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  • Kohn, Walter (American physicist)

    Walter Kohn, Austrian-born American physicist who, with John A. Pople, received the 1998 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. The award recognized their individual work on computations in quantum chemistry. Kohn’s share of the prize acknowledged his development of the density-functional theory, which made it

  • Kohnfelder, Kathryn (American dancer and entrepreneur)

    Kathryn Murray, (Kathryn Kohnfelder), American ballroom dancer who with her husband, Arthur Murray, hosted a popular television dance show, The Arthur Murray Party (1950–60), and founded an international chain of dance studios (b. Sept. 15, 1906, Jersey City, N.J.—d. Aug. 6, 1999, Honolulu,

  • Koho language

    Bahnaric languages: South Bahnaric languages, such as Sre (Koho)—which has approximately 100,000 speakers—are spoken in southern Vietnam and southeastern Cambodia.

  • kohomba kankariya (Sri Lankan devil dance)

    South Asian arts: Tovil dance: …picturesque and important are the kohomba kankariya (or “ritual of the god Kohomba”), performed to ensure prosperity and to rout pestilence, and the bali, danced to propitiate the heavenly beings.

  • Kohr, Leopold (Austrian social philosopher)

    Leopold Kohr, Austrian-born social philosopher (born Oct. 5, 1909, Oberndorf, Austria—died Feb. 26, 1994, Gloucester, England), expounded on "the beauty of the small," particularly in his major work, The Breakdown of Nations (1957). Kohr’s philosophy, which was based on the premise that human s

  • Kohtla-J?rve (Estonia)

    Kohtla-J?rve, city, Estonia, near the Gulf of Finland. Founded in 1900 and incorporated in 1946, it lies on the Tallinn–St. Petersburg road and railway. Its principal industry is the processing of oil shales based on local deposits; shale-gas pipelines were constructed to Leningrad (now St.

  • Kohut, Alexander (American rabbi and scholar)

    Alexander Kohut, Hungarian-born American rabbi and scholar who wrote a monumental Talmudic lexicon and helped found the Jewish Theological Seminary of America. In 1865 Kohut assumed his first rabbinical pulpit, the beginning of a lifelong career as a rabbi. Excelling in Hungarian language and

  • Kohut, Heinz (American psychoanalyst)

    narcissism: Origins: …those of the Austrian psychoanalysts Heinz Kohut and Otto Kernberg, posit that adult narcissism has its roots in early childhood experiences. Both Kohut and Kernberg focus on disturbances in early social (parental) relationships as the genesis of adult narcissistic personality disorder. Also, both view narcissism at its core as a…

  • Koi (king of Paekche)

    Korea: The Three Kingdoms: …ce), for Paekche by King Koi (reigned 234–286), and for Silla by King Naemul (reigned 356–402).

  • koiaistor (Byzantine official)

    diplomatics: The Roman and Byzantine empire: …a new department under the koiaistor (a high palace official), while the secretaries had all come under the office of the protoasekretis (head of the secretaries). An official called the mystikos handled the emperor’s secret correspondence. In preparing edicts or other laws, the koiaistor, after consulting the emperor, made a…

  • Koichab (river, Africa)

    Namib: Drainage: …from the seepage of the Koichab, a stream that terminates in the dunes. Only the Cunene (Kunene) and Orange rivers flow permanently on the surface. Other streams have surface flow only after heavy rainfall in the interior plateaus; they normally flow for no more than a few days in several…

  • Koidu-New Sembehun (Sierra Leone)

    Koidu–New Sembehun, town, east-central Sierra Leone, adjacent to Sefadu. It is a trade centre for rice, palm oil and kernels, and cattle (from Guinea). Much of the town’s development is attributed to its location in the diamond-mining area leased by the Sierra Leone Selection Trust. After Koidu was

  • Koike Yuriko (Japanese politician)

    Abe Shinzo: …governor and former LDP member Koike Yuriko. Although preelection polling put the Party of Hope far behind the incumbent LDP coalition, Koike represented the strongest challenge to Abe’s government since his return to power in 2012.

  • Koil (India)

    Aligarh, city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies at the southern edge of the Upper Ganges-Yamuna Doab, about 65 miles (100 km) southeast of Delhi and some 25 miles (40 km) southwest of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The city itself is usually called Koil or Kol; Aligarh is the name of

  • Koine (ancient Greek language)

    Koine, the fairly uniform Hellenistic Greek spoken and written from the 4th century bc until the time of the Byzantine emperor Justinian (mid-6th century ad) in Greece, Macedonia, and the parts of Africa and the Middle East that had come under the influence or control of Greeks or of Hellenized

  • koine (language)

    Koine, originally, a contact variety of the Greek language that was spoken throughout the eastern Mediterranean region during the Hellenic and Roman empires. The term comes from the Greek koine (“common” or “shared”), although the variety was based chiefly on the Attic Greek dialect. A compromise

  • Koini Neoelliniki (Greek language)

    Demotic Greek language: …form a single unified language, Standard Modern Greek (Greek: Koini Neoelliniki).

  • Koinovitis, Athanasios (Greek monk)

    Metéora: …from the 14th century, when Athanasios Koinovitis, a monk from Mount Athos, ascended the plathy lithos (“broad rock”) and built the first structures of the Great Metéoron. The Serbian king then in control of Thessaly granted the monastery religious privileges. In 1388 the king’s son and the hermit Ioasaf, a…

  • Koirala, Girija Prasad (prime minister of Nepal)

    Girija Prasad Koirala, Indian-born Nepalese politician who served four times as prime minister of Nepal (1991–94, 1998–99, 2000–01, 2006–08). Koirala was a member of the most prominent political family in Nepal. His older brothers both served as prime minister: Matrika Prasad Koirala in 1951–52 and

  • Koirala, Sushil (prime minister of Nepal)

    Sushil Koirala, Nepali politician and government official, who served as the prime minister of Nepal in 2014–15. Koirala was a member of one of Nepal’s most prominent political families. Three of his relatives—Matrika Prasad Koirala, Bishweshwar Prasad (B.P.) Koirala, and Girija Prasad Koirala—had

  • Koishikawa Botanical Garden (garden, Japan)

    Koishikawa Botanical Garden, botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the University of Tokyo. It has some 4,000 different plant species under cultivation on its 40-acre (16-hectare) site in Tokyo. Among its most notable outdoor collections are camellias, cherries, maples, Japanese primroses,

  • Koishikawa Shokubutsuen (garden, Japan)

    Koishikawa Botanical Garden, botanical garden and arboretum maintained by the University of Tokyo. It has some 4,000 different plant species under cultivation on its 40-acre (16-hectare) site in Tokyo. Among its most notable outdoor collections are camellias, cherries, maples, Japanese primroses,

  • Koiso Kuniaki (prime minister of Japan)

    Koiso Kuniaki, Japanese army general and prime minister during the final phase of World War II. Koiso graduated from the Army Academy in 1900 at the top of his class, attended the Army War College, and served on active duty during the Russo-Japanese War. In 1930 he became chief of the Bureau of

  • Koivisto, Mauno (president of Finland)

    Finland: The postwar period: …succeeded by the Social Democrat Mauno Koivisto, who was reelected in 1988. Koivisto was in turn succeeded in 1994 by another Social Democrat, Martti Ahtisaari.

  • Koizumi Jun’ichirō (prime minister of Japan)

    Koizumi Junichiro, third-generation Japanese politician, who was prime minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. Both Koizumi’s father and grandfather served in the Diet (parliament). He graduated with a degree in economics from Keio University, Tokyo, in 1967 and then attended the London School of

  • Koizumi Junichiro (prime minister of Japan)

    Koizumi Junichiro, third-generation Japanese politician, who was prime minister of Japan from 2001 to 2006. Both Koizumi’s father and grandfather served in the Diet (parliament). He graduated with a degree in economics from Keio University, Tokyo, in 1967 and then attended the London School of

  • Koizumi Yakumo (British-born writer and translator)

    Lafcadio Hearn, writer, translator, and teacher who introduced the culture and literature of Japan to the West. Hearn grew up in Dublin. After a brief and spasmodic education in England and France, he immigrated to the United States at 19. He settled in Cincinnati, Ohio, working at various menial

  • Koja Mirahor ilyas Bey (Albanian Muslim)

    Kor??: …in 1484 the local lord, Koja Mirahor ?lyas Bey, a Muslim convert active in the Ottoman siege of Constantinople (1453; now Istanbul), returned to the site and built the mosque that bears his name. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries Kor?? was a centre of commerce and trade. The…

  • Kojève, Alexandre (Russian philosopher)

    continental philosophy: French Nietzscheanism: …1930s, the Russian émigré philosopher Alexandre Kojève (1902–68) held a series of seminars on Hegel’s Phenomenology of Spirit that were attended by the most eminent figures in French intellectual society. Kojève’s idiosyncratic reading of Hegel probably had a greater impact on novelists and poets than on philosophers, though it did…

  • koji (rice and mold mixture)

    sake: …preparation of steamed rice and koji (Aspergillus oryzae), a fungus that converts the rice starch to fermentable sugars. The koji is mixed with water and fresh steamed rice, traditionally by hand, and is wrapped in a blanket and incubated to form a sweet crumbly dry material. This is then placed…

  • Koji-ki (Japanese religious text)

    Kojiki, (Japanese: “Records of Ancient Matters”), together with the Nihon shoki (q.v.), the first written record in Japan, part of which is considered a sacred text of the Shintō religion. The Kojiki text was compiled from oral tradition in 712. The Kojiki is an important source book for

  • Kojiki (Japanese religious text)

    Kojiki, (Japanese: “Records of Ancient Matters”), together with the Nihon shoki (q.v.), the first written record in Japan, part of which is considered a sacred text of the Shintō religion. The Kojiki text was compiled from oral tradition in 712. The Kojiki is an important source book for

  • Kojima Nobuo (Japanese novelist)

    Nobuo Kojima, Japanese novelist (born Feb. 28, 1915, Gifu, Japan—died Oct. 26, 2006, Tokyo, Japan), chronicled the dramatic post-World War II transformation that occurred in Japanese society, notably the changes that occurred in the household relationship between daughter-in-law and m

  • Kojinteki-na taiken (novel by ōe Kenzaburō)

    ōe Kenzaburō: …finest novel, Kojinteki-na taiken (1964; A Personal Matter), a darkly humorous account of a new father’s struggle to accept the birth of his brain-damaged child. A visit to Hiroshima resulted in the work Hiroshima nōto (1965; Hiroshima Notes), which deals with the survivors of the atomic bombing of that city.…

  • Kojo no tsuki (work by Taki)

    Japanese music: Composers in Western styles: …is Kojo no tsuki (The Ruined Castle), written in 1901 by Taki Rentarō after his training in Germany. In its piano-accompanied version it recalls the style of Franz Schubert, but as sung in the streets it sounds Japanese. Yamada Kōsaku was training in Germany when the Meiji era ended…

  • Kojong (Korean ruler)

    Kojong, 26th monarch of the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty and the last to effectively rule Korea. Kojong became king of Korea while still a young boy. During the first years of his reign, power was in the hands of his father, Taew?n-gun, who as regent attempted to restore and revitalize the country. When

  • Kok III, Adam (African chief)

    Adam Kok III, chief who led the people of the Griqua nation from their home in the Orange Free State (now part of South Africa) to found a new nation, Griqualand East, on the east coast of what is now South Africa. He considered himself an independent ally of the British, but colonial pressures

  • K?k Turki alphabet (writing system)

    K?k Turki alphabet, writing system used by Turkic-speaking peoples in Central Asia from the 6th to the 8th century ad. It is sometimes called K?k Turki runes because of the resemblance of its letter forms to those of the (Germanic) runic alphabet. The script occurred in two forms, monumental and

  • Kok-Aral Dam (dam, Kazakhstan)

    Aral Sea: Physiographic changes: … funded the construction of the Kok-Aral Dam (completed 2005) and projects along the Syr Darya that appeared to be preserving the northern portion of the sea. However, the southern portion—both the eastern and western lobes but most notably the eastern—continued to shrink, despite some inflow of water from the north.…

  • kokako (bird)

    Kokako, (species Callaeas cinerea), New Zealand songbird of the family Callaeidae (order Passeriformes). The kokako is 45 cm (17.5 inches) long and has a gray body, black mask, and blue or orange wattles at the corners of the mouth. Surviving in a few mountain forests, the kokako lives mainly on f

  • Kokalla I (Indian ruler)

    Kalachuri dynasty: Central India: …into clearer focus only with Kokalla I (reigned c. 850–885). The period between Kokalla I and Kokalla II (reigned c. 990–1015) is marked by a consolidation of Kalachuri power and by their relations with contemporary dynasties. The success attributed to Kokalla I against the Pratiharas, the Kalachuris of Uttar Pradesh,…

  • Kōkan (Japanese painter)

    Shiba Kōkan, Japanese artist and scholar of the Tokugawa period who introduced many aspects of Western culture to Japan. He was a pioneer in Western-style oil painting and was the first Japanese to produce a copperplate etching. Kōkan studied painting first with a teacher of the Kanō school, in

  • Kokand (Uzbekistan)

    Kokand, city, eastern Uzbekistan. It lies in the western Fergana Valley, at road and rail junctions from Tashkent to the valley. The ancient town of Khavakend occupied the site from at least the 10th century and was situated on the caravan route from India and China. In the 13th century it was

  • Kokand, khanate of (historical state, Uzbekistan)

    Tashkent: …before being annexed by the khanate of Kokand in 1809. When it was captured by the Russians in 1865, it was a walled city of some 70,000 inhabitants and already a leading centre of trade with Russia. In 1867 it was made the administrative centre of the new governorate-general of…

  • kokanee (fish)

    sockeye salmon: The kokanee (O. nerka kennerlyi) is a small nonmigratory freshwater form of sockeye. See also salmon.

  • Kok?etav (Kazakhstan)

    K?kshetaū, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies along the southern edge of the Esil (Ishim) Steppe. K?kshetaü was founded in 1824 as an administrative outpost when the Russians extended their control over the Kazaks. It became a district administrative centre in 1868 and a regional centre in 1944,

  • Kokchetav (Kazakhstan)

    K?kshetaū, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies along the southern edge of the Esil (Ishim) Steppe. K?kshetaü was founded in 1824 as an administrative outpost when the Russians extended their control over the Kazaks. It became a district administrative centre in 1868 and a regional centre in 1944,

  • Kōkei (Japanese sculptor)

    Kaikei: Together with his father, Kōkei, and his brother Unkei, he made statues for the temples of Kōfuku and Tōdai in Nara, the ancient capital of Japan. Kaikei’s style, while sharing the direct and realistic manner typical of the time, was noted for its gentleness and grace in contrast to…

  • Kokem?en River (river, Finland)

    Kokem?en River, river in southwestern Finland. Its source is Lake Pyh?, from which it flows southwest and then northwest for about 90 miles (145 km) to enter the Gulf of Bothnia, near Pori. It is dammed for hydroelectric p

  • Kokem?enjoki (river, Finland)

    Kokem?en River, river in southwestern Finland. Its source is Lake Pyh?, from which it flows southwest and then northwest for about 90 miles (145 km) to enter the Gulf of Bothnia, near Pori. It is dammed for hydroelectric p

  • Kōken (empress of Japan)

    Kōken, the last empress to rule Japan until the 17th century; she twice occupied the throne (749–758; 764–770). There had been a number of female rulers before Kōken, but the power achieved by the Buddhist monk Dōkyō during her second reign caused the Council of Ministers to preclude female

  • Koken generator (cryptology device)

    cryptology: The impact of modern electronics: …similar to rotors is the Fibonacci generator (also called the Koken generator after its inventor), named for the Fibonacci sequence of number theory. In the classical Fibonacci sequence 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13…each successive term, beginning with 2, is the sum of the two terms to its left;…

  • Kōken Tennō (empress of Japan)

    Kōken, the last empress to rule Japan until the 17th century; she twice occupied the throne (749–758; 764–770). There had been a number of female rulers before Kōken, but the power achieved by the Buddhist monk Dōkyō during her second reign caused the Council of Ministers to preclude female

  • Kokhba, Bar (Jewish leader)

    Bar Kokhba, Jewish leader who led a bitter but unsuccessful revolt (132–135 ce) against Roman dominion in Judaea. During his tour of the Eastern Empire in 131, the Roman emperor Hadrian decided upon a policy of Hellenization to integrate the Jews into the empire. Circumcision was proscribed, a

  • Kokhtla-Yarve (Estonia)

    Kohtla-J?rve, city, Estonia, near the Gulf of Finland. Founded in 1900 and incorporated in 1946, it lies on the Tallinn–St. Petersburg road and railway. Its principal industry is the processing of oil shales based on local deposits; shale-gas pipelines were constructed to Leningrad (now St.

  • Kokin wakashū (Japanese anthology)

    Kokinshū, (Japanese: “Collection from Ancient and Modern Times”) the first anthology of Japanese poetry compiled upon Imperial order, by poet Ki Tsurayuki and others in 905. It was the first major literary work written in the kana writing system. The Kokinshū comprises 1,111 poems, many of them

  • Kokin-shū (Japanese anthology)

    Kokinshū, (Japanese: “Collection from Ancient and Modern Times”) the first anthology of Japanese poetry compiled upon Imperial order, by poet Ki Tsurayuki and others in 905. It was the first major literary work written in the kana writing system. The Kokinshū comprises 1,111 poems, many of them

  • Kokinshū (Japanese anthology)

    Kokinshū, (Japanese: “Collection from Ancient and Modern Times”) the first anthology of Japanese poetry compiled upon Imperial order, by poet Ki Tsurayuki and others in 905. It was the first major literary work written in the kana writing system. The Kokinshū comprises 1,111 poems, many of them

  • Kokka Shintō

    State Shintō, nationalistic official religion of Japan from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 through World War II. It focused on ceremonies of the imperial household and public Shintō shrines. State Shintō was founded on the ancient precedent of saisei itchi, the unity of religion and government. T

  • Kokkai (Japanese government)

    Diet, the national legislature of Japan. Under the Meiji Constitution of 1889, the Imperial Diet was established on the basis of two houses with coequal powers. The upper house, the House of Peers (Kizokuin), was almost wholly appointive. Initially, its membership was slightly less than 300, but it

  • Kokkinarás (mountain, Greece)

    Mount Pentelicus: …northeast of Athens (Athína), is Kokkinarás (3,632 feet [1,107 m]), which yields white Pentelic marble on its north slope. In Classical times the peak had 25 quarries on the south slope at elevations between 2,500 and 3,300 feet (760 and 1000 m). These provided excellent marble for most of the…

  • Kokkonen, Joonas (Finnish composer)

    Joonas Kokkonen, Finnish composer who was the country’s most important since Jean Sibelius; his some 50 works include four symphonies and other orchestral pieces, several choral works, a number of chamber pieces, and only one opera, Viimeiset kiusaukset (The Last Temptations), which nevertheless

  • Koko (Nigeria)

    Koko, town and port, Delta state, southern Nigeria. It lies along the Benin River, in the western Niger River delta. A collecting point for palm oil and kernels as well as timber, it can be reached by vessels of 14-foot (4-metre) draft that navigate the 50-mile (80-kilometre) distance upstream to

  • Koko Crater (tuff crater, Hawaii, United States)

    Koko Head: …metres) near Kawaihoa Point, and Koko Crater (Hawaii’s tallest tuff ring), which rises to 1,207 feet (368 metres). According to legend, Koko Crater was formed when Pele, the goddess of fires and volcanoes, was chased by Kamapuaa, the pig god. The crater contains a 60-acre (24-hectare) botanical garden. The cape’s…

  • Koko Head (cape, Oahu, Hawaii, United States)

    Koko Head, cape and landmark, Honolulu county, on the southeastern coast of Oahu island, Hawaii, U.S. It lies across from Diamond Head 9 miles (14 km) east on Maunalua Bay. Formed by secondary volcanic eruptions of the Koolau Range more than 10,000 years ago, the cape (whose name means “blood” or

  • Koko Head Crater (tuff crater, Hawaii, United States)

    Koko Head: These include Koko Head Crater, at an elevation of 642 feet (196 metres) near Kawaihoa Point, and Koko Crater (Hawaii’s tallest tuff ring), which rises to 1,207 feet (368 metres). According to legend, Koko Crater was formed when Pele, the goddess of fires and volcanoes, was chased…

  • Koko Nor (lake, China)

    Koko Nor, lake, Qinghai province, west-central China. The largest mountain lake without a river outlet in Central Asia, it is located in a depression of the Qilian Mountains, its surface at an elevation of about 10,500 feet (3,200 metres) above sea level. The length of the lake approaches 65 miles

  • Kōko shimbun (Japanese newspaper)

    history of publishing: Continental Europe and other countries: …shogunate sympathizers, they included the Kōko shimbun, whose publisher, the dramatist and educator Fukuchi Gen’ichirō, had studied Western newspapers on his official travels abroad for the Japanese government (and who was later, in 1874, to preside over the Nichi-Nichi shimbun, a paper that was closer to Western newspapers in style).…

  • Kokoda Track Campaign (World War II)

    Kokoda Track Campaign, series of military operations fought between Australian and Japanese troops in New Guinea during World War II. At its closest point to mainland Australia, New Guinea is less than 100 miles (160 km) away, and it became apparent in the early days of the Pacific War that the

  • Kokoda Trail Campaign (World War II)

    Kokoda Track Campaign, series of military operations fought between Australian and Japanese troops in New Guinea during World War II. At its closest point to mainland Australia, New Guinea is less than 100 miles (160 km) away, and it became apparent in the early days of the Pacific War that the

  • Kokomo (Indiana, United States)

    Kokomo, city, seat (1844) of Howard county, north-central Indiana, U.S., on Wildcat Creek, 52 miles (84 km) north of Indianapolis. In 1844 David Foster, a trader, laid out the village of Kokomo (named for a Miami chieftain) on part of the reservation once held by Chief La Fontaine. The settlement’s

  • Kokon sanpoki (work by Kazuyuki)

    East Asian mathematics: The elaboration of Chinese methods: Sawaguchi Kazuyuki’s Kokon sanpoki (1671; “Ancient and Modern Mathematics”) pointed out that “erroneous” problems could have more than one solution (in other words, equations could have more than one root), but he left unanswered difficult problems involving simultaneous equations of the nth degree. Equations for their solution…

  • Kokoro (novel by Natsume Sōseki)

    Japanese literature: The novel between 1905 and 1941: His best-known novel, Kokoro (1914; “The Heart”; Eng. trans. Kokoro), revolves around another familiar situation in his novels, two men in love with the same woman. His last novel, Meian (1916; Light and Darkness), though unfinished, has been acclaimed by some as his masterpiece.

  • kokorra (art)

    Oceanic art and architecture: The Solomon Islands: …Buka-Bougainville two-dimensional art is the kokorra, a silhouette of a squatting or standing human figure with upraised hands and the male mitrelike coiffure. This figure—or the head alone—was painted and carved in bas-relief upon a great variety of objects, including canoes, paddles, slit gongs, dance clubs, and architectural elements.

  • Kokoschka, Oskar (Austrian painter and writer)

    Oskar Kokoschka, Austrian painter and writer who was one of the leading exponents of Expressionism. In his early portraits, gesture intensifies the psychological penetration of character; especially powerful among his later works are allegories of the artist’s emphatic humanism. His dramas, poems,

  • kokoshnik (architecture)

    Western architecture: Kievan Rus and Russia: There the kokoshniki were introduced in the treatment of the roof. This element, similar in outline to the popular Russian bochka roof (pointed on top, with the sides forming a continuous double curve, concave above and convex below), foreshadowed a tendency to replace the forms of the…

  • kokoshniki (architecture)

    Western architecture: Kievan Rus and Russia: There the kokoshniki were introduced in the treatment of the roof. This element, similar in outline to the popular Russian bochka roof (pointed on top, with the sides forming a continuous double curve, concave above and convex below), foreshadowed a tendency to replace the forms of the…

  • Kokowska, Renata (Polish athlete)

    Berlin Marathon: …victories is three, shared by Renata Kokowska of Poland and Uta Pippig of Germany.

  • Kokshaal-Tau Range (mountains, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: Dzhetym, At-Bashy, and the Kakshaal (Kokshaal-Tau) Range, in which Dankova Peak reaches a height of 19,626 feet (5,982 metres).

  • K?kshetaū (Kazakhstan)

    K?kshetaū, city, northern Kazakhstan. It lies along the southern edge of the Esil (Ishim) Steppe. K?kshetaü was founded in 1824 as an administrative outpost when the Russians extended their control over the Kazaks. It became a district administrative centre in 1868 and a regional centre in 1944,

  • koku (measurement)

    Japan: The Hideyoshi regime: … of silver, an assessment of kokudaka was made as so many hundred or ten thousand koku of rice. A koku represented the amount of rice consumed by one person in one year (about five bushels); the amount also was used as a standard on which military services were levied in…

  • kokubun-ji (Japanese Buddhist temple system)

    Japanese architecture: The Nara period: In 741 he established the kokubunji system, building a monastery and a nunnery in each province, all under a central authority at Nara. In 743 he initiated the planning for construction of that central authority—the Tōdai Temple—and of its central image, a massive bronze statue of the Birushana (Vairocana) Buddha,…

  • kokubunji (Japanese Buddhist temple system)

    Japanese architecture: The Nara period: In 741 he established the kokubunji system, building a monastery and a nunnery in each province, all under a central authority at Nara. In 743 he initiated the planning for construction of that central authority—the Tōdai Temple—and of its central image, a massive bronze statue of the Birushana (Vairocana) Buddha,…

  • Kokubunji (Japan)

    Kokubunji, city, Tokyo to (metropolis), Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Chūō Main Line, west of Tokyo city. The city first developed around the Kokubun Temple, built in the 8th century for a group of Buddhist nuns, and was an early cultural centre. During the Meiji era (1868–1912), it depended

  • kokudaka (Japanese history)

    Japan: The Hideyoshi regime: …relations were now based on kokudaka—i.e., on the actual product of the land. Moreover, this kokudaka now came within the landlord’s grasp in every village, and land taxes were levied on the village as a unit. In addition to this definition of the rights held by the farming population, the…

  • Kokugaku (Japanese-studies movement)

    Kokugaku, (Japanese: “National Learning”), movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Japan that emphasized Japanese classical studies. The movement received impetus from the Neo-Confucianists, who stressed the importance of Chinese Classical literature. The Mito school of scholars, for example,

  • kokugaryō (Japanese society)

    Japan: Samurai groups and farming villages: …held huge public lands (kokugaryō) and private estates in various provinces and wielded power comparable to that of the bakufu. These shōen were managed by influential resident landlords who had become warriors. They were often the original developers of their districts who became officials of the provincial government and…

  • Kokuikō (work by Kamo Mabuchi)

    Kamo Mabuchi: His chief original work, the Kokuikō, contains a biting rejection of Chinese thought and literature and a hymnal glorification of Japanese antiquity. His writings, collected in 12 volumes, are made up primarily of commentaries on Old Japanese literature.

  • Kokumin no tomo (Japanese periodical)

    Tokutomi Sohō: …began a highly influential periodical, Kokumin no tomo (“Nation’s Friend”), that was Japan’s first general magazine. Min’yūsha in 1890 began printing Kokumn shimbun (“The Nation Newspaper”), which was for several decades one of the most influential papers in the country.

  • Kokura (Japan)

    Kitakyūshū: Kokura, a former arsenal town, specializes in iron and steel and machinery. Moji contains the city’s major port facilities; it is a coal-shipping and fishing port and has oil-storage facilities.

  • Kokuritsu Kagaku Hakubatsukan (museum, Tokyo, Japan)

    National Science Museum, museum in Tokyo, founded in 1872, concerned with the history of the physical sciences, natural history, and technology. The collections include models of Japanese flora in wax and other materials, engineering and scientific apparatus, and machines of historical i

  • Kokuritsu Kindai Bijutsukan (museum, Tokyo, Japan)

    National Museum of Modern Art, museum in Tokyo devoted to important Japanese works of art of the 20th century. The collection covers works of past artists outstanding in the history of Japanese art; outstanding works of contemporary artists; and works selected for their historical importance. The

  • Kokuritsu Kokkai Toshokan (library, Tokyo, Japan)

    National Diet Library, the national library of Japan, formed at Tokyo in 1948 and combining the libraries of the upper and lower houses of the Diet (national legislature) with the collections of the former Imperial Library (established 1872). The library’s building opened in 1961, adjacent to the

  • Kokuritsu Seiyō Bijutsukan (museum, Tokyo, Japan)

    National Museum of Western Art, Japanese national collection of European art, located in Ueno Park, Tokyo. The museum building, designed by Le Corbusier, was opened in 1959, and an annex by Maekawa Kunio was added in 1979. The basis of the collection was a group of more than 400 French paintings,

  • Kokuryūkai (Japanese society)

    Japan: The weakening of party government: Most, like the Black Dragon Society (Kokuryūkai), combined continental adventurism and a strong nationalist stance with opposition to party government, big business, acculturation, and Westernization. By allying with other rightists, they alternately terrorized and intimidated their presumed opponents. A number of business leaders and political figures were killed,…

  • Kokusenya kassen (work by Chikamatsu)

    Chikamatsu Monzaemon: …work was Kokusenya kassen (1715; The Battles of Coxinga), a historical melodrama based loosely on events in the life of the Chinese-Japanese adventurer who attempted to restore the Ming dynasty in China. Another celebrated work is Shinjū ten no Amijima (1720; Double Suicide at Amijima), still frequently performed. Despite Chikamatsu’s…

  • kokushi (Japanese government)

    Japan: The ritsuryō system: …administered by officials known as kokushi, gunji, and richō, respectively. The posts of kokushi were filled by members of the central bureaucracy in turn, but the posts of gunji and richō were staffed by members of prominent local families.

  • KOL (American labour organization)

    Knights of Labor (KOL), the first important national labour organization in the United States, founded in 1869. Named the Noble Order of the Knights of Labor by its first leader, Uriah Smith Stephens, it originated as a secret organization meant to protect its members from employer retaliations.

  • Kol (India)

    Aligarh, city, western Uttar Pradesh state, northern India. It lies at the southern edge of the Upper Ganges-Yamuna Doab, about 65 miles (100 km) southeast of Delhi and some 25 miles (40 km) southwest of the Ganges (Ganga) River. The city itself is usually called Koil or Kol; Aligarh is the name of

  • Kol Nidre (Judaism)

    Kol Nidre, (Aramaic: “All Vows”), a prayer sung in Jewish synagogues at the beginning of the service on the eve of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement). The name, derived from the opening words, also designates the melody to which the prayer is traditionally chanted. Though equally ancient versions exist

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