the 17th and 18th centuries. In 1686 Ukraine was finally reunited with Muscovy, and…

  • Kiev Chronicle (Russian literature)

    The Russian Primary Chronicle, medieval Kievan Rus historical work that gives a detailed account of the early history of the eastern Slavs to the second decade of the 12th century. The chronicle, compiled in Kiev about 1113, was based on materials taken from Byzantine chronicles, west and south

  • Kiev T. H. Shevchenko State University (university, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Kyiv: Kyiv under the tsars: …University of Kyiv (now the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), which had been established in 1834.

  • Kiev, University of (university, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Kyiv: Kyiv under the tsars: …University of Kyiv (now the Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv), which had been established in 1834.

  • Kievan Mohyla Academy (school, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Ukraine: The autonomous hetman state and Sloboda Ukraine: …under his patronage, and the Kyivan Mohyla Academy experienced its golden age. Mazepa aspired to annex the Right Bank and re-create a united Ukrainian state, initially still under the tsar’s sovereignty. But Peter’s centralizing reforms and the exactions imposed on the Hetmanate in connection with the Second Northern War appeared…

  • Kievo-Pecherska Lavra (monastery, Kiev, Ukraine)

    Anthony of Kiev: …for the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra (Monastery of the Caves), an institution that later acquired a reputation as the cradle of Russian monasticism. Reverting to his Athonite training, he sent to Constantinople (modern Istanbul) for architects to construct the new monastery complex at the mountain.

  • Kievo-Pechersky paterik (Old Russian document)

    Russian literature: The Kievan period: The Kievo-Pechersky paterik (The Paterik of the Kievan Caves Monastery), closely related to hagiography, collects stories from the lives of monks, along with other religious writings. A saint’s life of quite a different sort, Zhitiye Aleksandra Nevskogo (“Life of Alexandr Nevsky”) (d. 1263), celebrates a pious warrior prince.…

  • Kievsky, Daniil (Russian author)

    Daniel Of Kiev, the earliest known Russian travel writer, whose account of his pilgrimage to the Holy Land is the earliest surviving record in Russian of such a trip. Abbot of a Russian monastery, he visited Palestine probably during 1106–07. His narrative begins at Constantinople; from there he

  • kif (drug)

    Hashish, hallucinogenic drug preparation derived from the resin secreted by the flowering tops of cultivated female plants of the genus Cannabis. More loosely, in Arabic-speaking countries the term may denote a preparation made from any of various parts of cannabis plants—such as the leaves or

  • KIFAP3 (gene)

    amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Diagnosis and treatment: …variation in a gene called KIFAP3 that appears to slow the rate of progression of the disease. In fact, in those persons with ALS who carry this genetic variant, survival may be extended by as much as 40–50 percent.

  • Kifri (Turkey)

    World War I: The Turkish fronts, 1918: …meanwhile, the British had taken Kifrī, north of the Diyālā left-bank tributary of the Tigris, in January 1918, and Khān al-Baghdā?ī, up the Euphrates, in March. Pressing northward from Kifrī, they took Kirkūk in May but soon evacuated it.

  • kifwebe (African mask)

    African art: Luba cultural area: …group is known for its kifwebe masks, which combine human and animal features painted in red, black, and white.

  • Kigali (national capital, Rwanda)

    Kigali, city and capital of Rwanda. It is located in the centre of the country on the Ruganwa River. Kigali was a trade centre (after 1895) during the German colonial administration and became a regional centre during the Belgian colonial period (1919–62). It became the capital upon Rwanda’s

  • Kigelia africana (plant)

    Sausage tree, (Kigelia africana), tropical tree, the only species of its genus (family Bignoniaceae). It grows 6 to 12 metres (20 to 40 feet) tall and bears sausagelike fruits, 30 to 60 cm (1 to 2 feet) long, which hang down on long, cordlike stalks. It is native to Africa. The tree’s flowers,

  • Kigen Dōgen (Japanese Buddhist monk)

    Dōgen, leading Japanese Buddhist during the Kamakura period (1192–1333), who introduced Zen to Japan in the form of the Sōtō school (Chinese: Ts’ao-tung). A creative personality, he combined meditative practice and philosophical speculation. Dōgen was born into a family of the court nobility and

  • Kigeri IV (king of Rwanda)

    eastern Africa: Rwanda and Buganda: …under its mwami, or ruler, Kigeri IV (who reorganized its military forces) it extended its control by raiding to the north.

  • Kigeri IV Rwabugiri (king of Rwanda)

    eastern Africa: Rwanda and Buganda: …under its mwami, or ruler, Kigeri IV (who reorganized its military forces) it extended its control by raiding to the north.

  • Kigeri Rwabugiri (king of Rwanda)

    eastern Africa: Rwanda and Buganda: …under its mwami, or ruler, Kigeri IV (who reorganized its military forces) it extended its control by raiding to the north.

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