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  • Kommanditgesellschaft (business)

    limited liability: …amounts of capital in industry, limited partnerships became popular. Known as the société en commandite in France and Kommanditgesellschaft in Germany, the limited-partnership arrangement required at least one partner to be totally liable as in a regular partnership (q.v.) and allowed other partners to be liable only for the amounts…

  • Kommunarsk (Ukraine)

    Alchevsk, city, eastern Ukraine. It lies along the railway from Luhansk to Debaltseve. Alchevsk was founded in 1895 with the establishment of the Donetsko-Yuryevsky ironworks. The plant developed into a large, integrated ironworks and steelworks, which was expanded greatly in the 1950s and ’60s.

  • kommuner (Swedish political division)

    Sweden: Local government: …government is allocated to the kommuner (municipalities), each with an elected assembly and the right to levy income taxes and to charge fees for various services. Municipalities have a strong independent position. Streets, sewerage, water supply, schools, public assistance, child welfare, housing, and care for elderly people are among their…

  • Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii (political party, Russia)

    Communist Party of the Russian Federation (KPRF), Russian political party that opposes many of the democratic and economic reforms introduced in Russia after the disintegration of the Soviet Union. The Communist Party of the Russian Federation was officially established in 1993, but it is

  • Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Sovetskogo Soyuza (political party, Soviet Union)

    Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the major political party of Russia and the Soviet Union from the Russian Revolution of October 1917 to 1991. The Communist Party of the Soviet Union arose from the Bolshevik wing of the Russian Social Democratic Workers’ Party (RSDWP). The Bolsheviks,

  • Kommunistikon Komma Ellados (political party, Greece)

    Markos Vafiades: …insurgent, founding member of the Greek Communist Party, and commander of the communist-led Democratic Army in the civil war against the Greek government (1946–49).

  • Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands (political party, Germany)

    Friedrich Ebert: …the SPD to form the Communist Party of Germany (KPD). The leftists who had withdrawn from the SPD sought a social revolution, while Ebert and his party wanted to establish a German parliamentary democracy. Even in the midst of the war, the Catholic Centre Party, the Democratic Party (previously the…

  • Komnenos family (Byzantine emperors)

    Comnenus family, Byzantine family from Paphlagonia, members of which occupied the throne of Constantinople for more than a century (1081–1185). Manuel Eroticus Comnenus was the first member of the family to figure in Byzantine history; an able general, he served the emperor Basil II in the East.

  • Komo (African society)

    African art: Bambara (Bamana): The Komo is the custodian of tradition and is concerned with all aspects of community life—agriculture, judicial processes, and passage rites. Its masks, which are considered to be enormously powerful, are shaped in an elongated animal form decorated with actual horns of antelope, quills of porcupine,…

  • Komodo (island, Indonesia)

    Komodo, island of the Lesser Sunda Islands, Nusa Tenggara Timur provinsi (province), Indonesia. The island, which has an area of approximately 200 square miles (520 square km), lies on the Sape Strait between Flores and Sumbawa islands. It is rather hilly, reaching a maximum elevation of 2,700 feet

  • Komodo dragon (lizard)

    Komodo dragon, (Varanus komodoensis), largest extant lizard species. The dragon is a monitor lizard of the family Varanidae. It occurs on Komodo Island and a few neighbouring islands of the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia. The popular interest in the lizard’s large size and predatory habits has

  • Komoé National Park (national park, C?te d’Ivoire)

    Komoé National Park, national park, northeastern C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). Originally founded in 1953 as the Bouna-Komoé game reserve, in 1968 it was expanded and established as a national park. Comprising approximately 4,440 square miles (11,500 square km) of wooded savanna, Komoé contains the

  • Komoé River (river, Africa)

    Komoé River, river in West Africa, rising 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta), and forming part of the Burkina Faso–C?te d’Ivoire boundary before entering C?te d’Ivoire to flow southward and empty into its estuary on the Gulf of Guinea. Its total

  • Komoé, Parc National de la (national park, C?te d’Ivoire)

    Komoé National Park, national park, northeastern C?te d’Ivoire (Ivory Coast). Originally founded in 1953 as the Bouna-Komoé game reserve, in 1968 it was expanded and established as a national park. Comprising approximately 4,440 square miles (11,500 square km) of wooded savanna, Komoé contains the

  • Kōmoku (Hindu and Buddhist mythology)

    lokapāla: …Buddhist lokapālas are Dh?tarā??ra (east), Virū?haka (south), and Virūpāk?a (west).

  • komondor (breed of dog)

    Komondor, large Hungarian sheepdog breed taken to Europe in the 9th century by the Magyars, who kept it primarily to protect, rather than to herd, their flocks. A powerful, heavy-boned dog, the male komondor stands at least 27.5 inches (69.9 cm) and weighs 100 pounds (45 kg) or more; the female is

  • komondorok (breed of dog)

    Komondor, large Hungarian sheepdog breed taken to Europe in the 9th century by the Magyars, who kept it primarily to protect, rather than to herd, their flocks. A powerful, heavy-boned dog, the male komondor stands at least 27.5 inches (69.9 cm) and weighs 100 pounds (45 kg) or more; the female is

  • Komorn (Slovakia)

    Komárno, town, southwestern Slovakia. It lies at the confluence of the Vah and Nitra rivers with the Danube River below Bratislava, at the Hungarian border. The town of Komárom, part of Hungary, lies on the south bank of the Danube across from Komárno. Komárno occupies the extreme eastern end of an

  • Komornicy (work by Orkan)

    W?adys?aw Orkan: …Stories”), as well as in Komornicy (1900; “Tenant Farmers”), Orkan gives a naturalistic account of highlander-peasant life in his native Tatra region. Later, influenced by the literary and political movement of Young Poland, he wrote the novel W roztokach (1903; “In the Mountain Valleys”), which presents a gloomy image of…

  • Komorowski, Bronis?aw (president of Poland)

    Bronis?aw Komorowski, Polish politician who served as president of Poland (2010–15). Named acting president after the death of Lech Kaczyński in April 2010, Komorowski won the presidency in a special election that July. Komorowski was born to an aristocratic family, but the communist regime in

  • Komotau (Czech Republic)

    Chomutov, city, northwestern Czech Republic. It lies at the foot of the Ore Mountains (Kru?né hory) near the German border, northwest of Prague. Probably Czech in origin, Chomutov was a command post of the Teutonic Knights in the 14th century and remained German until the end of World War II. It is

  • Komparu Zempō (Japanese nō dramatist)

    Komparu Zempō, nō dramatist and actor, grandson of nō actor and dramatist Komparu Zenchiku. Zempō was one of the last dramatists of nō’s classic period. He wrote one play, Hatsuyuki (“First Snow”), in the restrained and poetic manner of his grandfather. Most of his work, however, such as A

  • Komparu Zenchiku (Japanese nō dramatist)

    Komparu Zenchiku, nō actor and playwright who also wrote critical works on drama. Zenchiku, who married a daughter of the actor Zeami Motokiyo, was trained in drama by Zeami and Zeami’s son Motomasa. Zenchiku worked and performed in the Nara region and perhaps, therefore, was not as successful as Z

  • Kompong Cham (Cambodia)

    Kampóng Cham, town, south-central Cambodia. The town lies on the right bank of the Mekong River and is an important river port about 45 miles (75 km) northeast of Phnom Penh, the national capital. It has an airfield, a cotton-textile mill, a rice mill, and agricultural-machinery and vehicle-repair

  • Kompong Chhnang (Cambodia)

    Kampóng Chhn?ng, town, central Cambodia. Kampóng Chhn?ng is located just west of the Sab River (the outlet for the Tonle Sap) and has port facilities. It is connected to Phnom Penh, the national capital, by a national highway route and railway. The surrounding area is occupied by Khmer peoples,

  • Kompong Som (Cambodia)

    Kampóng Sa?m, town, autonomous municipality, and the only deepwater port of Cambodia, situated on a peninsula of the Gulf of Thailand. The port is connected with Phnom Penh, the national capital, by two major highways. It was first opened to ocean traffic in 1956; initial facilities were capable of

  • Kompong Speu (Cambodia)

    Kampóng Sp?, town, south-central Cambodia. The town lies along the Tna?t River at the foot of the Damrei (“Elephant”) Mountains and astride a national highway linking Phnom Penh, the national capital, with Kampóng Sa?m, the country’s principal seaport. The surrounding area supports rice, sugarcane,

  • Komsomol (Soviet youth organization)

    Komsomol, in the history of the Soviet Union, organization for young people aged 14 to 28 that was primarily a political organ for spreading Communist teachings and preparing future members of the Communist Party. Closely associated with this organization were the Pioneers (All-Union Lenin Pioneer

  • Komsomolsk-na-Amure (Russia)

    Komsomolsk-na-Amure, city in Khabarovsk kray (territory), far eastern Russia, on the Amur River. Founded in 1932 on the site of the small village of Permskoye, the town was built by members of the Komsomol (Young Communist League), from which it derives its name. It rapidly developed into a major

  • Komsomolsk-on-Amur (Russia)

    Komsomolsk-na-Amure, city in Khabarovsk kray (territory), far eastern Russia, on the Amur River. Founded in 1932 on the site of the small village of Permskoye, the town was built by members of the Komsomol (Young Communist League), from which it derives its name. It rapidly developed into a major

  • Komsomolskaya Pravda (Soviet newspaper)

    Komsomolskaya Pravda, (Russian: “Young Communist League Truth”) morning daily newspaper published in Moscow that was the official voice of the Central Council of the Komsomol, or communist youth league, for young people aged 14 to 28. Komsomolskaya Pravda was founded in 1925 and historically had

  • k?mungo (musical instrument)

    K?mungo, Korean long board zither that originated in the 7th century. The k?mungo is about 150 cm (5 feet) long and has three movable bridges and 16 convex frets supporting six silk strings. The front plate of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and the back plate is made of chestnut wood.

  • Komunyakaa, Yusef (American writer)

    Yusef Komunyakaa, American Pulitzer Prize-winning poet and professor known for his autobiographical poems about race, the Vietnam War, and jazz and blues. Komunyakaa was born in the conservative rural South on the cusp of the civil rights movement. His father, a carpenter and strong proponent of

  • Komura Jutarō (Japanese diplomat)

    Komura Jutarō, Japanese diplomat of the Meiji period and negotiator of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Komura returned to Japan and entered the Japanese Ministry of Justice (1880), later transferring to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A year before the

  • Komura Jutarō, Kōshaku (Japanese diplomat)

    Komura Jutarō, Japanese diplomat of the Meiji period and negotiator of the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. After graduating from Harvard Law School, Komura returned to Japan and entered the Japanese Ministry of Justice (1880), later transferring to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. A year before the

  • komusō (Japanese priest)

    Japanese music: Schools of shakuhachi flute music: The instrument was used by komusō, priests who begged or sometimes spied while wandering through the streets playing the flute incognito, their heads covered by special wicker basket hats. With the changes that had occurred in Japanese society, many former warriors no longer carried their swords, whereas young merchants carried…

  • komuz (musical instrument)

    Kyrgyzstan: Cultural life: …the accompaniment of the three-stringed komuz, which is plucked like a lute.

  • Komuz languages

    Komuz languages, a branch of the Nilo-Saharan language family formed by a group of related languages spoken in the border area that separates Ethiopia from Sudan and South Sudan. The Komuz group consists of Koma, Twampa (Uduk), Kwama, and Opo (Opo-Shita). Another variety of Komuz, known as Gule

  • Kon Tum (Vietnam)

    Kon Tum, city in the central highlands, south-central Vietnam. In 1851 Roman Catholic missionaries established a settlement near Kon Tum, at a site 140 miles (225 km) south-southeast of Hue. Lying at an elevation of 1,720 feet (524 metres), the city is a traditional trading entrep?t for hides,

  • Kon, Satoshi (Japanese filmmaker)

    Satoshi Kon, Japanese filmmaker (born Oct. 12, 1963, Hokkaido, Japan—died Aug. 24, 2010, Tokyo, Japan), wrote or collaborated on the screenplays and directed the action for a series of highly acclaimed dramatic anime films that offered biting social commentary, fantastical dreamscapes, and glimpses

  • Kon-Tiki (raft)

    Kon-Tiki, raft in which the Norwegian scientist Thor Heyerdahl and five companions sailed in 1947 from the western coast of South America to the islands east of Tahiti. Heyerdahl was interested in demonstrating the possibility that ancient people from the Americas could have colonized Polynesia; to

  • Kon-Tiki (work by Heyerdahl)

    Thor Heyerdahl: …was related in Heyerdahl’s book Kon-Tiki (1950) and in a documentary motion picture of the same name.

  • Kona (resort area, Hawaii, United States)

    Kailua-Kona, resort area, Hawaii county, Hawaii, U.S., located on the west-central coast of Hawaii island. The western coast of the island of Hawaii is known as Kona, and Kailua is its largest town, hence the name Kailua-Kona for the entire region. The town of Kailua lies along Kailua Bay at the

  • Konahuanui (mountain peak, Hawaii, United States)

    Koolau Range: …point in the range is Konahuanui, which is actually two peaks (3,150 feet and 3,105 feet [960 metres and 946 metres]) and lies at the head of the Nuuanu Valley. Two cliff passes—Nuuanu and Waimanalo palis—cut through the range, there pierced by highway tunnels. The 1,200-foot (366-metre) Nuuanu Pali is…

  • Konakry (national capital, Guinea)

    Conakry, national capital, largest city, and chief Atlantic port, western Guinea. Conakry lies on Tombo (Tumbo) Island and the Camayenne (Kaloum) Peninsula. Founded by the French in 1884, it derived its name from a local village inhabited by the Susu (Soussou) people. Subsequently it became capital

  • Kōnan (Japan)

    Kōnan, city, northwestern Aichi ken (prefecture), central Honshu, Japan. It lies along the Kiso River, in the northern part of the Nōbi Plain. Ichinomiya borders it to the southwest. Kōnan has been a centre of sericulture (silk-production) since the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867) and includes

  • Konar River (river, Asia)

    Hindu Kush: Drainage: Panjshēr (Panjshīr), the Alīngār, the Konar, and the Panjkora, follow the northeast-to-southwest direction and are then suddenly deflected toward the east-west axis by the Kābul River, into which they flow. The Yarkhun and Ghizar river valleys also take the same east-to-west direction. The Chitral River drains the southern slopes of…

  • Konarak (India)

    Konark, historic town, east-central Odisha state, eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal coast. It is famous for its 13th-century Surya Deula (or Surya Deul), popularly known as the Sun Temple. The town’s name is derived from the Sanskrit words kona (“corner”) and arka (“sun”), a reference to the

  • Konare, Alpha Oumar (president of Mali)

    Mali: Traoré’s rule: …were held in 1992, and Alpha Konaré, a prominent civilian intellectual, won the presidency.

  • Konark (India)

    Konark, historic town, east-central Odisha state, eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal coast. It is famous for its 13th-century Surya Deula (or Surya Deul), popularly known as the Sun Temple. The town’s name is derived from the Sanskrit words kona (“corner”) and arka (“sun”), a reference to the

  • Konarka (India)

    Konark, historic town, east-central Odisha state, eastern India, on the Bay of Bengal coast. It is famous for its 13th-century Surya Deula (or Surya Deul), popularly known as the Sun Temple. The town’s name is derived from the Sanskrit words kona (“corner”) and arka (“sun”), a reference to the

  • Konarmiya (short stories by Babel)

    Isaac Babel: 1931, enlarged 1933; Red Cavalry), set in the Russo-Polish War (1919–20); Odesskiye rasskazy (1931; Tales of Odessa), set in the Jewish underworld of Odessa; and Istoriya moey golubyatni (1926; “Story of My Dovecote”), named after the opening story of autobiographical fiction about a middle-class Jewish boy growing up…

  • Konarski, Stanis?aw (Polish priest)

    Stanis?aw Konarski, Roman Catholic priest and political writer, who influenced the reform of education in Poland. After entering the Order of the Piarist Fathers in 1715, Konarski studied at the Collegium Nazarenum in Rome and taught there in 1727–29. He then went to Paris to study educational

  • Konaté, Sékouba (Guinean military officer)

    Guinea: Independence: Sekouba Konate served as interim president in Camara’s absence.

  • Konbaung Dynasty (Myanmar dynasty)

    Alaungpaya Dynasty, the last ruling dynasty (1752–1885) of Myanmar (Burma). The dynasty’s collapse in the face of British imperial might marked the end of Myanmar sovereignty for more than 60 years. (Some authorities limit the name Konbaung dynasty to the period beginning with King Bodawpaya in

  • Konchalovsky, Andrey (Russian filmmaker)

    Russia: Motion pictures: The work of Andrey Konchalovsky, who has plied his craft in Russia as well as in Europe and the United States with features such as Runaway Train (1985) and House of Fools (2002), is also highly regarded. In the late 1990s Aleksandr Sokurov emerged as a director of…

  • Konchalovsky, Pyotr Petrovich (Russian artist)

    Pyotr Petrovich Konchalovsky, Russian painter and graphic artist who was representative of the Moscow School. Although he was much influenced by the work of Paul Cézanne in the early 20th century, he turned away from this style in the 1930s and embraced Socialist Realism, becoming a classic

  • Kond (people)

    Khond, people of the hills and jungles of Orissa state, India. Their numbers are estimated to exceed 800,000, of which about 550,000 speak Kui and its southern dialect, Kuwi, of the Dravidian language family. Most Khond are now rice cultivators, but there are still groups, such as the Kuttia Khond,

  • Konda River (river, Russia)

    Konda River, river in western Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug (district), Tyumen oblast (region), Russia. It rises amid swamps and flows about 715 miles (1,097 km) generally west and east and eventually northeast to join the Irtysh River at

  • Kondakov, Ivan (Russian chemist)

    rubber: The rise of synthetic rubber: In 1901 Ivan Kondakov discovered that dimethyl butadiene, when heated with potash, produced a rubberlike substance, and in 1910 S.V. Lebedev polymerized butadiene, which he obtained from ethyl alcohol. During World War I, Germany, under the stimulus of the blockade imposed by the Allies, began production of…

  • Kondakova, Yelena (Russian cosmonaut)

    Yelena Kondakova, Russian cosmonaut who was the first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight. Kondakova graduated from the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School in 1980 and then worked for the aerospace manufacturer Energia as an engineer. In 1985 she married cosmonaut Valery Ryumin. She was

  • Kondakova, Yelena Vladimirovna (Russian cosmonaut)

    Yelena Kondakova, Russian cosmonaut who was the first woman to make a long-duration spaceflight. Kondakova graduated from the Bauman Moscow Higher Technical School in 1980 and then worked for the aerospace manufacturer Energia as an engineer. In 1985 she married cosmonaut Valery Ryumin. She was

  • Kondane (India)

    South Asian arts: Indian sculpture in the 2nd and 1st centuries bce: relief sculpture of western India: The cave temple at Kondane has, above the entrance hall, four beautiful panels depicting pairs of dancers. The forms retain the robust and full modelling of the more developed sculpture at Pitalkhora, but to this is added an ease of movement and considerable rhythmic grace. Traces of the terra-cotta…

  • Kondavīdu (historical kingdom, India)

    India: Wars and rivalries: …claimants to the throne of Kondavidu, led to further confrontation between the two powers (each joined by various of the rivalrous Telugu chiefs). Sultan Fīrūz Shah Bahmanī supported a Reddi attack on Udayagiri. In a related move, the sultan himself mounted another siege of Vijayanagar city, imposing tributary conditions that…

  • Kondh (people)

    Khond, people of the hills and jungles of Orissa state, India. Their numbers are estimated to exceed 800,000, of which about 550,000 speak Kui and its southern dialect, Kuwi, of the Dravidian language family. Most Khond are now rice cultivators, but there are still groups, such as the Kuttia Khond,

  • Kondílis, Geórgios (Greek general)

    Geórgios Kondílis, Greek general, one of a number of army officers who repeatedly intervened in, and disrupted the course of, parliamentary politics in Greece. Although a supporter of the republic when it was proclaimed in 1924, Kondílis was largely instrumental in securing the restoration of King

  • kondō (religious architecture)

    Japanese architecture: The Asuka period: …and a main hall (kondō), both used for worship. Support buildings, such as lecture halls, a belfry, and living quarters, lay outside and to the north of the inner cloister. True to the continental style, the buildings and gates were sited along a south-north axis and were symmetrical in…

  • Kondo effect (physics)

    crystal: The Kondo effect: Magnetic ions have interesting properties when they are found as impurities in nonmagnetic crystals. They usually retain their magnetic moment, so small magnets are distributed randomly throughout the crystal. If the host crystal is a metal, the magnetic impurities make an interesting contribution…

  • Kondo temperature (physics)

    crystal: The Kondo effect: …a characteristic temperature, called the Kondo temperature, which depends on the impurity and on the metallic host. The resistivity increases at low temperature, starting near the Kondo temperature. A typical example of a Kondo system is iron impurities in copper; the system’s Kondo temperature is 24 K. The solid line…

  • Kondratieff cycle (economics)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev: …major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves.

  • Kondratieff wave (economics)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev: …major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves.

  • Kondratieff, Nikolai D. (Russian economist)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev, Russian economist and statistician noted among Western economists for his analysis and theory of major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves. Kondratyev attended St. Petersburg University. He was a member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party from

  • Kondratiev cycle (economics)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev: …major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves.

  • Kondratyev cycle (economics)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev: …major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves.

  • Kondratyev, Nikolay D. (Russian economist)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev, Russian economist and statistician noted among Western economists for his analysis and theory of major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves. Kondratyev attended St. Petersburg University. He was a member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party from

  • Kondratyev, Nikolay Dmitriyevich (Russian economist)

    Nikolay D. Kondratyev, Russian economist and statistician noted among Western economists for his analysis and theory of major (50-year) business cycles—the so-called Kondratieff waves. Kondratyev attended St. Petersburg University. He was a member of the Russian Socialist Revolutionary Party from

  • Kondylis, Georgios (Greek general)

    Geórgios Kondílis, Greek general, one of a number of army officers who repeatedly intervened in, and disrupted the course of, parliamentary politics in Greece. Although a supporter of the republic when it was proclaimed in 1924, Kondílis was largely instrumental in securing the restoration of King

  • Koner, Pauline (American choreographer)

    Pauline Koner, American dancer and choreographer (born 1912, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 8, 2001, New York), created works for stage shows at New York City’s Roxy Theater, for ice shows, and for television programs and from 1946 to 1960 performed with the José Limón Dance Company. She worked closely w

  • Koneski, Bla?e (Macedonian writer)

    Macedonian literature: …republic of Macedonia, the scholar Bla?e Koneski and others were charged with the task of standardizing Macedonian as the official literary language. With this new freedom to write and publish in its own language, Macedonia produced many literary figures in the postwar period. Poetry was represented in the work of…

  • Koneswaram Temple (temple, Trincomalee, Sri Lanka)

    Trincomalee: The Temple of a Thousand Columns (also called Koneswaram Temple), located at the extremity of the peninsula, came into use as a Hindu temple sometime in the 7th century or earlier. The first Europeans to occupy the town were the Portuguese in the 17th century; they…

  • Konev, Ivan Stepanovich (Soviet general)

    Ivan Stepanovich Konev, one of the outstanding Soviet generals in World War II, who was a leader of the offensive against the Germans. Of peasant birth, Konev was drafted into the tsarist army in 1916. After the Russian Revolution, he joined (1918) the Communist Party and the Red Army. During the

  • Konferenz der Tiere, Die (work by K?stner)

    children's literature: War and beyond: …stories of which the thesis-fable Die Konferenz der Tiere (1949; Eng. trans. The Animals’ Conference, 1949) is perhaps the funniest as well as the most serious.

  • Kong (historical kingdom, Africa)

    C?te d'Ivoire: Precolonial kingdoms: Kong existed for several centuries before Sekou Ouattara and his sons established a new dynasty there in the early 18th century. Kong lasted until 1897, when it was destroyed by Samory Touré, who was in the process of creating a new Muslim empire that included…

  • Kong family (Chinese family)

    Qufu: …residence of Confucius’s descendants, the Kong family. Through the centuries the Kongs were the guardians of the temple complex and the administrators of the town of Qufu; the 76th lineal descendant of Confucius lived in the town before World War II. Lying outside the north gate of the temple enclosure…

  • Kong Ji (Chinese philosopher)

    Zisi, Chinese philosopher and grandson of Confucius (551–479 bce). Varying traditional accounts state that Zisi, who studied under Confucius’s pupil Zengzi, taught either Mencius (Mengzi)—the “second sage” of Confucianism—or Mencius’s teacher. Texts dating to about the 2nd and the 4th centuries

  • Kong Le (Laotian military officer)

    20th-century international relations: Decolonization and development: …military coup d’état led by Kong Le briefly returned Souvanna to power, but when Kong Le was in turn driven out in December 1960, he joined forces with the Pathet Lao in their strategic stronghold in the Plain of Jarres. Having secured the Laotian territory needed for infiltration and assault…

  • Kong Midas (work by Heiberg)

    Norwegian literature: Poetry and the novel: …expressed the new spirit in Kong Midas (1890), Gerts have (1894; “Gert’s Garden”), Balkonen (1894; The Balcony), and Kj?rlighetens tragedie (1904; The Tragedy of Love). Sharing Hamsun’s preoccupation with the irrational side of human conduct was Hans E. Kinck, a writer of considerable power and penetration. In

  • Kong René’s datter (work by Hertz)

    Henrik Hertz: …and Kong Renés datter (1845; King René’s Daughter), based on Proven?al folklore. He was also a prolific writer of many kinds of verse. Unfortunately he often felt compelled to conform to his audience’s tastes in form rather than to meet his own artistic demands, and his reputation faded along with…

  • Kong River (river, Southeast Asia)

    Mekong River: Physiography: …Bangfai, the Banghiang, and the Kong—which, with its affluent the San, drains a large area of southern Laos, central Vietnam, and eastern Cambodia. Forest degradation, which has resulted from lumbering, shifting cultivation, and grazing, is widespread in this region.

  • Kong Xiangxi (Chinese businessman and statesman)

    H.H. K’ung, banker and businessman who was a major figure in the Chinese Nationalist government between 1928 and 1945. The son of an old merchant family, K’ung was educated in missionary schools in China and completed his education in the United States, where he received an M.A. in economics at

  • Kong, Leslie (Jamaican businessman and record producer)

    Kingston 1970s overview: But Chinese-Jamaican businessman Leslie Kong, a former restaurateur, with his Beverley’s label, was initially more successful. His productions dominated the movie The Harder They Come (1972), and he organized Paul Simon’s “Mother and Child Reunion” session, which between them more or less introduced reggae to the world at…

  • K?ng, T?nlé (river, Southeast Asia)

    Mekong River: Physiography: …Bangfai, the Banghiang, and the Kong—which, with its affluent the San, drains a large area of southern Laos, central Vietnam, and eastern Cambodia. Forest degradation, which has resulted from lumbering, shifting cultivation, and grazing, is widespread in this region.

  • Kong, Xe (river, Southeast Asia)

    Mekong River: Physiography: …Bangfai, the Banghiang, and the Kong—which, with its affluent the San, drains a large area of southern Laos, central Vietnam, and eastern Cambodia. Forest degradation, which has resulted from lumbering, shifting cultivation, and grazing, is widespread in this region.

  • Kong: Skull Island (film by Vogt-Roberts [2017])

    John Goodman: Film career: …appeared in the action thrillers Kong: Skull Island,e Once Upon a Time in Venice, and Atomic Blonde. His later movies included Captive State (2019), in which aliens have colonized Earth and face a resistance movement.

  • Konganivarman (Ganga ruler)

    Ganga dynasty: …ruler of the Western Gangas, Konganivarman, carved out a kingdom by conquest, but his successors, Madhava I and Harivarman, expanded their influence by marital and military alliances with the Pallavas, Chalukyas, and Kadambas. By the end of the 8th century a dynastic dispute weakened the Gangas, but Butuga II (c.

  • Kongeglimen (play by Kamban)

    Gudmundur Kamban: Hadda Padda; filmed 1924) and Kongeglimen (1915; “Wrestling Before the King”)—are about the problems of love. In his subsequent plays, Marmor (1918; “Marble”) and Vi mordere (1920; We Murderers), as well as in his first novel, Ragnar Finnsson (1922), all of which are set in America, attention is focused on…

  • Kongelige Teater, Det (theatre, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Denmark: Cultural institutions: …followed in 1748 by the Royal Theatre (Det Kongelige Teater), which remained under court patronage for a century. In 1848 it was taken over by the state, and it is now administered by the Danish Ministry of Culture. Besides a relatively large number of classical and modern Danish plays, the…

  • Kongens Nytorv (square, Copenhagen, Denmark)

    Copenhagen: …former centre of the city, Kongens Nytorv (“King’s New Square”), laid out in the 17th century. Buildings there include the Thott Palace (now the French Embassy) and the Charlottenborg Palace (now the Royal Academy of Fine Arts), both of the 17th century, and the Royal Theatre, built in 1874.

  • Kongeriget Danmark

    Denmark, country occupying the peninsula of Jutland (Jylland), which extends northward from the centre of continental western Europe, and an archipelago of more than 400 islands to the east of the peninsula. Jutland makes up more than two-thirds of the country’s total land area; at its northern tip

  • Kongeriket Norge

    Norway, country of northern Europe that occupies the western half of the Scandinavian peninsula. Nearly half of the inhabitants of the country live in the far south, in the region around Oslo, the capital. About two-thirds of Norway is mountainous, and off its much-indented coastline lie, carved by

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