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  • Kim Ok-Kyun (Korean leader)

    First Sino-Japanese War: In that year, Kim Ok-Kyun, the pro-Japanese Korean leader of the 1884 coup, was lured to Shanghai and assassinated, probably by agents of Yuan Shikai. His body was then put aboard a Chinese warship and sent back to Korea, where it was quartered and displayed as a warning…

  • Kim Pu-Shik (Korean writer)

    Korean literature: Early Kory?: 935 ce to the 12th century: Kim Pu-Shik strove to write in the classical mode and took as his model the Confucian canon. In contrast, Kim Hwang-W?n and Ch?ng Chi-Sang sought a literature that stressed beautiful fervent expression.

  • Kim Sang-Man (South Korean publisher)

    Kim Sang-Man, Korean publisher (born Jan. 19, 1910, Puan, North Cholla province, Korea—died Jan. 26, 1994, Seoul, South Korea), as the publisher of Dong-A Ilbo, the country’s most influential newspaper, was an intrepid defender of the freedom of the press. While conforming to the press ce

  • Kim Shi-S?p (Korean author)

    Kim Sis?p, Korean author during the early Choson period (1392–1598). His five stories contained in the K?mo sinwha (“New Stories from Golden Turtle Mountain”) are written in Chinese in the tradition of the ch’uan-ch’i. The subject material of these stories include love affairs between mortals and

  • Kim Sis?p (Korean author)

    Kim Sis?p, Korean author during the early Choson period (1392–1598). His five stories contained in the K?mo sinwha (“New Stories from Golden Turtle Mountain”) are written in Chinese in the tradition of the ch’uan-ch’i. The subject material of these stories include love affairs between mortals and

  • Kim Song-Ju (president of North Korea)

    Kim Il-Sung, communist leader of North Korea from 1948 until his death in 1994. He was the country’s premier from 1948 to 1972, chairman of its dominant Korean Workers’ Party from 1949, and president and head of state from 1972. Kim was the son of parents who fled to Manchuria during his childhood

  • Kim Soon-Kwon (South Korean agricultural scientist)

    Kim Soon-Kwon, South Korean agricultural scientist who developed hybrid corn (maize) that significantly increased crop production in North Korea and South Korea. After graduating from Ulsan Agricultural High School and Kyungpook National University, Taegu, Kim earned a master’s degree from Korea

  • Kim Sou-hwan, Stephen Cardinal (South Korean prelate)

    Stephen Cardinal Kim Sou-hwan, South Korean prelate (born May 8, 1922, Taegu, Korea—died Feb. 16, 2009, Seoul, S.Kor.), was South Korea’s first Roman Catholic cardinal and an outspoken proponent of democracy during the 1970s and ’80s, a time when the country was led by military dictators. Kim

  • Kim Sow?l (Korean poet)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: The nature and folk poet Kim Sow?l used simplicity, directness, and terse phrasing to good effect. Many of his poems in Chindallaekkot (1925; “Azaleas”) were set to music.

  • Kim Trang (Cambodian government official)

    Ieng Sary, (Kim Trang), Cambodian government official (born Oct. 24, 1925, Tra Ninh province, Vietnam, French Indochina—died March 14, 2013, Phnom Penh, Camb.), was denounced as one of those responsible for the deaths of more than a million people during Pol Pot’s brutal Khmer Rouge rule (1975–79)

  • Kim Van Kieu (poem by Nguyen Du)

    Nguyen Du: …translation by Huynh Sanh Thong, The Tale of Kieu: The Classic Vietnamese Verse Novel; 1973). As an exploration of the Buddhist doctrine of karmic retribution for individual sins, his poem expresses his personal suffering and deep humanism. He also wrote “Words of a Young Hat Seller,” a shorter poem in…

  • Kim Woo Choong (South Korean businessman)

    Kim Woo Choong, Korean businessman and founder of the Daewoo Group. Kim’s actions leading up to Daewoo’s eventual bankruptcy led to his fleeing the country and to his eventual prosecution on fraud charges. Kim came of age during the Korean War (1950–53) and at age 14 found himself responsible for

  • Kim Yo-Jong (North Korean political personality)

    Kim Jong-Un: Leader of North Korea: Kim’s sister, Kim Yo-Jong, attended the games, becoming the first member of North Korea’s ruling family to visit the South since the end of the Korean War. In a historic meeting with Moon on February 10, Yo-Jong delivered a handwritten note from her brother that invited the…

  • Kim Yong (American physician and anthropologist)

    Jim Yong Kim, American physician and anthropologist who was the 12th president of the World Bank (2012–19). Kim’s father was a dentist, and his mother was a scholar of neo-Confucianism. When he was five years old, the family emigrated from South Korea to the United States, eventually settling in

  • Kim Young-Sam (president of South Korea)

    Kim Young-Sam, South Korean politician, moderate opposition leader, and president from 1993 to 1998. Kim graduated from Seoul National University in 1952 and was first elected to the National Assembly in 1954. A centrist liberal, he was successively reelected until 1979, when he was expelled (on

  • Kim Yuna (South Korean figure skater)

    Kim Yuna, South Korean figure skater who won a gold medal at the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver. Kim began skating at age six and gained her first international experience in 2002, when she competed in and won the Triglav Trophy competition at the novice level in Jesenice, Slovenia. In 2003

  • Kim, Andrew (Korean priest)

    Saint Kim Dae-g?n, ; feast day September 20), the first Korean Catholic priest. The son of Korean converts to Roman Catholicism, Kim received religious training in the Portuguese colony of Macau and was ordained in Shanghai in 1845 by Bishop Jean Ferréol. Much of his short life was spent traveling

  • Kim, Helen (Korean educator)

    Christianity: Missions to Asia: Helen Kim, a Korean graduate of Ewha College, built that institution into the world’s largest women’s university, and Sun Myung Moon founded the Unification Church, which teaches a unique Christian theology.

  • Kim, Jaegwon (American philosopher)

    philosophy of mind: Functionalism: …influential articles, the American philosopher Jaegwon Kim argued for an “exclusion principle” according to which, if a functional property is in fact different from the physical properties that are causally sufficient to explain everything that happens, then it is superfluous, just as are the epiphenomenal angels that push around the…

  • Kim, Jim Yong (American physician and anthropologist)

    Jim Yong Kim, American physician and anthropologist who was the 12th president of the World Bank (2012–19). Kim’s father was a dentist, and his mother was a scholar of neo-Confucianism. When he was five years old, the family emigrated from South Korea to the United States, eventually settling in

  • Kimball, Fiske (American architect and museum director)

    Philadelphia Museum of Art: …1925 architect and architectural historian Fiske Kimball was appointed director of the museum, a position he held for 30 years. Under his direction the collection moved into its building on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in 1928. One of Kimball’s major contributions to the new museum’s collections was its highly authentic…

  • Kimball, Florence Page (American singer)

    Leontyne Price: …under the former concert singer Florence Page Kimball, who remained her coach in later years. Her debut took place in April 1952 in a Broadway revival of Four Saints in Three Acts by Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein. Her performance in that production, which subsequently traveled to Paris, prompted Ira…

  • Kimball, Kay (American industrialist)

    Kimbell Art Museum: , founded by Kay Kimbell, an industrialist and art patron. Kimbell and his wife established the Kimbell Art Foundation in the 1930s and began collecting paintings. Upon his death in 1964 Kimbell’s estate went to the foundation for the establishment of a museum. Designed by the architect Louis…

  • Kimball, Mary Morton (American reformer)

    Mary Morton Kimball Kehew, American reformer who worked to improve the living and working conditions of mid-19th-century workingwomen in Boston, especially through labour union participation. In 1886 Kehew joined the Women’s Educational and Industrial Union of Boston, an early and somewhat

  • Kimball, Ward (American animator)

    Ward Kimball, American animator (born March 4, 1914, Minneapolis, Minn.—died July 8, 2002, Arcadia, Calif.), was among the “Nine Old Men” who made Walt Disney Studios the leader of film cartoons by drawing or directing the animation of classic features and shorts (including Dumbo, Fantasia, Peter P

  • Kimbangu, Simon (African religious leader)

    Simon Kimbangu, Congolese religious leader who founded a separatist church known as the Kimbanguist church. Brought up in a British Baptist Missionary Society mission, Kimbangu suddenly became famous among the Bakongo people of Lower Congo in April 1921. He was reputed to heal the sick and raise

  • Kimbanguism (African religion)

    Kimbanguist Church, (“Church of Jesus Christ on Earth Through the Prophet Simon Kimbangu”), largest independent African church and the first to be admitted (in 1969) to the World Council of Churches. It takes its name from its founder, Simon Kimbangu, a Baptist mission catechist of the Lower C

  • Kimbanguist Church (African religion)

    Kimbanguist Church, (“Church of Jesus Christ on Earth Through the Prophet Simon Kimbangu”), largest independent African church and the first to be admitted (in 1969) to the World Council of Churches. It takes its name from its founder, Simon Kimbangu, a Baptist mission catechist of the Lower C

  • Kimbe (Papua New Guinea)

    Kimbe, port on the north-central coast of New Britain Island, Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. Located in an area of cones, domes, and alluvial fans of volcanic origin, the town lies along Stettin Bay, an inlet of Kimbe Bay. Palm oil is extracted at a factory near Kimbe and shipped

  • Kimbell Art Museum (museum, Fort Worth, Texas, United States)

    Kimbell Art Museum, collection of world art in a classic modern building, in Fort Worth, Texas, U.S., founded by Kay Kimbell, an industrialist and art patron. Kimbell and his wife established the Kimbell Art Foundation in the 1930s and began collecting paintings. Upon his death in 1964 Kimbell’s

  • Kimberley (British Columbia, Canada)

    Kimberley, city, southeastern British Columbia, Canada. It is situated near St. Mary River, just northwest of Cranbrook. Built on the rolling slopes of the Sullivan and North Star hills, Kimberley is Canada’s highest city (3,662 feet [1,116 metres]). The community dates from 1892, when the

  • Kimberley (South Africa)

    Kimberley, city, diamond-mining centre, and capital of Northern Cape province, South Africa. It lies near the Free State province border. Founded after the discovery of diamonds on farms in the area in 1869–71, the mining camp of Kimberley grew as a result of the intensive digging of the

  • Kimberley (region, Australia)

    Kimberley, plateau region of northern Western Australia, extending from the rugged northwest Indian Ocean coast south to the Fitzroy River and east to the Ord River. The plateau has an area of about 162,000 square miles (420,000 square km). It is composed chiefly of sandstone with patches of basalt

  • Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company (South African company)

    Barney Barnato: …other companies to form the Kimberley Central Diamond Mining Company, which, along with the Compagnie Fran?aise des Mines de Diamant du Cap, seriously challenged Cecil Rhodes’s De Beers Mining Company (see De Beers S.A.).

  • Kimberley Plateau (region, Australia)

    Kimberley, plateau region of northern Western Australia, extending from the rugged northwest Indian Ocean coast south to the Fitzroy River and east to the Ord River. The plateau has an area of about 162,000 square miles (420,000 square km). It is composed chiefly of sandstone with patches of basalt

  • Kimberley Process (diamond certification)

    Kimberley Process, a certification scheme, active since 2003, that attempts to halt the trade in so-called blood diamonds (rough diamonds sold to finance civil wars) and to protect the legitimate diamond trade. It has 49 participants (48 individual states plus the 27-member European Union), which

  • Kimberley Science and Conservation Strategy (Australian program)

    Australia: Conservation: The Western Australian government’s Kimberley Science and Conservation Strategy provided funding for scientific research that supports the management of these protected areas and for the creation of new parks jointly managed by Aboriginal groups. Among the land management practices employed is controlled burning along with feral animal and weed…

  • Kimberley-Elsburg Series (geology)

    Witwatersrand System: …Main-Bird Series, followed by the Kimberley-Elsburg Series. The Government Reef Series consists of alternating shales and quartzites in addition to pebbly layers that contain gold deposits; it also contains indications of a period of extensive glaciation. The most economically important series is the Main-Bird Series, largely quartzitic conglomerates that are…

  • Kimberleys (region, Australia)

    Kimberley, plateau region of northern Western Australia, extending from the rugged northwest Indian Ocean coast south to the Fitzroy River and east to the Ord River. The plateau has an area of about 162,000 square miles (420,000 square km). It is composed chiefly of sandstone with patches of basalt

  • kimberlite (rock)

    Kimberlite, a dark-coloured, heavy, often altered and brecciated (fragmented), intrusive igneous rock that contains diamonds in its rock matrix. It has a porphyritic texture, with large, often rounded crystals (phenocrysts) surrounded by a fine-grained matrix (groundmass). It is a mica peridotite,

  • kimberlite eruption (volcanism)

    Kimberlite eruption, small but powerful volcanic eruption caused by the rapid ascent of kimberlites—a type of intrusive igneous rock originating in the asthenosphere—through the lithosphere and onto the surface of the Earth. Kimberlites are thought to rise through a series of fissures in the rock.

  • Kimble, Gregory Adams (American psychologist)

    learning theory: Kimble may be considered representative: Learning is a relatively permanent change in a behavioral potentiality that occurs as a result of reinforced practice. Although the definition is useful, it still leaves problems.

  • Kimbolton of Kimbolton, Edward Montagu, Baron (British general)

    Edward Montagu, 2nd earl of Manchester, Parliamentary general in the English Civil Wars. Son of the 1st earl, Henry Montagu, he was educated at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge. He sat in Parliament from 1624 to 1626 and in the latter year was raised to the peerage as Baron Kimbolton, but he was

  • Kimbro, Warren Aloysious (American activist)

    Warren Aloysious Kimbro, American activist (born April 29, 1934, New Haven, Conn.—died Feb. 3, 2009, New Haven), as a member of the revolutionary Black Panthers, took part in May 1969 in the torture and murder of Alex Rackley, whom the Panthers wrongly suspected of being a police informant. Kimbro

  • Kimbrough, David (American musician)

    David Kimbrough, American blues musician who performed in Mississippi juke joints and at parties for over 30 years before attracting national attention when the 1992 documentary Deep Blues featured his music; he later released three albums on the Fat Possum label (b. July 28, 1930, Hudsonville,

  • Kimbrough, Junior (American musician)

    David Kimbrough, American blues musician who performed in Mississippi juke joints and at parties for over 30 years before attracting national attention when the 1992 documentary Deep Blues featured his music; he later released three albums on the Fat Possum label (b. July 28, 1930, Hudsonville,

  • Kimbu (people)

    eastern Africa: Pressure on the southern chieftainships: …rulership; and also among the Kimbu, where, between 1870 and 1884, Nyungu and his ruga-rugas (or bands of warriors) created a dominion that survived his death.

  • Kimbundu (people)

    Mbundu, second largest ethnolinguistic group of Angola, comprising a diversity of peoples who speak Kimbundu, a Bantu language. Numbering about 2,420,000 in the late 20th century, they occupy much of north-central Angola and live in the area from the coastal national capital of Luanda eastward,

  • Kimbundu language

    Angola: Cultural milieu: …stature who resided locally spoke Kimbundu, often in preference to Portuguese. In the 19th century the Luanda elite embraced both Kimbundu and Portuguese culture and language and valued their blended nature, and the eventual cessation of Kimbundu as the language of the elite did not occur until after 1910. In…

  • Kimch’aek (North Korea)

    Kimch’aek, city, North Hamgy?ng do (province), eastern North Korea. It is on the estuary of the Namdae River, along the East Sea (Sea of Japan). Protected by promontories, it has a good natural harbour and is a port city. Formerly a poor fishing village, it began to develop when it became an open

  • Kimch’?n (South Korea)

    Kimch’?n, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), south-central South Korea. It lies about 40 miles (65 km) northwest of Taegu (Daegu). During the Ch?son (Yi) dynasty (1392–1910) the city was one of the most important market towns of the country. It is now a service centre for the

  • Kimche, David (British-born Israeli spy and diplomat)

    David Kimche, British-born Israeli spy and diplomat (born 1928, London, Eng.—died March 8, 2010, Ramat Hasharon, Israel), held leading positions in Israel’s intelligence agency, Mossad, and in the country’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and was deeply involved in many of Israel’s foreign intrigues.

  • kimchee (food)

    Kimchi, spicy, fermented pickle that invariably accompanies a Korean meal. The vegetables most commonly used in its preparation are celery cabbage, Chinese turnip, and cucumber. The prepared vegetables are sliced, highly seasoned with red pepper, onion, and garlic, and fermented in brine in large

  • kimchi (food)

    Kimchi, spicy, fermented pickle that invariably accompanies a Korean meal. The vegetables most commonly used in its preparation are celery cabbage, Chinese turnip, and cucumber. The prepared vegetables are sliced, highly seasoned with red pepper, onion, and garlic, and fermented in brine in large

  • Kimchi, David (European scholar)

    David Kimhi, European scholar of the Hebrew language whose writings on Hebrew lexicography and grammar became standard works in the Middle Ages and whose reputation eclipsed that of both his father, Joseph Kimhi, and his brother, Moses, a grammarian. As a boy David Kimhi learned his father’s

  • Kimchi, Joseph (European grammarian)

    Joseph Kimhi, European grammarian, biblical exegete, and poet who, with his sons, Moses and David, made fundamental contributions to establishing Hebrew-language studies. Through his many translations into Hebrew of works written in Arabic by Spanish Jews, Kimhi came to play a principal part in

  • Kimchi, Moses (European scholar)

    Moses Kimhi, European author of an influential Hebrew grammar, Mahalakh shevile ha-da?at (“Journey on the Paths of Knowledge”). The elder son of the grammarian and biblical exegete Joseph Kimhi and teacher of his more renowned brother, David Kimhi, he shared with them the accomplishment of

  • Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents (law case)

    Kimel v. Florida Board of Regents, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court on January 11, 2000, struck down (5–4) a 1974 amendment to the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) of 1967 that abrogated the general immunity of states under the Eleventh Amendment to lawsuits by individuals to

  • Kimen (work by Vesaas)

    Tarjei Vesaas: …awareness mark his Kimen (1940; The Seed), which shows how hatred is stirred up by mass psychology, and Huset i m?rkret (1945; “House in Darkness”), a symbolic vision of the Nazi occupation of Norway. Fuglane (1957; The Birds), considered his greatest work (and later filmed), pleads for tolerance toward the…

  • Kimhi, David (European scholar)

    David Kimhi, European scholar of the Hebrew language whose writings on Hebrew lexicography and grammar became standard works in the Middle Ages and whose reputation eclipsed that of both his father, Joseph Kimhi, and his brother, Moses, a grammarian. As a boy David Kimhi learned his father’s

  • Kimhi, Joseph (European grammarian)

    Joseph Kimhi, European grammarian, biblical exegete, and poet who, with his sons, Moses and David, made fundamental contributions to establishing Hebrew-language studies. Through his many translations into Hebrew of works written in Arabic by Spanish Jews, Kimhi came to play a principal part in

  • Kim?i, Joseph (European grammarian)

    Joseph Kimhi, European grammarian, biblical exegete, and poet who, with his sons, Moses and David, made fundamental contributions to establishing Hebrew-language studies. Through his many translations into Hebrew of works written in Arabic by Spanish Jews, Kimhi came to play a principal part in

  • Kimhi, Moses (European scholar)

    Moses Kimhi, European author of an influential Hebrew grammar, Mahalakh shevile ha-da?at (“Journey on the Paths of Knowledge”). The elder son of the grammarian and biblical exegete Joseph Kimhi and teacher of his more renowned brother, David Kimhi, he shared with them the accomplishment of

  • Kimi no na wa (film by Oba [1953])

    Shōchiku Co., Ltd.: The company did produce, however, Kimi no na wa (1953–54; “What Is Your Name?”), the most lucrative film in postwar Japan. The profits were used to modernize the studio and to establish the Shōchiku Motion Picture Science Institute, which took as its object of study the technical challenges of filmmaking.…

  • Kīmiya-yi sa?ādat (work by al-Ghazālī)

    Persian literature: Classical prose: The Kīmiya-yi sa?ādat (after 1096; The Alchemy of Happiness) by the theologian and mystic al-Ghazālī, for instance, is one such work: it is a condensed version of the author’s own work in Arabic on Islamic ethics, the I?yā? ?ulūm al-dīn (The Revival of Religious Sciences). Written in a lively conversational…

  • kimkhwāb (cloth)

    Kimkhwāb, Indian brocade woven of silk and gold or silver thread. The word kimkhwāb, derived from the Persian, means “a little dream,” a reference perhaps to the intricate patterns employed; kimkhwāb also means “woven flower,” an interpretation that appears more applicable to the brocade, in view

  • Kimmel, Husband Edward (United States Navy officer)

    Pearl Harbor attack: Warnings and responses: Husband E. Kimmel and Lieut. Gen. Walter C. Short, who shared command at Pearl Harbor, were warned of the possibility of war, specifically on October 16 and again on November 24 and 27. The notice of November 27, to Kimmel, began, “This dispatch is to…

  • Kimmel, James Christian (American comedian and talk-show host)

    Jimmy Kimmel, American late-night talk-show personality, producer, and comedian best known as the host of Jimmy Kimmel Live! (2003– ). Kimmel was raised in Las Vegas, where he spent his childhood cultivating a love of pranks and practical jokes, which served as unlikely training for future

  • Kimmel, Jimmy (American comedian and talk-show host)

    Jimmy Kimmel, American late-night talk-show personality, producer, and comedian best known as the host of Jimmy Kimmel Live! (2003– ). Kimmel was raised in Las Vegas, where he spent his childhood cultivating a love of pranks and practical jokes, which served as unlikely training for future

  • Kimmelman, Sydney (American astrologer)

    Sydney Omarr, (Sidney Kimmelman), American astrologer (born Aug. 5, 1926, Philadelphia, Pa.—died Jan. 2, 2003, Santa Monica, Calif.), took up his profession at the age of 15 and became probably the most widely read horoscope writer in the world. He wrote 13 books a year, one for each sign of the z

  • Kimmelstiel-Wilson disease (medical disorder)

    Diabetic nephropathy, deterioration of kidney function occurring as a complication of diabetes mellitus. The condition is characterized primarily by increased urinary excretion of the protein albumin, increased blood pressure, and reduced glomerular filtration rate (the average rate at which wastes

  • Kimmeridgian Stage (stratigraphy)

    Kimmeridgian Stage, middle of three divisions of the Upper Jurassic Series, representing all rocks formed worldwide during the Kimmeridgian Age, which occurred between 157.3 million and 152.1 million years ago during the Jurassic Period. The Kimmeridgian Stage overlies the Oxfordian Stage and

  • kimono (clothing)

    Kimono, garment worn by Japanese men and women from the Hakuhō (Early Nara) period (645–710) to the present. Derived from the Chinese pao-style robe, the essential kimono is an ankle-length gown with long, expansive sleeves and a V-neck. It has neither buttons nor ties, being lapped left over right

  • Kimpech (Mexico)

    Campeche, city, port on the Gulf of Mexico, and capital of Campeche estado (state), southeastern Mexico. It lies on the Yucatán Peninsula at the western end of a fertile plain in a natural amphitheatre formed by hills overlooking the Bay of Campeche. The Spanish town was founded in 1540 on the site

  • Kimry (Russia)

    Kimry, city and centre of a rayon (sector), Tver oblast (region), western Russia. The old part of the city, situated on the high left (west) bank of the Volga River, is a centre of traditional handicrafts, especially of leatherworking, shoes, and hosiery. Kimry, a river port, was incorporated in

  • Kimsey, James Verlin (American entrepreneur)

    Jim Kimsey, (James Verlin Kimsey), American entrepreneur (born Sept. 15, 1939, Washington, D.C.—died March 1, 2016, McLean, Va.), was a cofounder (with Steve Case) of America Online (since 2006 AOL), at one time the world’s largest Internet service provider. Kimsey graduated (1962) from the United

  • Kimsey, Jim (American entrepreneur)

    Jim Kimsey, (James Verlin Kimsey), American entrepreneur (born Sept. 15, 1939, Washington, D.C.—died March 1, 2016, McLean, Va.), was a cofounder (with Steve Case) of America Online (since 2006 AOL), at one time the world’s largest Internet service provider. Kimsey graduated (1962) from the United

  • Kimvita (dialect)

    Swahili language: …the mainland areas of Tanzania; kiMvita (or Kimvita), spoken in Mombasa and other areas of Kenya; and kiAmu (or Kiamu), spoken on the island of Lamu and adjoining parts of the coast. Standard Swahili is based on the kiUnguja dialect.

  • kin (musical instrument)

    Koto, long Japanese board zither having 13 silk strings and movable bridges. The body of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and is about 190 cm (74 inches) long. When the performer is kneeling or seated on the floor, the koto is held off the floor by two legs or a bridge-storage box; in most

  • kin

    Kinship, system of social organization based on real or putative family ties. The modern study of kinship can be traced back to mid-19th-century interests in comparative legal institutions and philology. In the late 19th century, however, the cross-cultural comparison of kinship institutions became

  • kin altruism (behaviour)

    Kin selection, a type of natural selection that considers the role relatives play when evaluating the genetic fitness of a given individual. It is based on the concept of inclusive fitness, which is made up of individual survival and reproduction (direct fitness) and any impact that an individual

  • Kin dynasty (China [221–207 bc])

    Qin dynasty, dynasty that established the first great Chinese empire. The Qin—which lasted only from 221 to 207 bce but from which the name China is derived—established the approximate boundaries and basic administrative system that all subsequent Chinese dynasties were to follow for the next two

  • kin recognition (behaviour)

    animal social behaviour: The proximate mechanisms of social behaviour: Kin recognition systems also play a role in contexts where it pays to favour close over distant kin. The three mechanisms of kin recognition are the use of environmental cues, prior experience, and phenotype matching (that is, looking or smelling right). Examples can be found…

  • kin selection (behaviour)

    Kin selection, a type of natural selection that considers the role relatives play when evaluating the genetic fitness of a given individual. It is based on the concept of inclusive fitness, which is made up of individual survival and reproduction (direct fitness) and any impact that an individual

  • Kin-kang (Buddhist mythological figure)

    Vajrapā?i, in Mahāyāna Buddhist mythology, one of the celestial bodhisattvas (“Buddhas-to-be”), the manifestation of the self-born Buddha Ak?obhya. Vajrapā?i (Sanskrit: Thunderbolt-Bearer) is believed to be the protector of the nāgas (half-man, half-serpent deities) and sometimes assumes the shape

  • Kinabalu, Mount (mountain, Malaysia)

    Mount Kinabalu, highest peak in the Malay Archipelago, rising to 13,455 feet (4,101 m) in north-western East Malaysia (North Borneo). Lying near the centre of the Crocker Range, the massif gently emerges from a level plain and abruptly rises from a rocky slope into a great, barren, flat-topped

  • Kinabatangan River (river, Malaysia)

    Kinabatangan River, longest river in northeastern East Malaysia (North Borneo). It rises in the eastern Witti Range, where it begins its 350-mile (563-kilometre) northeasterly course. Traversing for the most part a broad, heavily forested plain, the river culminates in a wide delta at the Sulu Sea

  • kinaesthetic sense (sensory phenomenon)

    human sensory reception: Kinesthetic (motion) sense: Even with the eyes closed, one is aware of the positions of his legs and arms and can perceive the movement of a limb and its direction. The term kinesthesis (“feeling of motion”) has been coined for this sensibility.

  • Kinai (Japanese dialect)

    Japan: Languages: …a vigorous influx of the Kamigata (Kinai) subdialect, which was the foundation of standard Japanese. Among the Western subdialects, the Kinki version was long the standard language of Japan, although the present Kamigata subdialect of the Kyōto-ōsaka region is of relatively recent origin. The Kyushu subdialects have been placed outside…

  • Kinanah (Arabian tribe)

    Kindah: Taghlib, Qays, and Kinānah—each led by a Kindah prince. The tribes feuded constantly, and, after about the middle of the 6th century, the Kindah princes were forced by the local tribesmen to withdraw once more to southern Arabia.

  • kinase (enzyme)

    Kinase, an enzyme that adds phosphate groups (PO43?) to other molecules. A large number of kinases exist—the human genome contains at least 500 kinase-encoding genes. Included among these enzymes’ targets for phosphate group addition (phosphorylation) are proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. For

  • Kincaid, Jamaica (Caribbean American author)

    Jamaica Kincaid, Caribbean American writer whose essays, stories, and novels are evocative portrayals of family relationships and her native Antigua. Kincaid settled in New York City when she left Antigua at age 16. She first worked as an au pair in Manhattan. She later won a photography

  • Kincardine (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Kincardineshire, historic county in northeastern Scotland, along the North Sea coast south of Aberdeen. It is part of the Aberdeenshire council area. Kincardine is the southernmost of the historic counties of northeastern Scotland. In ancient times it marked the northern limit of the brief Roman

  • Kincardine, 11th earl of (British diplomat)

    Thomas Bruce, 7th earl of Elgin, British diplomatist and art collector, famous for his acquisition of the Greek sculptures now known as the “Elgin Marbles” (q.v.). Third son of Charles Bruce, the 5th earl (1732–71), he succeeded his brother William Robert, the 6th earl, in 1771 at the age of five.

  • Kincardine, 12th earl of (British statesman)

    James Bruce, 8th earl of Elgin, British statesman and governor general of British North America in 1847–54 who effected responsible, or cabinet, government in Canada and whose conduct in office defined the role for his successors. Bruce had been elected to the British House of Commons for

  • Kincardineshire (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Kincardineshire, historic county in northeastern Scotland, along the North Sea coast south of Aberdeen. It is part of the Aberdeenshire council area. Kincardine is the southernmost of the historic counties of northeastern Scotland. In ancient times it marked the northern limit of the brief Roman

  • Kinchinjunga (mountain, Asia)

    Kanchenjunga, world’s third highest mountain, with an elevation of 28,169 feet (8,586 metres). It is situated in the eastern Himalayas on the border between Sikkim state, northeastern India, and eastern Nepal, 46 miles (74 km) north-northwest of Darjiling, Sikkim. The mountain is part of the Great

  • Kinchow (southern Liaoning, China)

    Jinzhou, former town, southern Liaoning sheng (province), China. Now administratively a district under the city of Dalian, it is situated on Jinzhou Bay, a part of the Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli), and on the neck of the Liaodong Peninsula immediately northeast of Dalian. Jinzhou is an important

  • Kinchū Narabi ni Kuge Shohatto (Japanese history)

    Japan: The establishment of the system: …Imperial and Court Officials (Kinchū Narabi ni Kuge Shohatto) were promulgated as the legal basis for bakufu control of the daimyo and the imperial court. In 1616 Ieyasu died, the succession already having been established.

  • Kinck, Hans E. (Norwegian writer)

    Hans E. Kinck, prolific Norwegian novelist, short-story writer, dramatist, essayist, and Neoromanticist whose works reflect his preoccupation with the past and his lifelong interest in national psychology and creative genius. The son of a physician and a peasant’s daughter, Kinck spent many years

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