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  • kissing bug (insect)

    assassin bug: Predatory behaviour: The masked hunter (or masked bedbug hunter; Reduvius personatus), when threatened, will also bite humans, causing pain and localized swelling. The masked hunter is widely known for its ability to camouflage itself as a ball of dust during the immature stages, when the body, legs, and…

  • kissing bug (insect)

    heteropteran: Harmful aspects: …the American tropics, occurs through cone nose bugs (Reduviidae), so-called because of the shape of their head. The insect receives trypanosomes when it feeds on the blood of an infected person. The trypanosome passes part of its life cycle in the insect and again becomes infective to humans. Instead of…

  • kissing bug (insect, subfamily Triatominae)

    assassin bug: Predatory behaviour: …known as triatomine bugs or kissing bugs. Some species of triatomine bugs—particularly members of the genera Panstrongylus, Rhodnius, and Triatoma—are carriers of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which causes Chagas disease. Triatomines can survive in a variety of habitats, including underneath rocks and bark, inside the nests of other animals,…

  • kissing disease (pathology)

    Mononucleosis, infection in humans, caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), whose most common symptoms are fever, general malaise, and sore throat. The disease occurs predominantly in persons from 10 to 35 years old, but it is known to appear at any age. Infection of young children by the EBV

  • kissing gourami (fish)

    perciform: Aquarium fishes: …and the kissing gourami (Helostoma temmincki), and various gobies (Gobiidae), blennies, and blennylike fishes of the suborder Blennioidei.

  • Kissinger, Henry A. (United States statesman)

    Henry A. Kissinger, American political scientist, who, as adviser for national security affairs and secretary of state, was a major influence in the shaping of U.S. foreign policy from 1969 to 1976 under Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. In 1973 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize

  • Kissinger, Henry Alfred (United States statesman)

    Henry A. Kissinger, American political scientist, who, as adviser for national security affairs and secretary of state, was a major influence in the shaping of U.S. foreign policy from 1969 to 1976 under Presidents Richard M. Nixon and Gerald R. Ford. In 1973 he was jointly awarded the Nobel Prize

  • Kissós, Mount (mountain, Greece)

    Thessaloníki: …foothills and slopes of Mount Khortiátis (Kissós; 3,940 feet [1,201 metres]), overlooking the delta plains of the Gallikós and Vardar (Axiós or Vardaráis) rivers.

  • Kistna River (river, India)

    Krishna River, river of south-central India. One of India’s longest rivers, it has a total course of about 800 miles (1,290 km). The river rises in western Maharashtra state in the Western Ghats range near the town of Mahabaleshwar, not far from the coast of the Arabian Sea. It flows east to Wai

  • Kisumu (Kenya)

    Kisumu, town, capital of Nyanza province, Kenya, lying on the northeastern shore of Lake Victoria. It is the commercial, industrial, and transportation centre of western Kenya, serving a hinterland populated by almost four million people. Kisumu is an important link in the trade route between Lake

  • kiswah (Islam)

    Kiswah, black brocade cloth that covers the most sacred shrine of Islām, the Ka?bah (q.v.) in Mecca. A new kiswah is made in Egypt every year and carried to Mecca by pilgrims. On it is embroidered in gold the Muslim profession of faith (shahādah) and a gold band of ornamental calligraphy carrying

  • Kiswahili language (African language)

    Swahili language, Bantu language spoken either as a mother tongue or as a fluent second language on the east coast of Africa in an area extending from Lamu Island, Kenya, in the north to the southern border of Tanzania in the south. (The Bantu languages form a subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of

  • kiSwahili language (African language)

    Swahili language, Bantu language spoken either as a mother tongue or as a fluent second language on the east coast of Africa in an area extending from Lamu Island, Kenya, in the north to the southern border of Tanzania in the south. (The Bantu languages form a subgroup of the Benue-Congo branch of

  • Kiswahili literature

    Swahili literature, that body of creative writing done in Swahili, a Bantu language of Africa. The earliest preserved Swahili writing, from the early 18th century, is written in Arabic script, and subsequent writings were primarily in three main dialects: kiUnjuga, kiMvita, and kiAmu. In the 1930s,

  • kit (musical instrument)

    Kit, small fiddle with a muted tone, carried by dancing masters in their pockets in the 16th–18th century. A last descendant of the medieval rebec, the kit evolved as a narrow, boat-shaped instrument with usually three or four strings. Later, narrow, violin-shaped kits were also built. Dancing

  • kit fox (mammal)

    fox: Classification: macrotis (kit fox); large-eared pale foxes of the western North American plains (swift fox) and deserts (kit fox); shy and uncommon; adult length about 40–50 cm without the 20–30-cm tail, weight about 1.5–3 kg; burrow-dweller that feeds on small animals (rodents, rabbits, insects); coat gray to…

  • Kit-Cat Club (English political group)

    Kit-Cat Club, Association of early 18th-century Whig leaders that met in London. Members included the writers Richard Steele, Joseph Addison, and William Congreve and such political figures as Robert Walpole and the duke of Marlborough. They first met in the tavern of Christopher Cat, whose mutton

  • Kita (district, ōsaka, Japan)

    ōsaka-Kōbe metropolitan area: Street patterns: Kita (“The North”) is located just south of ōsaka railway station, where the city’s highest-priced land is found. Kita has a complex of high-rise office buildings and a large underground shopping centre. Minami (“The South”) has many theatres and restaurants. ōsaka’s industrial areas are on…

  • Kita Ikki (Japanese military officer)

    ōkawa Shūmei: …right-wing advocate of the period, Kita Ikki. Together they founded the influential nationalistic Yūzonsha (Society for the Preservation of the National Essence) in 1919. Through its magazine, Otakebi (“War Cry”), the Yūzonsha advocated the return of Japan to the simpler military values of its feudal past as well as the…

  • Kita Morio (Japanese author)

    Japanese literature: The postwar novel: The novels of Kita Morio were characterized by an attractive streak of humour that provided a welcome contrast to the prevailingly dark tonality of other contemporary Japanese novels. His Nire-ke no hitobito (1963–64; The House of Nire), though based on the careers of his grandfather and his father…

  • Kitā Rujār (work by Idrīsī)

    ash-Sharīf al-Idrīsī: …of descriptive geography, known as Kitāb nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq and also as Kitā Rujār, or Al-Kitāb ar-Rujārī (“The Book of Roger”). In compiling it, al-Idrīsī combined material from Arabic and Greek geographic works with information obtained through firsthand observation and eyewitness reports. The king and his Arab geographer…

  • Kita-Daitō Island (island, Pacific Ocean)

    Daitō Islands: North Daitō (Kita-Daitō) and South Daitō (Minami-Daitō) islands are the largest of the group and lie close to one another, while the smaller Oki-Daitō Island lies about 93 miles (150 km) south of them. North and South Daitō have a combined area of 15.7 square…

  • Kita-Ibaraki (Japan)

    Kitaibaraki, city, northeastern Ibaraki ken (prefecture), northeast-central Honshu, Japan. It lies on the Pacific Ocean, about 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Hitachi. The western part of the city occupies hills that slope toward the rest of the city on the coast. Agriculture (rice) and fishing

  • Kita-Kantō (region, Japan)

    Northern Kantō, industrial region, east-central Japan, occupying portions of Gumma, Saitama, and Tochigi ken (prefectures). Situated just north of, and adjacent to, the Keihin (Tokyo-Yokohama) Industrial Zone, the area consists mostly of plains, interrupted by the Kantō Range and Echigo Range. N

  • Kita-Kyūshū (region, Japan)

    Northern Kyūshū, industrial region of southwestern Japan, centring on the city and port of Kita-Kyūshū and bounded by the Gen Sea to the northwest and the Inland Sea to the east. The region is drained by the Onga, Chikugo, and Yamakuni rivers and is composed of portions of Fukuoka, Saga, ōita, a

  • Kita-Kyūshū (Japan)

    Kitakyūshū, (Japanese: North Japan) city, northern Fukuoka ken (prefecture), northern Kyushu, Japan. It is situated on the Tsushima and Kanmon (Shimonoseki) straits (west and north, respectively) and the Inland Sea (east), the narrow Kanmon strait linking the two larger marine features. The city

  • Kitāb ādāb al-kabīr (work by Ibn al-Muqaffa?)

    Arabic literature: The concept of adab: …composed a manual for secretaries, Kitāb ādāb al-kabīr (“The Major Work on Secretarial Etiquette”). At a later date, another translation movement, much encouraged by the ?Abbasīd caliph al-Ma?mūn, rendered much of the Hellenistic heritage from Greek, often via Syriac, into Arabic, the products of which were stored in the great…

  • Kitāb adab al-kātib (work by Ibn Qutaybah)

    Ibn Qutaybah: …to Ibn Qutaybah include the Kitāb adab al-kātib (“Secretary’s Guide”), a compendium of Arabic usage and vocabulary; Kitāb al-?Arab (“Book of the Arabs”), a defense of Arab rather than Iranian cultural preeminence; Kitāb al-ma?ārif (“Book of Knowledge”), a handbook of history; Kitāb al-shi?r wa al-shu?arā? (“Book of Poetry and Poets”),…

  • Kitāb al Mufa??al fī al-Na?w (work by Zamakhsharī)

    Abu al-Qāsim Ma?mūd ibn ?Umar al-Zamakhsharī: Of al-Zamakhsharī’s grammatical works, Al-Mufa??al fī ?ilm al-?Arabīyah (“Detailed Treatise on Arabic Linguistics,” written 1119–21, published 1859; it is sometimes titled Kitāb al Mufa??al fī al-Na?w ["Detailed Treatise on Grammar"]) is celebrated for its concise but exhaustive exposition. He was also the author of a collection of old proverbs;…

  • Kitāb al-adwiya al-mufradah (work by Idrīsī)

    ash-Sharīf al-Idrīsī: …matters as well, and his Kitāb al-adwiya al-mufradah (“Book of Simple Drugs”), in which he lists the names of drugs in as many as 12 languages, demonstrates the range of his linguistic abilities. Al-Idrīsī seems to have had a good knowledge of Arabic literature, and—judging by some of his verse…

  • Kitāb al-aghānī (work by Abū al-Faraj al-I?bahānī)

    Abū al-Faraj al-I?bahānī: Kitāb al-aghānī (“The Book of Songs”), his major work, contains songs, biographical information, and much information concerning the life and customs of the early Arabs and of the Muslim Arabs of the Umayyad and ?Abbāsid periods.

  • Kitāb al-amānāt wa al-i?tiqādāt (work by Sa?adia ben Joseph)

    Judaism: Sa?adia ben Joseph: …Kitāb al-amānāt wa al-i?tiqādāt (Beliefs and Opinions), is modeled on similar Mu?tazilite treatises and on the Mu?tazilite classification of theological subject matter known as the Five Principles.

  • Kitāb al-a?nām (work by Hishām ibn al-Kalbī)

    Hishām ibn al-Kalbī: …Arabs; and Kitāb al-a?nām (The Book of Idols), in which he discusses the gods of the pre-Islamic Arabs. The discussions in Kitāb al-a?nām are supplemented by relevant excerpts from pre-Islamic poetry. His writings are of particular importance for having preserved valuable information on Arabian antiquities and tribal customs and…

  • Kitāb al-asrār (book by Al Neimi)

    Salwa Al Neimi: Salwa’s collection of short stories, Kitāb al-asrār (2nd ed., 2010; “The Book of Secrets”), reflected both her dislike of hypocrisy and her belief in the liberating power of the written word. In it she explored such matters as sexual experiences outside marriage, difficulties in the relationship of a married couple,…

  • Kitāb al-awsa? (work by al-Mas?ūdī)

    al-Mas?ūdī: Al-Mas?ūdī followed it with Kitāb al-awsa? (“Book of the Middle”), variously described as a supplement to or an abridgment of the Akhbār al-zamān. The Kitāb is undoubtedly a chronological history. A manuscript in the Bodleian Library, Oxford, may possibly be one volume of it.

  • Kitāb al-badī? (work by Ibn al-Mu?tazz)

    Arabic literature: Emerging poetics: …for his Kitāb al-badī? (The Book of Tropes), in which he provides a list of five major poetic devices (including metaphor and simile) and then lists a further group of “discourse embellishments.” While his goal was to demonstrate that these devices were present in Arabic writing from the outset…

  • Kitāb al-bayān wa al-tabyīn (work by al-Jā?i?)

    Arabic literature: Al-Jā?i? and Abū ?ayyān al-Taw?īdī: …influential work of early criticism, Kitāb al-bayān wa al-tabyīn (“Book of Clarity and Clarification”). Apart from sheer erudition and a delight in controversy, what sets al-Jā?i?’s works apart is, first, his total mastery of a clear and concise Arabic style that reflected the new influences on the Muslim community and,…

  • Kitāb al-buldān (work by al-Ya?qūbī)

    al-Ya?qūbī: …Wā?i?”), and a general geography, Kitāb al-buldān (“Book of the Countries”).

  • Kitāb al-diriyak (work by Galen)

    Mosul school: …of Galen’s medical treatise the Kitāb al-diriyak (“Book of Antidotes”) is a good example of the earlier work of the Mosul school. It depicts four figures surrounding a central, seated figure who holds a crescent-shaped halo. By the 13th century the Baghdad school, which combined the styles of the Syrian…

  • Kitāb al-filā-?ah (work by Ibn al-?Awwām)

    Ibn al-?Awwām: …the Arabic treatise on agriculture, Kitāb al-filā-?ah, the outstanding medieval work on the subject. The Spanish translation, published in the early 1800s, consists of 35 chapters dealing with agronomy, cattle and poultry raising, and beekeeping. It deals with 585 plants; explains the cultivation of more than 50 fruit trees; and…

  • Kitāb al-Fi?al (work by Ibn ?azm)

    Spain: Literature: …output of Ibn ?azm includes Kitāb al-Fi?al, a history of religions that was not surpassed by Western scholars until well into the 19th century. He also was a leading exponent of the ?āhirī school of jurisprudence, which stressed thorough knowledge of the Qur?ān and the Hadith. He applied the principles…

  • Kitāb al-?adīth (work by Badā?ūnī)

    ?Abd al-Qādir Badā?ūnī: …most highly regarded were the Kitāb al-?adīth (“Book of ?adīth”), the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad, no longer extant; a section of the Tārīkh-e alfī (“History of the Millennium”), commissioned by Akbar to celebrate the millenary of the Hijrah (Hegira) in 1591/92, on which more than 10 authors collaborated; and…

  • Kitāb al-?āwī (work by al-Rāzī)

    al-Rāzī: …Cremona’s 12th-century Latin translation, and Kitāb al-?āwī, the “Comprehensive Book,” in which he surveyed Greek, Syrian, and early Arabic medicine as well as some Indian medical knowledge. Throughout his works he added his own considered judgment and his own medical experience as commentary. Among his numerous minor medical treatises is…

  • Kitāb al-?ayawān (work by al-Jā?i?)

    biology: Arab domination of biology: Among his biological writings is Kitāb al-?ayawān (“Book of Animals”), which, although revealing some Greek influence, is primarily an Arabic work. In it the author emphasized the unity of nature and recognized relationships between different groups of organisms. Because al-Jā?i? believed that earth contained both male and female elements, he…

  • Kitāb al-?udūd (work by Israeli)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli: Of his philosophical writings, Kitāb al-?udūd (Hebrew: Sefer ha-gevulim, “The Book of Definitions”) is best known. Beginning with a discussion of Aristotle’s four types of inquiry, Israeli goes on to present 56 definitions, including definitions of wisdom, intellect, soul, nature, reason, love, locomotion, and time. Others of his philosophical…

  • Kitāb al-?ulaf (work by Mishael ben Uzziel)

    biblical literature: Collations of the Masoretic materials: …Mishael ben Uzziel in his Kitāb al-?ulaf (before 1050). A vast amount of Masoretic information, drawn chiefly from Spanish manuscripts, is to be found in the text-critical commentary known as Minhath Shai, by Solomon Jedidiah Norzi, completed in 1626 and printed in the Mantua Bible of 1742. Benjamin Kennicott collected…

  • Kitāb al-imtā wa al-mu?ānasah (work by Taw?īdī)

    Arabic literature: Al-Jā?i? and Abū ?ayyān al-Taw?īdī: …his renowned anthology of anecdotes, Kitāb al-imtā? wa al-mu?ānasah (“Book of Enjoyment and Bonhomie”), and his often scurrilous commentary on cultural and political infighting, Kitāb mathālib al-wazīrayn (“Book on the Foibles of the Two Ministers”), provide ample justification for his reputation as one of Arabic’s greatest stylists.

  • Kitāb al-ishitqāq (work by Ibn Durayd)

    Ibn Durayd: …Ibn Durayd’s other works are Kitāb al-ishtiqāq (“Book of Derivation”), on the etymology of Arab names, and al-Malā?in (“Ambiguities of Speech”), a book of ambivalent words for the use of persons forced to swear. Ibn Durayd was also a gifted poet.

  • Kitāb al-I?tibār (work by Ibn Munqidh)

    Islamic world: Effect of the Crusades in Syria: …can be found in the Kitāb al-I?tibār (“Book of Reflection”), the memoirs of Usāmah ibn Munqidh (1095–1188). Born in Syria, he was a small boy when the first generation of Franks controlled Jerusalem. As an adult, he fought with Saladin (?alā? al-Dīn Yūsuf ibn Ayyūb) and lived to see him…

  • Kitab al-jabr wa al-muqābalah (work by al-Khwārizmī)

    Islamic world: The ?Abbāsids: …title of his major work, Kitāb al-jabr wa al-muqābalah (“The Book of Integration and Equation”). Movements such as falsafah (a combination of the positive sciences with logic and metaphysics) and kalām (systematic theological discourse) applied Hellenistic thought to new questions. The translation of Indo-Persian lore promoted the development of adab,…

  • Kitāb al-jawāhir (work by Israeli)

    Isaac ben Solomon Israeli: …a larger exegetical effort, and Kitāb al-jawāhir (“Book of Substances”).

  • Kitāb al-jilwah (Yazīdī religious literature)

    Yazīdī: Two short books, Kitāb al-jilwah (“Book of Revelation”) and Ma??afrash (“Black Book”), form the sacred scriptures of the Yazīdīs. It is now widely suspected that both volumes were compiled by non-Yazīdīs in the 19th century and then were passed off as ancient manuscripts but that their contents do…

  • Kitāb al-maghāzī (work by ibn Is?āq)

    Muhammad: Biographical sources: Mu?ammad ibn Is?āq’s (died 767–768) Kitāb al-maghāzī (“Book of [the Prophet’s] Military Expeditions”). However, this work is extant only in later reworkings and abridgements, of which the best known is ?Abd al-Malik ibn Hishām’s (died 833–834) Sīrat Mu?ammad rasūl Allāh (“Life of Muhammad, the Messenger of God”). Ibn Is?āq’s original…

  • Kitāb al-maghāzī (work by al-Wāqidī)

    al-Wāqidī: …Arab historian, author of the Kitāb al-maghāzī, a well-known work on the military campaigns (al-maghāzī) of the Prophet Muhammad.

  • Kitāb al-manā?ir (work by Ibn al-Haytham)

    Ibn al-Haytham: Major works: …al-Haytham’s most important work is Kitāb al-manā?ir (“Optics”). Although it shows some influence from Ptolemy’s 2nd century ad Optics, it contains the correct model of vision: the passive reception by the eyes of light rays reflected from objects, not an active emanation of light rays from the eyes. It combines…

  • Kitāb al-Man?ūrī (work by al-Rāzī)

    al-Rāzī: …significant medical works are the Kitāb al-Man?ūrī, which he composed for the Rayy ruler Man?ūr ibn Is?aq and which became well known in the West in Gerard of Cremona’s 12th-century Latin translation, and Kitāb al-?āwī, the “Comprehensive Book,” in which he surveyed Greek, Syrian, and early Arabic medicine as well…

  • Kitāb al-ma?ārif (work by Ibn Qutaybah)

    Ibn Qutaybah: …rather than Iranian cultural preeminence; Kitāb al-ma?ārif (“Book of Knowledge”), a handbook of history; Kitāb al-shi?r wa al-shu?arā? (“Book of Poetry and Poets”), a chronological anthology of early Arabic poetry, with an introduction that presented Ibn Qutaybah’s canons of literary criticism; and Kitāb ?uyūn al-akhbar (“Book of Choice Narratives”), a…

  • Kitāb al-mu?ā?arah wa al-mudhākarah (work by ibn Ezra)

    Moses ibn Ezra: …treatise on the poetic art, Kitāb al-mu?ā?arah wa al-mudhākarah (“Conversations and Recollections”; translated into Hebrew as Shirat Yisra?el, or “Song of Israel,” in 1924 by B. Halper). Dealing with Arabic, Castilian, and Jewish poetry, the work is an important Spanish literary history.

  • Kitāb al-mukhta?ar fī ?isāb al-jabr wa?l-muqābala, Al- (work by al-Khwārizmī)

    Islamic world: The ?Abbāsids: …title of his major work, Kitāb al-jabr wa al-muqābalah (“The Book of Integration and Equation”). Movements such as falsafah (a combination of the positive sciences with logic and metaphysics) and kalām (systematic theological discourse) applied Hellenistic thought to new questions. The translation of Indo-Persian lore promoted the development of adab,…

  • Kitāb al-Mu?tabar (work by Abū al-Barakāt)

    Judaism: Other Jewish thinkers, c. 1050–c. 1150: His chief philosophical work, Kitāb al-mu?tabar (“The Book of That Which Has Been Established by Personal Reflection”), contains very few references to Jewish texts or topics. Abū al-Barakāt rejected Aristotelian physics completely. According to him, time is the measure of being and not, as Aristotle taught, the measure of…

  • Kitāb al-najāt (work by Avicenna)

    Avicenna: Life and education: …Knowledge) and Kitāb al-najāt (Book of Salvation), and compiled new and more-accurate astronomical tables.

  • Kitāb al-rūh (work by Qayyīm al-Jawzīyah)

    death: Islām: According to the Kitāb al-rūh, wicked souls are instructed “to depart to the wrath of God.” Fearing what awaits them, they seek refuge throughout the body and have to be extracted “like the dragging of an iron skewer through moist wool, tearing the veins and sinews.” Angels place…

  • Kitāb al-shifā? (work by Avicenna)

    Kitāb al-shifā?, (Arabic: “The Book of Healing”) a voluminous philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia by the Muslim philosopher and physician Avicenna. It treats logic, the natural sciences, psychology, the quadrivium (geometry, astronomy, mathematics, and music), and metaphysics and is a major

  • Kitāb al-shi?r wa al-shu?arā? (work by Ibn Qutaybah)

    Ibn Qutaybah: …Knowledge”), a handbook of history; Kitāb al-shi?r wa al-shu?arā? (“Book of Poetry and Poets”), a chronological anthology of early Arabic poetry, with an introduction that presented Ibn Qutaybah’s canons of literary criticism; and Kitāb ?uyūn al-akhbar (“Book of Choice Narratives”), a collection of adab studies dealing with the authority of…

  • Kitāb al-?inā? atayn, al-kitābah wa al-shi?r (work by ?Askarī)

    Arabic literature: Compilations and manuals: …was Abū Hilāl al-?Askarī’s 10th-century Kitāb al-?inā?atayn, al-kitābah wa al-shi?r (“The Book of the Two Skills, Scribal Arts and Poetry”), the title of which notes what was for al-?Askarī the relatively recent placement of textual analysis devoted to artistic prose alongside the traditionally prestigious genre of poetry. While al-?Askarī joined…

  • Kitāb al-Sirāj (work by Maimonides)

    Moses Maimonides: Works: …his commentary on the Mishna, Kitāb al-Sirāj, also written in Arabic. The Mishna is a compendium of decisions in Jewish law that dates from earliest times to the 3rd century. Maimonides’ commentary clarified individual words and phrases, frequently citing relevant information in archaeology, theology, or science. Possibly the work’s most…

  • Kitāb al-sunan (work by Sijistānī)

    Hadith: The compilations: … 202–275 [817–889 ce]) produced his Kitāb al-sunan (“Book of Traditions”), containing 4,800 traditions relating to matters of jurisprudence (as the term sunan indicates, in contradistinction to a jāmi?, or collection embracing all fields). Abū ?Isā Mu?ammad al-Tirmidhī (died ah 279 [892 ce]) edited the Jāmi? al-?a?ī?, adding notes on the…

  • Kitāb al-tanbīh wa al-ishrāf (work by al-Mas?ūdī)

    al-Mas?ūdī: …his life, that he wrote Kitāb al-tanbīh wa al-ishrāf (“The Book of Notification and Verification”), in which he summarized, corrected, and brought up to date the contents of his former writings, especially the three historical works.

  • Kitāb al-?Arab (work by Ibn Qutaybah)

    Ibn Qutaybah: …of Arabic usage and vocabulary; Kitāb al-?Arab (“Book of the Arabs”), a defense of Arab rather than Iranian cultural preeminence; Kitāb al-ma?ārif (“Book of Knowledge”), a handbook of history; Kitāb al-shi?r wa al-shu?arā? (“Book of Poetry and Poets”), a chronological anthology of early Arabic poetry, with an introduction that presented…

  • Kitāb al-?ayn (work by al-Khalīl ibn A?mad)

    al-Khalīl ibn A?mad: Khalīl’s dictionary, Kitāb al-?ayn (“Book of the [Letter] ?Ayn”), may have been written in part by his student al-Layth ibn al-Mu?affar of Khorāsān, who was at one time secretary to the Barmakid viziers of the ?Abbāsid court. It is arranged according to a novel alphabetical order based…

  • Kitāb al-?ibar (work by Ibn Khaldūn)

    Islamic arts: Historiography: Ibn Khaldūn: …to a projected general history, Kitāb al-?ibar, sought to explain the basic factors in the historical development of the Islamic countries. His own experiences, gained on a variety of political missions in North Africa, proved useful in establishing general principles that he could apply to the manifestations of Islamic civilization.…

  • Kitab an-nabat (work by al-Dīnawarī)

    al-Dīnawarī: …the preserved fragments of his Kitāb al-nabāt (“Book of Plants”), one of the most famous early Muslim works on botany. Of lexicographical character, it includes oral and written Arabic botanical traditions as well as much Persian material. Written in beautiful prose, it was the standard work in the field for…

  • Kitāb ar-Rujārī, Al- (work by Idrīsī)

    ash-Sharīf al-Idrīsī: …of descriptive geography, known as Kitāb nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq and also as Kitā Rujār, or Al-Kitāb ar-Rujārī (“The Book of Roger”). In compiling it, al-Idrīsī combined material from Arabic and Greek geographic works with information obtained through firsthand observation and eyewitness reports. The king and his Arab geographer…

  • Kitāb ash-shifā? (work by Avicenna)

    Kitāb al-shifā?, (Arabic: “The Book of Healing”) a voluminous philosophical and scientific encyclopaedia by the Muslim philosopher and physician Avicenna. It treats logic, the natural sciences, psychology, the quadrivium (geometry, astronomy, mathematics, and music), and metaphysics and is a major

  • Kitāb at-tafsīr al-kabīr (work by ar-Rāzī)

    Fakhr ad-Dīn ar-Rāzī: …attested by such works as Mafā?ī? al-ghayb or Kitāb at-tafsīr al-kabīr (“The Keys to the Unknown” or “The Great Commentary”) and Mu?a??al afkār al-mutaqaddimīn wa-al-muta?akhkhirīn (“Collection of the Opinions of Ancients and Moderns”).

  • Kitāb at-tanqi? (work by Ibn Janā?)

    Ibn Janā?: …preserved in his principal work, Kitāb at-tanqi? (“Book of Exact Investigation”). In the first of its two parts, Kitāb al-luma (“Book of the Many-Coloured Flower Beds”), Ibn Janā? dealt in large measure with grammar proper and included discussions of parts of speech and prefixes and provided a detailed outline of…

  • Kitāb fī an-na?w, al- (work by Sibawayh)

    Sībawayh: His monumental work is al-Kitāb fī an-na?w (“The Book on Grammar”) or, more simply, al-Kitāb (“The Book”). The work was frequently used by later scholars.

  • Kitāb mathālib al-wazīrayn (work by Taw?īdī)

    Arabic literature: Al-Jā?i? and Abū ?ayyān al-Taw?īdī: …on cultural and political infighting, Kitāb mathālib al-wazīrayn (“Book on the Foibles of the Two Ministers”), provide ample justification for his reputation as one of Arabic’s greatest stylists.

  • Kitāb nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq (work by Idrīsī)

    ash-Sharīf al-Idrīsī: …of descriptive geography, known as Kitāb nuzhat al-mushtāq fī ikhtirāq al-āfāq and also as Kitā Rujār, or Al-Kitāb ar-Rujārī (“The Book of Roger”). In compiling it, al-Idrīsī combined material from Arabic and Greek geographic works with information obtained through firsthand observation and eyewitness reports. The king and his Arab geographer…

  • Kitāb ?ūrat al-ar? (work by Khwārizmī)

    al-Khwārizmī: …of the Earth”; translated as Geography), which presented the coordinates of localities in the known world based, ultimately, on those in the Geography of Ptolemy (flourished 127–145 ce) but with improved values for the length of the Mediterranean Sea and the location of cities in Asia and Africa. He also…

  • Kitāb ta??īl ash-sharā?i? as-samā?īyah (work by Sa?adia ben Joseph)

    Sa?adia ben Joseph: Sa?adia’s works.: …(“Refutation of Ibn Sākawayhī”) and Kitāb ta??īl ash-sharā?i? as-samā?īyah (“Book Concerning the Sources of the Irrational Laws”). In the latter work the Gaon contends that matters pertaining to the irrational commandments of the Mosaic Law may never be decided by means of analogy but only by the regulations transmitted through…

  • Kitāb tajarīb al-umam wa ta?aqub al-?imam (work by Ibn Miskawayh)

    Ibn Miskawayh: Margoliouth, The Eclipse of the Abbasid Caliphate, 1921), was noted for its use of all available sources and greatly stimulated the development of Islamic historiography.

  • Kitāb ?uyūn al-akhbār (work by Ibn Qutaybah)

    encyclopaedia: The Arab world: …arrangement and contents of his Kitāb ?uyūn al-akhbār (“The Book of Choice Narratives”) set the pattern for many later encyclopaedias. The 10 books were arranged in the following order: power, war, nobility, character, learning and eloquence, asceticism, friendship, prayers, food, women. Ibn ?Abd Rabbih of Córdoba improved on Ibn Qutaybah’s…

  • Kitāb, al- (work by Sibawayh)

    Sībawayh: His monumental work is al-Kitāb fī an-na?w (“The Book on Grammar”) or, more simply, al-Kitāb (“The Book”). The work was frequently used by later scholars.

  • Kitab-i Dede Korkut (Turkish epic)

    Turkish literature: Epic and the emergence of the a?ik: The Book of Dede Korkut), which has survived in two 16th-century manuscripts. The actual date of the work is unknown. At least one of the tales was already circulating in written form in the early 14th century, and Central Asian sources suggest that the shaman-bard…

  • Kitabatake Chikafusa (Japanese statesman)

    Kitabatake Chikafusa, Japanese warrior, statesman, and author of the influential politico-historical treatise Jinnō shōtōki (“Record of the Legitimate Succession of the Divine Emperors”), which set forth the mystic and nationalist doctrine that Japan had a unique superiority among nations because

  • Kitagawa Nebsuyoshi (Japanese artist)

    Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter who was one of the greatest artists of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) movement; he is known especially for his masterfully composed portraits of sensuous female beauties. Probably born in a provincial town, he went to Edo (now Tokyo) with his

  • Kitagawa Utamaro (Japanese artist)

    Utamaro, Japanese printmaker and painter who was one of the greatest artists of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) movement; he is known especially for his masterfully composed portraits of sensuous female beauties. Probably born in a provincial town, he went to Edo (now Tokyo) with his

  • Kitahara Hakushū (Japanese poet)

    Kitahara Hakushū, Japanese poet who was a major influence in modern Japanese poetry with his aesthetic and symbolic style. In 1906 he joined the Shinshisha (New Poetry Association) and published poems in its magazine Myōjō (“Bright Star”) that brought him instant fame as a rising young poet. In 1

  • Kitahara Ryūkichi (Japanese poet)

    Kitahara Hakushū, Japanese poet who was a major influence in modern Japanese poetry with his aesthetic and symbolic style. In 1906 he joined the Shinshisha (New Poetry Association) and published poems in its magazine Myōjō (“Bright Star”) that brought him instant fame as a rising young poet. In 1

  • Kitai (medieval region, China)

    Cathay, name by which North China was known in medieval Europe. The word is derived from Khitay (or Khitan), the name of a seminomadic people who left southeastern Mongolia in the 10th century ce to conquer part of Manchuria and northern China, which they held for about 200 years. By the time of

  • Kitaibaraki (Japan)

    Kitaibaraki, city, northeastern Ibaraki ken (prefecture), northeast-central Honshu, Japan. It lies on the Pacific Ocean, about 25 miles (40 km) northeast of Hitachi. The western part of the city occupies hills that slope toward the rest of the city on the coast. Agriculture (rice) and fishing

  • Kitaj, R. B. (American-born painter)

    R.B. Kitaj, American-born painter noted for his eclectic and original contributions to Pop art. Kitaj studied art at the Cooper Union in New York City and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. After working as a merchant seaman and serving in the U.S. Army (1955–57), he settled in England and

  • Kitaj, Ronald Brooks (American-born painter)

    R.B. Kitaj, American-born painter noted for his eclectic and original contributions to Pop art. Kitaj studied art at the Cooper Union in New York City and at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna. After working as a merchant seaman and serving in the U.S. Army (1955–57), he settled in England and

  • Kitajima, Kosuke (Japanese athlete)

    Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: Key Events from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: August 15:

  • Kitakami Mountains (mountains, Japan)

    Kitakami Mountains, range in northeastern Honshu, Japan, in the Tōhoku region. It parallels the Pacific Ocean coast and extends southward for about 155 miles (250 km) from southern Aomori prefecture, through Iwate and Miyagi prefectures, to terminate in the Oshika Peninsula. The range has a maximum

  • Kitakami-kōchi (mountains, Japan)

    Kitakami Mountains, range in northeastern Honshu, Japan, in the Tōhoku region. It parallels the Pacific Ocean coast and extends southward for about 155 miles (250 km) from southern Aomori prefecture, through Iwate and Miyagi prefectures, to terminate in the Oshika Peninsula. The range has a maximum

  • Kitakami-sammyaku (mountains, Japan)

    Kitakami Mountains, range in northeastern Honshu, Japan, in the Tōhoku region. It parallels the Pacific Ocean coast and extends southward for about 155 miles (250 km) from southern Aomori prefecture, through Iwate and Miyagi prefectures, to terminate in the Oshika Peninsula. The range has a maximum

  • Kitakyūshū (Japan)

    Kitakyūshū, (Japanese: North Japan) city, northern Fukuoka ken (prefecture), northern Kyushu, Japan. It is situated on the Tsushima and Kanmon (Shimonoseki) straits (west and north, respectively) and the Inland Sea (east), the narrow Kanmon strait linking the two larger marine features. The city

  • Kitami (Japan)

    Kitami, city, northeastern Hokkaido, northern Japan. It occupies a long corridor of land that stretches roughly southwest-northeast from the Kitami Mountains to the Sea of Okhotsk. The city centre is at the confluence of the Muka River with the Tokoro River. Originally, there was an Ainu settlement

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