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  • Klavierstück XI (work by Stockhausen)

    aleatory music: …Cage, and Klavierstück XI (1956; Keyboard Piece XI), by Karlheinz Stockhausen of Germany.

  • Klay (Liberia)

    Kle, town, western Liberia. It is a traditional trading centre among the Gola people. The B.F. Goodrich Company, Liberia, Inc., established a plantation, hospital, power plant, housing, schools, and roads to the west of the town, which began producing rubber in 1963. Pop. (2008)

  • Kle (Liberia)

    Kle, town, western Liberia. It is a traditional trading centre among the Gola people. The B.F. Goodrich Company, Liberia, Inc., established a plantation, hospital, power plant, housing, schools, and roads to the west of the town, which began producing rubber in 1963. Pop. (2008)

  • Kléber, Jean-Baptiste (French general)

    Jean-Baptiste Kléber, French general of the Revolutionary wars who suppressed the counterrevolutionary uprising in the Vendée area of western France in 1793. He later played a prominent role in Napoleon Bonaparte’s Egyptian campaign (1798–1800). The son of a mason, Kléber was an officer in the

  • Klebs, Edwin (German physician and bacteriologist)

    Edwin Klebs, German physician and bacteriologist noted for his work on the bacterial theory of infection. With Friedrich August Johannes L?ffler in 1884, he discovered the diphtheria bacillus, known as the Klebs-L?ffler bacillus. Klebs was assistant to Rudolf Virchow at the Pathological Institute,

  • Klebs-L?ffler bacillus (bacterium)

    diphtheria: …disease caused by the bacillus Corynebacterium diphtheriae and characterized by a primary lesion, usually in the upper respiratory tract, and more generalized symptoms resulting from the spread of the bacterial toxin throughout the body. Diphtheria was a serious contagious disease throughout much of the world until the late 19th century,…

  • Klebsiella (bacteria genus)

    Klebsiella, (genus Klebsiella), any of a group of rod-shaped bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Klebsiella organisms are categorized microbiologically as gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonmotile bacteria. Klebsiella organisms occur in soil and water and on plants, and some strains

  • Klebsiella friedlanderi (bacterium)

    Klebsiella: Klebsiella pneumoniae, also called Friedl?nder’s bacillus, was first described in 1882 by German microbiologist and pathologist Carl Friedl?nder. K. pneumoniae is best known as a pathogen of the human respiratory system that causes pneumonia. The disease is usually seen only in patients with underlying medical…

  • Klebsiella planticola (bacterium)

    Klebsiella: oxytoca and K. planticola, which along with K. pneumoniae can cause human urinary tract and wound infections. K. planticola and certain strains of K. pneumoniae have been isolated from the roots of plants such as wheat, rice, and corn (maize), where they act as nitrogen-fixing bacteria. K.…

  • Klebsiella pneumoniae (bacterium)

    Klebsiella: Klebsiella pneumoniae, also called Friedl?nder’s bacillus, was first described in 1882 by German microbiologist and pathologist Carl Friedl?nder. K. pneumoniae is best known as a pathogen of the human respiratory system that causes pneumonia. The disease is usually seen only in patients with underlying medical…

  • Klebsiella variicola (bacterium)

    Klebsiella: K. variicola, which was discovered in 2004, also occurs on various plants, including rice, banana, and sugar cane. This species of bacteria has also been isolated from hospital settings, where it may act as an opportunistic pathogen, similar to other Klebsiella organisms.

  • Klee, Paul (Swiss-German artist)

    Paul Klee, Swiss-German painter and draftsman who was one of the foremost artists of the 20th century. Klee’s mother, née Ida Maria Frick of Basel, and his German-born father, Hans Klee, were both trained as musicians. By Swiss law, Paul Klee held his father’s nationality; late in life he applied

  • Kleef (Germany)

    Kleve, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies northwest of Düsseldorf, less than 5 miles (8 km) south of the Dutch border. It is connected with the Rhine River by a canal. The seat of the counts of Cleves from the 11th century, it was chartered in 1242. The county

  • Kleefisch, Rebecca (American politician)

    Wisconsin: Constitutional framework: Rebecca Kleefisch, and four state senators. The governor and lieutenant governor escaped recall, and three of the four senate seats were retained by Republicans. One senate seat, however, was narrowly won by the Democratic challenger; this changed the balance of power in the senate to…

  • Kleeman, Gunda (German athlete)

    Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann, German speed skater who dominated the sport throughout the 1990s, capturing eight world championships and eight Olympic medals. She left home for a sports school when she was 12 years old, originally playing volleyball but soon taking up athletics (track and field).

  • Kleene, Stephen Cole (American mathematician)

    Stephen Cole Kleene, American mathematician and logician whose work on recursion theory helped lay the foundations of theoretical computer science. Kleene was educated at Amherst College (A.B., 1930) and earned a Ph.D. in mathematics at Princeton University in 1934. After teaching briefly at

  • Kleiber’s law (biology)

    allometry: …well-known example of scaling (Kleiber’s law): metabolic rate scales as the 34 power of body mass.

  • Kleiber, Carlos (Argentine conductor)

    Carlos Kleiber, German-born conductor (born July 3, 1930, Berlin, Ger.—died July 13, 2004, Slovenia), was widely regarded as one of the most important opera and symphony concert conductors of the latter half of the 20th century—despite a strictly controlled repertory, infrequent public p

  • Kleiber, Erich (Austrian conductor)

    Erich Kleiber, Austrian conductor who performed many 20th-century works but was especially known for his performances of works by W.A. Mozart, Ludwig van Beethoven, Richard Wagner, and Richard Strauss and for his fidelity to composers’ intentions. Kleiber studied in Prague and between 1912 and 1922

  • Kleider machen Laeute (film by K?utner)

    Helmut K?utner: …as Kleider machen Leute (1940; “Clothes Make the Man”), the tale of a humble tailor mistaken for a Russian prince, and Auf Wiedersehen, Franziska! (1941; “Goodbye, Franziska!”), which concerns the marital troubles between a reporter and his neglected wife. When the authorities forced K?utner to add an illogical upbeat ending…

  • Kleihues, Josef (German architect)

    Brandenburg Gate: …the late 1990s by architect Josef Paul Kleihues to replace the pavilions that were destroyed during World War II. The gate is decorated with reliefs and sculptures designed by Gottfried Schadow, the majority of them based on the exploits of Heracles. In 1793 a quadriga statue depicting the goddess of…

  • Klein bottle (topology)

    Klein bottle, topological space, named for the German mathematician Felix Klein, obtained by identifying two ends of a cylindrical surface in the direction opposite that is necessary to obtain a torus. The surface is not constructible in three-dimensional Euclidean space but has interesting

  • Klein Karoo (plateau, South Africa)

    Little Karoo, intermontane plateau basin in Western Cape province, South Africa, lying between the east-west oriented Groot-Swart Mountains (north), the Lange Mountains (southwest), and the Outeniqua Mountains (southeast), with the discontinuous Kammanassie Mountains running between those ranges.

  • Klein paradox (physics)

    graphene: The electronic structure of graphene: An example is the Klein paradox, in which ultra-relativistic quantum particles, contrary to intuition, penetrate easily through very high and broad energy barriers. Thus, graphene provides a bridge between materials science and some areas of fundamental physics, such as relativistic quantum mechanics.

  • Klein Schellendorf, Truce of (Europe [1741])

    Silesian Wars: …Silesia by the Truce of Klein Schnellendorf (Oct. 9, 1741). After further warfare from December 1741 to June 1742, the empress Maria Theresa of Austria decided to make peace with Frederick, ceding in the Treaty of Breslau (June 11, 1742) all of Silesia except the districts of Troppau, Teschen, and…

  • Klein, A. M. (Canadian poet)

    A.M. Klein, Canadian poet whose verse reflects his strong involvement with Jewish culture and history. He was a member of the Montreal group, a coterie of poets who, influenced by the poets T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound and the novelist James Joyce, broke with the tradition of sentimental nature poetry

  • Klein, Abraham Moses (Canadian poet)

    A.M. Klein, Canadian poet whose verse reflects his strong involvement with Jewish culture and history. He was a member of the Montreal group, a coterie of poets who, influenced by the poets T.S. Eliot and Ezra Pound and the novelist James Joyce, broke with the tradition of sentimental nature poetry

  • Klein, Allen (American music executive and business manager)

    Allen Klein, American music executive and business manager (born Dec. 18, 1931, Newark, N.J.—died July 4, 2009, New York, N.Y.), handled legendary bands such as the Rolling Stones and the Beatles; his cutthroat business methods often led to estrangement (and lawsuits) from his clients. Klein grew

  • Klein, Anne (American fashion designer)

    Donna Karan: …began working for sportswear designer Anne Klein, and it was around this time that she married boutique owner Mark Karan; the couple divorced in 1978.

  • Klein, Calvin (American designer)

    Calvin Klein, American fashion designer noted for his womenswear, menswear, jeans, cosmetics and perfumes, bed and bath linens, and other collections. Klein studied at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City and, after graduating in 1962, went to work as an apprentice designer for a

  • Klein, Calvin Richard (American designer)

    Calvin Klein, American fashion designer noted for his womenswear, menswear, jeans, cosmetics and perfumes, bed and bath linens, and other collections. Klein studied at the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York City and, after graduating in 1962, went to work as an apprentice designer for a

  • Klein, Carol (American singer-songwriter)

    Carole King, American songwriter and singer (alto) who was one of the most prolific female musicians in the history of pop music. King’s mother was the source of her early music education. While still in high school, King began arranging and composing music, and at age 15 she formed and sang in a

  • Klein, Carol Joan (American singer-songwriter)

    Carole King, American songwriter and singer (alto) who was one of the most prolific female musicians in the history of pop music. King’s mother was the source of her early music education. While still in high school, King began arranging and composing music, and at age 15 she formed and sang in a

  • Klein, César (German artist)

    Novembergruppe: …1918 by Max Pechstein and César Klein.

  • Klein, Christian Felix (German mathematician)

    Felix Klein, German mathematician whose unified view of geometry as the study of the properties of a space that are invariant under a given group of transformations, known as the Erlanger Programm, profoundly influenced mathematical developments. As a student at the University of Bonn (Ph.D.,

  • Klein, Felix (German mathematician)

    Felix Klein, German mathematician whose unified view of geometry as the study of the properties of a space that are invariant under a given group of transformations, known as the Erlanger Programm, profoundly influenced mathematical developments. As a student at the University of Bonn (Ph.D.,

  • Klein, George S. (American psychologist)

    George S. Klein, American psychologist and psychoanalyst best known for his research in perception and psychoanalytic theory. Klein received a B.A. from the City College of New York in 1938 and a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1942. During the next four years he served in the

  • Klein, George Stuart (American psychologist)

    George S. Klein, American psychologist and psychoanalyst best known for his research in perception and psychoanalytic theory. Klein received a B.A. from the City College of New York in 1938 and a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University in 1942. During the next four years he served in the

  • Klein, Judith (American film critic)

    Judith Crist, (Judith Klein), American film critic (born May 22, 1922, New York, N.Y.—died Aug. 7, 2012, New York City), earned legions of fans and the fear and respect of filmmakers for her pithy and often scathing reviews in the New York Herald Tribune newspaper (1963–66), on the Today television

  • Klein, Lawrence R. (American economist)

    Lawrence R. Klein, American economist whose work in developing macroeconometric models for national, regional, and world economies won him the 1980 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. After graduating from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1942, Klein studied under economist Paul Samuelson

  • Klein, Lawrence Robert (American economist)

    Lawrence R. Klein, American economist whose work in developing macroeconometric models for national, regional, and world economies won him the 1980 Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences. After graduating from the University of California, Berkeley, in 1942, Klein studied under economist Paul Samuelson

  • Klein, Martin (Estonian athlete)
  • Klein, Melanie (British psychologist)

    Melanie Klein, Austrian-born British psychoanalyst known for her work with young children, in which observations of free play provided insights into the child’s unconscious fantasy life, enabling her to psychoanalyze children as young as two or three years of age. The youngest child of a Viennese

  • Klein, Naomi (Canadian author and activist)

    Naomi Klein, Canadian author and activist whose debut book, No Logo (2000), made her one of the most prominent voices in the antiglobalization movement. Klein was born to a politically active family. Her grandfather, an animator for Disney, was fired and blacklisted for attempting to organize a

  • Klein, Oskar (Swedish physicist)

    brane: … in 1919 and Swedish physicist Oskar Klein in 1925 proposed a four-dimensional spatial theory, after Einstein’s discovery of general relativity in 1916. In general relativity, gravity arises from the shape of spacetime. Kaluza and Klein showed that with additional dimensions, other forces such as electromagnetism could arise in the same…

  • Klein, Ralph (Canadian politician)

    Ralph Philip Klein, (“King Ralph”), Canadian politician (born Nov. 1, 1942, Calgary, Alta.—died March 29, 2013, Calgary), served three terms (1980–89) as mayor of Calgary and helped to bring the 1988 Olympic Winter Games to the city, but the plainspoken populist became a provincial powerhouse when

  • Klein, Ralph Philip (Canadian politician)

    Ralph Philip Klein, (“King Ralph”), Canadian politician (born Nov. 1, 1942, Calgary, Alta.—died March 29, 2013, Calgary), served three terms (1980–89) as mayor of Calgary and helped to bring the 1988 Olympic Winter Games to the city, but the plainspoken populist became a provincial powerhouse when

  • Klein, Robert (American comedian)

    stand-up comedy: Countercultural comedy: Robert Klein, the third major comic of the early ’70s to colonize the territory that Bruce had opened up, was a veteran of Chicago’s Second City comedy troupe who developed a smart, supple, socially aware style of stand-up that was widely influential among a younger…

  • Klein, William (American photographer, artist, and filmmaker)

    street photography: After World War II: …the late 1940s and ’50s, William Klein, Lisette Model, Helen Levitt, Roy DeCarava, and Robert Frank were making careers of documenting American culture. The photographs they took were provocative and often contained vulgar or unaesthetic subject matter. Levitt,

  • Klein, Yves (French artist)

    Yves Klein, French artist associated with the Parisian Nouveau Réalisme movement championed by the French critic Pierre Restany. The only painter in the founding group, Klein was a highly influential artist whose radical techniques and conceptual gestures laid the groundwork for much of the art of

  • Klein-Beltrami model (geometry)

    non-Euclidean geometry: Hyperbolic geometry: In the Klein-Beltrami model (shown in the figure, top left), the hyperbolic surface is mapped to the interior of a circle, with geodesics in the hyperbolic surface corresponding to chords in the circle. Thus, the Klein-Beltrami model preserves “straightness” but at the cost of distorting angles. About…

  • Klein–Nishina formula (physics)

    radiation: Cross section and Compton scattering: The Klein–Nishina formula shows almost symmetrical scattering for low-energy photons about 90° to the beam direction. As the photon energy increases, the scattering becomes predominantly peaked in the forward direction, and, for photons with energies that are greater than five times the rest energy of the…

  • Kleinbasel (area, Basel, Switzerland)

    Basel: Kleinbasel, to the north, is the Rhine port and industrial section, with the buildings of the annual Swiss Industries Fair. Grossbasel, the older commercial and cultural centre on the south bank, is dominated by the Romanesque and Gothic-style Münster (Protestant); consecrated in 1019, it was…

  • Kleindeutsch (German faction)

    Austria: Revolution and counterrevolution, 1848–59: …exclusion of Austria altogether (the Kleindeutsch, or small German, position). Implicit in the latter position was that the new Germany would be greatly influenced if not dominated by Prussia, by far the most important German state next to Austria. In October 1848 the delegates agreed to invite the Austrian German…

  • Kleindienst, Richard G. (attorney general of United States)

    Richard Gordon Kleindienst, American government official and attorney (born Aug. 5, 1923, Winslow, Ariz.—died Feb. 3, 2000, Prescott, Ariz.), served as U.S. attorney general under Pres. Richard Nixon from 1972 to 1973; he resigned his post during the Watergate scandal and later pleaded guilty to a

  • Kleine Herr Friedemann, Der (work by Mann)

    Thomas Mann: Early literary endeavours: His early tales, collected as Der kleine Herr Friedemann (1898), reflect the aestheticism of the 1890s but are given depth by the influence of the philosophers Schopenhauer and Nietzsche and the composer Wagner, to all of whom Mann was always to acknowledge a deep, if ambiguous, debt. Most of Mann’s…

  • kleine Stadt, Die (work by Mann)

    Heinrich Mann: …is Die kleine Stadt (1909; The Little Town).

  • Kleine-Levin syndrome (pathology)

    sleep: Hypersomnia of central origin: …disorder of periodically excessive sleep, Kleine-Levin syndrome, is characterized by periods of excessive sleep lasting days to weeks, along with a ravenous appetite, hypersexuality, and psychotic-like behaviour during the few waking hours. The syndrome typically begins during adolescence, appears to occur more frequently in males than in females, and eventually…

  • Kleines Organon für das Theater (work by Brecht)

    Bertolt Brecht: …most important theoretical work, the Kleines Organon für das Theater (1949; “A Little Organum for the Theatre”). The essence of his theory of drama, as revealed in this work, is the idea that a truly Marxist drama must avoid the Aristotelian premise that the audience should be made to believe…

  • Kleinmeister (engravers)

    Kleinmeister, group of engravers, working mostly in Nürnberg in the second quarter of the 16th century, whose forms and subjects were influenced by the works of Albrecht Dürer. Their engravings were small and thus easily portable. Usually flawless in technique, they stressed topical, didactic, i

  • Kleinow, Pete (American musician)

    Pete Kleinow, (“Sneaky”), American pedal-steel guitarist (born Aug. 20, 1934 , South Bend, Ind.—died Jan. 6, 2007 , Petaluma, Calif.), was an original member—with Chris Hillman, Chris Ethridge, and Gram Parsons—of the Flying Burrito Brothers, a popular musical group of the late 1960s and ’70s that

  • Kleinrock, Leonard (American computer scientist)

    Leonard Kleinrock, American computer scientist who developed the mathematical theory behind packet switching and who sent the first message between two computers on a network that was a precursor of the Internet. Kleinrock received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from the City College

  • Kleinschmidt, Samuel (German missionary)

    Eskimo-Aleut languages: Alphabets and orthography: In 1851 Samuel Kleinschmidt, a German missionary of the Moravian Brethren, systematized the Greenlandic orthography, introducing a special letter and three accents to represent the distinctive sounds of the language. In 1973 the Kleinschmidt orthography was replaced by an orthography in the current Roman alphabet. Numerous publications…

  • Kleist, Bernd Heinrich Wilhelm von (German author)

    Heinrich von Kleist, German dramatist, among the greatest of the 19th century. Poets of the Realist, Expressionist, Nationalist, and Existentialist movements in France and Germany saw their prototype in Kleist, a poet whose demonic genius had foreseen modern problems of life and literature. Having

  • Kleist, E. Georg von (German clergyman)

    E. Georg von Kleist, German administrator and cleric who discovered (1745) the Leyden jar, a fundamental electric circuit element for storing electricity, now usually referred to as a capacitor. The device was independently discovered at about the same time by Pieter van Musschenbroek, who

  • Kleist, Ewald Christian von (German poet)

    Ewald Christian von Kleist, German lyric poet best known for his long poem Der Frühling, which, with its realistically observed details of nature, contributed to the development of a new poetic style. Brought up by Jesuits, he studied law and mathematics and then became an army officer, first in

  • Kleist, Ewald Georg von (German clergyman)

    E. Georg von Kleist, German administrator and cleric who discovered (1745) the Leyden jar, a fundamental electric circuit element for storing electricity, now usually referred to as a capacitor. The device was independently discovered at about the same time by Pieter van Musschenbroek, who

  • Kleist, Heinrich von (German author)

    Heinrich von Kleist, German dramatist, among the greatest of the 19th century. Poets of the Realist, Expressionist, Nationalist, and Existentialist movements in France and Germany saw their prototype in Kleist, a poet whose demonic genius had foreseen modern problems of life and literature. Having

  • Kleist, Kuupik (prime minister of Greenland)

    Greenland: History: …the vote, and party leader Kuupik Kleist worked quickly to form a coalition government prior to the expansion of home rule later that month.

  • Kleist, Paul Ludwig Ewald von (German general)

    Paul Ludwig von Kleist, German general during World War II. Educated in a German military school, he served as a lieutenant of hussars and a regimental commander in World War I. After the Armistice, he served in various high staff appointments before being retired in 1939. He was recalled to

  • Kleitias (Greek artist)

    Kleitias, Athenian vase painter and potter, one of the most outstanding masters of the Archaic period, the artist of the decorations on the Fran?ois Vase. This vase, a volute krater painted in the black-figure style, is among the greatest treasures of Greek art. Dating from c. 570 bce, it was

  • Kleitman, Nathaniel (American physiologist)

    Nathaniel Kleitman, Russian-born American physiologist who with one of his students, Eugene Aserinsky, first reported on rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Kleitman’s and Aserinsky’s discovery of REM sleep in 1953 showed that sleep was characterized by distinct stages and was not a unitary state of

  • Klem, Bill (American baseball umpire)

    Bill Klem, American professional baseball umpire of the National League who is considered by many the greatest umpire of all time. Klem is credited with the introduction of hand and arm signals to indicate calls of pitched balls and strikes and foul and fair batted balls. He was also famous for his

  • Klem, William Joseph (American baseball umpire)

    Bill Klem, American professional baseball umpire of the National League who is considered by many the greatest umpire of all time. Klem is credited with the introduction of hand and arm signals to indicate calls of pitched balls and strikes and foul and fair batted balls. He was also famous for his

  • Klemens Maria Hofbauer (German saint)

    Saint Clement Mary Hofbauer, canonized May 20, 1909; feast day March 15; patron saint of Vienna. The son of a butcher, Hofbauer worked as a butcher until 1780. Educated at Vienna University and ordained in 1785, he was authorized to establish Redemptorist monasteries in northern Europe. In 1788 he

  • Klemm, Gustav Friedrich (German anthropologist)

    Gustav Friedrich Klemm, German anthropologist who developed the concept of culture and is thought to have influenced the prominent English anthropologist Sir Edward Burnett Tylor. Klemm spent most of his life as director of the royal library at Dresden. Distinguishing three stages of cultural

  • Klemp, Harold (American religious leader)

    ECKANKAR: …1981 passed his authority to Harold Klemp. Shortly after Klemp assumed authority, religious studies scholar David Christopher Lane charged that Twitchell had falsified much of his account of the origin of ECK. Klemp later acknowledged some truth in Lane’s accusations but asserted that the essential truth of ECK was unaffected.…

  • Klemperer, Otto (German conductor)

    Otto Klemperer, one of the outstanding German conductors of his time. Klemperer studied in Frankfurt and Berlin and on the recommendation of Gustav Mahler was made conductor of the German National Theatre at Prague in 1907. Between 1910 and 1927 he conducted opera at Hamburg, Barmen, Strassburg,

  • Klemperer, Werner (American actor)

    Werner Klemperer, German-born American actor (born March 22, 1920, Cologne, Ger.—died Dec. 6, 2000, New York, N.Y.), earned fame for his portrayal of Nazi Colonel Klink, a bumbling German prison-camp commandant, on the hit television sitcom Hogan’s Heroes (1965–71). A Jewish refugee from Nazi G

  • Klenovsky, Paul (British musician)

    Sir Henry J. Wood, conductor, the principal figure in the popularization of orchestral music in England in his time. Originally an organist, Wood studied composition at the Royal Academy of Music, London, from 1886. In 1889 he toured as a conductor with the Arthur Rousbey Opera Company and later

  • Klenze, Franz Leopold Karl von (German architect)

    Leo von Klenze, German architect who was one of the most important figures associated with Neoclassicism in Germany. After having studied public building finance in Berlin with David Gilly, Klenze moved to Munich in 1813; he went to Paris in 1814, where he met Ludwig, then crown prince of Bavaria

  • Klenze, Leo von (German architect)

    Leo von Klenze, German architect who was one of the most important figures associated with Neoclassicism in Germany. After having studied public building finance in Berlin with David Gilly, Klenze moved to Munich in 1813; he went to Paris in 1814, where he met Ludwig, then crown prince of Bavaria

  • Kleophrades Painter (Greek artist)

    Kleophrades Painter, Attic vase painter, among the finest of the late Archaic period, son of the Amasis Potter and probably a student of the vase painter Euthymides. The Kleophrades Painter was the decorator of vessels made by the Kleophrades Potter. About 150 vessels and fragments have been

  • klepht (Greek militia)

    armatole: …armatoles and were known as klephts (from the Greek kleptes, “brigand”). These klephts might sometimes be recognized by the Turkish authorities as armatoles, while the armatoles who were out of favour continued as klephts. The two terms came to be used indiscriminately. Both armatoles and klephts played important roles in…

  • Klephtic ballad (Greek literature)

    Klephtic ballad, any of the songs and poems extolling the adventures of the Klephts, Greek nationalists living as outlaws in the mountains during the period of Ottoman rule over Greece, which reached from 1453 until 1832, when Greece formally became independent. Containing some of the most

  • kleptomania (mental disorder)

    Kleptomania, recurrent compulsion to steal without regard to the value or use of the objects stolen. Although widely known and sometimes used as an attempted legal defense by arrested thieves, genuine kleptomania is a fairly rare mental disorder. A kleptomaniac may hide, give away, or secretly

  • Klerk, F. W. de (president of South Africa)

    F.W. de Klerk, politician who as president of South Africa (1989–94) brought the apartheid system of racial segregation to an end and negotiated a transition to majority rule in his country. He and Nelson Mandela jointly received the 1993 Nobel Prize for Peace for their collaboration in efforts to

  • Klerk, Michel de (Dutch architect)

    Michel de Klerk, architect and leader of the school of Amsterdam, which stressed individualism, fantasy, and picturesqueness in its architectural design. De Klerk worked as a draftsman, then studied in Scandinavia, later returning to Amsterdam. His Hille Building (1911) is considered the first

  • Klerksdorp (South Africa)

    Klerksdorp, town and principal centre of the Klerksdorp-area goldfields, North-West province, South Africa. It lies approximately 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Johannesburg. The “old town,” which was founded in 1837 on the Schoonspruit River near its confluence with the Vaal River, was the first

  • kle?a (Buddhism)

    āsrāva, (Sanskrit: “what leaks out”) in Buddhist philosophy, the illusion that ceaselessly flows out from internal organs (i.e., five sense organs and the mind). To the unenlightened, every existence becomes the object of illusion or is inevitably accompanied by illusion. Such an existence is

  • Klesl, Melchior (Austrian cardinal)

    Melchior Klesl, Austrian statesman, bishop of Vienna and later a cardinal, who tried to promote religious toleration during the Counter-Reformation in Austria. Converted from Protestantism by the Jesuits, he became an outstanding preacher and served as bishop of Vienna from the 1590s. Klesl became

  • Klesper, Ernst (German chemist)

    chromatography: Subsequent developments: The German chemist Ernst Klesper and his colleagues working at Johns Hopkins University were the first to report separation of the porphyrins with dense gases in 1962. Carbon dioxide at 400 atmospheres is a typical supercritical-fluid mobile phase. (One atmosphere equals 760 millimetres, or 29.92 inches, of mercury;…

  • Klestil, Thomas (president of Austria)

    Thomas Klestil, Austrian diplomat and politician (born Nov. 4, 1932, Vienna, Austria—died July 6, 2004, Vienna), worked to earn international respect for Austria, serving as an ambassador, as foreign minister, and, finally, as president from 1992. Klestil began his career in the Foreign Ministry i

  • Kletzki, Paul (Polish conductor and composer)

    Orchestre de la Suisse Romande: Other music directors included Paul Kletzki (1967–70), Wolfgang Sawallisch (1970–80), Horst Stein (1980–85), Armin Jordan (1985–97), Fabio Luisi (1997–2002), Pinchas Steinberg (2002–05), Marek Janowski (2005–12), and Neeme J?rvi (2012–15).

  • Kleutgen, Joseph (German theologian)

    Scholasticism: Enduring features: …which was a German Jesuit, Joseph Kleutgen, who published a voluminous scholarly apology of patristic and Scholastic theology and philosophy and was also responsible for the outline of the papal encyclical Aeterni Patris of Leo XIII (1879), which explicitly proclaimed the “instauration of Christian philosophy according to St. Thomas.” The…

  • Kleve (Germany)

    Kleve, city, North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), western Germany. It lies northwest of Düsseldorf, less than 5 miles (8 km) south of the Dutch border. It is connected with the Rhine River by a canal. The seat of the counts of Cleves from the 11th century, it was chartered in 1242. The county

  • kleyne mentshele, Dos (work by Mendele)

    Yiddish literature: The classic writers: The Parasite). Abramovitsh wrote his most important works while residing in Berdychev (now Berdychiv), Zhitomir (now Zhytomyr), and Odessa (all now in Ukraine). He was influenced by the Haskala during the 1850s and began his literary career writing in Hebrew. At that time, however, the…

  • klezmer music

    Klezmer music, genre of music derived from and built upon eastern European music in the Jewish tradition. The common usage of the term developed about 1980; historically, a klezmer (plural: klezmorim or klezmers) was a male professional instrumental musician, usually Jewish, who played in a band

  • Kli?, Karl (Bohemian artist and printer)

    Karl Kli?, Czech graphic artist and printer who in 1878 invented the most precise and (despite its slowness) commercially successful method of photogravure printing. Later he was associated with the English printer Samuel Fawcett, and in 1895 he established the first rotogravure firm, the Rembrandt

  • Klick, Frankie (American boxer)

    Kid Chocolate: …the seventh round by American Frankie Klick. Meanwhile, Chocolate lost a title shot against the world lightweight (135 pounds) champion, American Tony Canzoneri, on Nov. 24, 1933, when he was knocked out in the second round. Although Chocolate was recognized in New York as the “world” featherweight champion following his…

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