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  • Kuibyshev (oblast, Russia)

    Samara, oblast (region), western Russia. It is located in the middle Volga River area where the river makes a great loop around the Zhiguli Hills. The hills, heavily forested and deeply dissected by ravines, rise to 1,214 feet (370 metres). The Volga left (east) bank, constituting most of the

  • Kuiji (Chinese Buddhist monk)

    Xuanzang: …and he and his disciple Kuiji (632–682) were responsible for the formation of the Weishi (Consciousness Only school) in China. Its doctrine was set forth in Xuanzang’s Chengweishilun (“Treatise on the Establishment of the Doctrine of Consciousness Only”), a translation of the essential Yogacara writings, and in Kuijhi’s commentary. The…

  • Kuijk, Andreas Cornelius van (American promoter)

    Colonel Tom Parker, Dutch-born American show business promoter who was best known for managing the career of Elvis Presley (b. June 26, 1909--d. Jan. 21,

  • Kuindzhi, Arkhip Ivanovich (Russian painter)

    Peredvizhniki: …as did the lesser known Arkhip Kuindzhi. The movement dominated Russian art for nearly 30 years and was the model for the Socialist Realism of the Soviet Union.

  • Kuiper Airborne Observatory (airplane)

    Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO), a Lockheed C-141 jet transport aircraft specially instrumented for astronomical observations at high altitudes. Named for the American astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper, it was operated (1971–95) by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The

  • Kuiper belt (astronomy)

    Kuiper belt, flat ring of icy small bodies that revolve around the Sun beyond the orbit of the planet Neptune. It was named for the Dutch American astronomer Gerard P. Kuiper and comprises hundreds of millions of objects—presumed to be leftovers from the formation of the outer planets—whose orbits

  • Kuiper belt object (astronomy)

    Kuiper belt: …may represent the transition from Kuiper belt objects [KBOs] to short-period comets.) Although its existence had been assumed for decades, the Kuiper belt remained undetected until the 1990s, when the prerequisite large telescopes and sensitive light detectors became available.

  • Kuiper, Gerard Peter (American astronomer)

    Gerard Peter Kuiper, Dutch-American astronomer known especially for his discoveries and theories concerning the solar system. Kuiper graduated from the University of Leiden in 1927 and received his Ph.D. from that school in 1933. That same year he moved to the United States, where he became a

  • Kuiper, Gerrit Pieter (American astronomer)

    Gerard Peter Kuiper, Dutch-American astronomer known especially for his discoveries and theories concerning the solar system. Kuiper graduated from the University of Leiden in 1927 and received his Ph.D. from that school in 1933. That same year he moved to the United States, where he became a

  • Kuiseb River (river, southwestern Africa)

    Kuiseb River, intermittent watercourse in southwestern Africa. It rises in the mountains to the west of Windhoek, Namib., and flows for 300 miles (500 km) in a semicircle (southwestward, westward, and northwestward) into the cool coastal Namib desert, where it normally dies out; in rare flood

  • Kuito (Angola)

    Kuito, town (founded 1890), central Angola. It is the chief trade and market centre of the fertile Bié Plateau and processes rice and other grains, coffee, meat, and beeswax. The town suffered much damage in the civil war following Angola’s independence in 1975 and was almost totally destroyed in

  • Kujau, Konrad (German author)

    Konrad Kujau, German forger (born June 27, 1938, L?bau, Ger.—died Sept. 12, 2000, Stuttgart, Ger.), achieved notoriety when a 60-volume set of diaries purported to be those of Adolf Hitler, which he had sold (1983) to Stern magazine for $4.8 million, was revealed as a hoax—a forgery he himself h

  • Kujavia (region, Poland)

    Kujawy, lowland region of central Poland. It is bounded on the northeast by the Vistula River between W?oc?awek and Bydgoszcz and on the southwest by the Note? River. First appearing in written sources in 1136, the name Kujawy referred then to the area closest to the Vistula and only later was used

  • kujawiak (dance)

    mazurka: …are the smooth, somewhat slower kujawiak and the energetic oberek.

  • Kujawsko-Pomorskie (province, Poland)

    Kujawsko-Pomorskie, województwo (province), north-central Poland. It is bordered by the provinces of Warmińsko-Mazurskie to the northeast, Pomorskie to the north, Mazowieckie to the east, ?ódzkie to the south, and Wielkopolskie to the southwest. Created in 1999 as one of 16 reorganized provinces,

  • Kujawy (region, Poland)

    Kujawy, lowland region of central Poland. It is bounded on the northeast by the Vistula River between W?oc?awek and Bydgoszcz and on the southwest by the Note? River. First appearing in written sources in 1136, the name Kujawy referred then to the area closest to the Vistula and only later was used

  • Kujbysev (oblast, Russia)

    Samara, oblast (region), western Russia. It is located in the middle Volga River area where the river makes a great loop around the Zhiguli Hills. The hills, heavily forested and deeply dissected by ravines, rise to 1,214 feet (370 metres). The Volga left (east) bank, constituting most of the

  • Kujby?ev (Russia)

    Samara, city and administrative centre, west-central Samara oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the Volga River at the latter’s confluence with the Samara River. Founded in 1586 as a fortress protecting the Volga trade route, it soon became a major focus of trade and later was made a

  • kujishi (Japanese law)

    Japanese law: …the Western lawyer was the kujishi, an innkeeper who developed a counseling function. Remarkably little law in the modern sense existed; a static society, which officially discouraged commercial activity, apparently neither desired nor needed a developed legal order.

  • Kujō Yoritsune (Japanese shogun)

    Japan: The Hōjō regency: Kujō Yoritsune, a Fujiwara scion and distant relative of Yoritomo, was appointed shogun, while Tokimasa’s son Hōjō Yoshitoki (shikken 1205–24) handled most government business. Thereafter, the appointment and dismissal of the shogun followed the wishes of the Hōjō family. Shoguns were selected only from the…

  • Kujula Kadphises (Yüeh-chih ruler)

    India: Central Asian rulers: Kujula Kadphises, the Yuezhi chief, conquered northern India in the 1st century ce. He was succeeded by his son Vima, after whom came Kanishka, the most powerful among the Kushan kings, as the dynasty came to be called. The date of Kanishka’s accession

  • Kuk Early Agricultural Site (area, Papua New Guinea)

    Papua New Guinea: Cultural institutions: In 2008 the Kuk Early Agricultural Site was designated a UNESCO World Heritage site. That land in the Western Highlands has been worked almost continuously for at least 7,000 years, and the site contains even earlier evidence of the beginning of organized agriculture and its subsequent development.

  • Kuk Hoe (South Korean government)

    South Korea: Constitutional framework: …and approved by the elected National Assembly (Kuk Hoe).

  • K?k Yesul Y?nguhoe (Korean theatre group)

    Korean literature: Modern literature: 1910 to the end of the 20th century: …organized in 1923, and the K?k Yesul Y?nguhoe (“Theatrical Arts Research Society”), organized in 1931. Through their experimental theatre, the members of the society staged contemporary Western plays and encouraged the writing of original plays, such as Yu Ch’ijin’s T’omak (1933; “Clay Hut”). The paucity of first-rate playwrights and actors,…

  • Kuka (people)

    Chad: Ethnic groups: …the Hadjeray are the Bulala, Kuka, and the Midogo, who are sedentary peoples. In the eastern region of Ouadda? live the Maba, among whom the Kado once formed an aristocracy. They constitute a nucleus surrounded by a host of other groups who, while possessing their own languages, nevertheless constitute a…

  • Kuka (Sikh sect)

    Namdhari, an austere sect within Sikhism, a religion of India. The Namdhari movement was founded by Balak Singh (1797–1862), who did not believe in any religious ritual other than the repetition of God’s name (or nam, for which reason members of the sect are called Namdharis). His successor, Ram

  • K?kai (film by Chen Kaige [2017])

    Chen Kaige: …the Mountain) and K?kai (2017; Legend of the Demon Cat), a fantasy set during the Tang dynasty.

  • Kūkai (Japanese Buddhist monk)

    Kūkai, one of the best-known and most-beloved Buddhist saints in Japan, founder of the Shingon (“True Word”) school of Buddhism that emphasizes spells, magic formulas, ceremonials, and masses for the dead. He contributed greatly to the development of Japanese art and literature and pioneered in

  • Kukaniloko Birthstones State Monument (monument, Hawaii, United States)

    Wahiawa: …the status of their children; Kukaniloko Birthstones State Monument marks the location of this ancient site. Founded in 1898, the city of Wahiawa (Hawaiian: “Place of Noise”) is a commercial centre for nearby plantation communities and military installations (Schofield Barracks and Wheeler Army Airfield). Pineapples are the area’s leading crop.…

  • Kukenaam Falls (waterfall, South America)

    Kukenaam Falls, high waterfalls on the Guyana-Venezuelan border. They spring from a table mountain, Kukenaam (8,620 feet [2,627 m]), to the northwest of Mount Roraima (9,094 feet) and are the beginning of the Cuquenán River, a tributary of the Caroni River. The falls have a 2,000-foot (600-metre)

  • Kukhak (university, Korea)

    S?nggyun’guan, national university of Korea under the Kory? (935–1392) and Chos?n (Yi; 1392–1910) dynasties. Named the Kukhak (“National Academy”) during the Kory? dynasty, it was renamed the S?nggyun’guan and served as the sole highest institute for training government officials during the Chos?n

  • Kuki (people)

    Kuki, a Southeast Asian people living in the Mizo (formerly Lushai) Hills on the border between India and Myanmar (Burma) and numbering about 12,000 in the 1970s. They have been largely assimilated by the more populous Mizo (q.v.), adopting their customs and language. Traditionally the Kuki lived

  • Kuki-Chin languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibeto-Burman languages: Lisu, Kachin (Jingpo), Kuki-Chin, the obsolete Xixia (Tangut), and other languages. The Tibetan writing system (which dates from the 7th century) and the Burmese (dating from the 11th century) are derived from the Indo-Aryan (Indic) tradition. The Xixia system (developed in the 11th–13th century in northwestern China) was…

  • Kukish languages

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibeto-Burman languages: Lisu, Kachin (Jingpo), Kuki-Chin, the obsolete Xixia (Tangut), and other languages. The Tibetan writing system (which dates from the 7th century) and the Burmese (dating from the 11th century) are derived from the Indo-Aryan (Indic) tradition. The Xixia system (developed in the 11th–13th century in northwestern China) was…

  • Kukiz, Pawe? (Polish actor, singer, and politician)

    Poland: Poland in the 21st century: …surprising show of independent candidate Pawe? Kukiz, a rock star and actor who garnered some 21 percent of the vote—a runoff election between Komorowski and Duda was required. In the second round of voting, on May 24, Duda outpolled Komorowski (51.55 percent to 48.45 percent) to win the presidency.

  • Kukkanūr (temple site, India)

    South Asian arts: Medieval temple architecture: South Indian style of Karnataka: The Kalle?vara temple at Kukkanūr (late 10th century) and a large Jaina temple at Lakkundi (c. 1050–1100) clearly demonstrate the transition. The superstructures, though basically of the South Indian type, have offsets and recesses that tend to emphasize a vertical, upward movement. The Lakkundi temple is also the first…

  • Kukla, Fran, and Ollie (American television program)

    puppetry: Puppetry in the contemporary world: …Tillstrom, began airing in 1947; Kukla, a small boy, had a host of friends, including Ollie the Dragon, who exchanged repartee with Fran Allison, a human actress standing outside the booth. In 1969, puppets were introduced on the educational program “Sesame Street”; these were created by Jim Henson and represented…

  • Kuklinski, Richard (American criminal)

    Richard Kuklinski, American serial killer who was convicted of four murders in 1988 and of a fifth in 2003, though in a series of media interviews he later confessed to having killed at least 100 more and to having worked as a hit man for the Mafia. Kuklinski’s parents were both violently abusive

  • kukri (weapon)

    dagger: …Malayan kris, the short, curved kukri used by the Gurkhas, the Hindu katar with its flat triangular blade, and innumerable others.

  • kukri snake (snake)

    Kukri snake, (genus Oligodon), any of 50 to 60 species of snakes of the family Colubridae. The snakes are named for their enlarged hind teeth, which are broad and curved like the Gurkha sword of the same name. They occur in East and South Asia. All kukri snakes are egg layers, and most are less

  • Kuksu cult (California Indian religion)

    California Indian: Religion: …of two religious systems: the Kuksu in the north and the Toloache in the south. Both involved the formal indoctrination of initiates and—potentially, depending upon the individual—a series of subsequent status promotions within the religious society; these processes could literally occupy initiates, members, and mentors throughout their lifetimes. Members of…

  • Kukuczka, Jerzy (Polish mountaineer)

    Mount Everest: Developments in Nepal: …Col), getting Andrzej Czok and Jerzy Kukuczka to the summit. Kukuczka, like Messner, would eventually climb all of the world’s 26,250-foot (8,000-metre) peaks, nearly all by difficult new routes.

  • Kukulcán (Mesoamerican god)

    Quetzalcóatl, (from Nahuatl quetzalli, “tail feather of the quetzal bird [Pharomachrus mocinno],” and coatl, “snake”), the Feathered Serpent, one of the major deities of the ancient Mexican pantheon. Representations of a feathered snake occur as early as the Teotihuacán civilization (3rd to 8th

  • Kukulcán, Pyramid of (pyramid, Chichén Itzá, Mexico)

    Chichén Itzá: …of such major buildings as El Castillo (“The Castle”), a pyramid that rises 79 feet (24 metres) above the Main Plaza. El Castillo has four sides, each with 91 stairs and facing a cardinal direction; including the step on the top platform, these combine for a total of 365 steps—the…

  • Kukuriku (political coalition, Croatia)

    Croatia: Independent Croatia: …December 4, 2011, the opposition Kukuriku coalition, headed by Zoran Milanovi? of the SDP, swept the HDZ from power and claimed an overall majority in parliament, winning 80 of 151 seats. Just days after the election, as Milanovi? began the work of constructing his government, Croatia signed the accession treaty…

  • Kül (Turkish prince)

    Orhon inscriptions: …honour of the Turkish prince Kül (d. 731) and his brother the emperor Bilge (d. 734), and are carved in a script used also for inscriptions found in Mongolia, Siberia, and Eastern Turkistan and called by Thomsen “Turkish runes.” They relate in epic language the legendary origins of the Turks,…

  • kul (Indian family unit)

    Kul, (Sanskrit: “assembly,” or “family”), throughout India, except in the south, a family unit or, in some instances, an extended family. Most commonly kul refers to one contemporarily existing family, though sometimes this sense is extended—for example, when “family” implies a sense of lineage. A

  • kula (trade)

    Kula, exchange system among the people of the Trobriand Islands of southeast Melanesia, in which permanent contractual partners trade traditional valuables following an established ceremonial pattern and trade route. In this system, described by the Polish-born British anthropologist Bronis?aw

  • kula (Indian family unit)

    Kul, (Sanskrit: “assembly,” or “family”), throughout India, except in the south, a family unit or, in some instances, an extended family. Most commonly kul refers to one contemporarily existing family, though sometimes this sense is extended—for example, when “family” implies a sense of lineage. A

  • Kula carpet

    Kula carpet, floor covering handwoven in Kula, a town east of ?zmir, in western Turkey. Kula prayer rugs were produced throughout the 19th century and into the 20th and have been favourites among collectors. Usually the arch (to indicate the direction of Mecca, the holy city) is low and

  • Kula Gulf, Battle of (European-United States history)

    naval warfare: The age of the aircraft carrier: Cape Esperance, Tassafaronga, Kula Gulf, and Kolombangara, Japanese night tactics prevailed. Not until mid-1943, with tactics attributed to Captain (later Admiral) Arleigh Burke that exploited the radar advantage in full, did the U.S. Navy redress the balance.

  • Kulab (Tajikistan)

    K?lob, city, southwestern Tajikistan. It lies in the valley of the Iakhsu River and at the foot of the Khazratishokh Range, 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Dushanbe. The city was a trading point on the route from the Gissar (Hissar) valley to Afghanistan. Cotton and grain are cultivated throughout

  • Kulacēkarar (Indian king and poet)

    South Asian arts: Bhakti poetry: Kulacēkarar, a Cēra prince, sings of both Rāma and Krishna, identifying himself with several roles in the holy legends: a gopī in love with Krishna or his mother, Devakī, who misses nursing him, or the exiled Rāma’s father, Da?aratha. Tiruppā?ā?vār, an untouchable poet (pā?an?), sang…

  • Kulacudamani (Hindu tantra)

    Hinduism: Shakta Tantras: …of traditional Hindu practice); the Kulachudamani (“Crown Jewel of Tantrism”), which discusses ritual; and the Sharadatilaka (“Beauty Mark of the Goddess Sharada”) of Lakshmanadeshika (11th century), which focuses almost exclusively on magic. The goddess cults eventually centred around Durga, the consort of Shiva, in her fiercer aspect.

  • Kulah carpet

    Kula carpet, floor covering handwoven in Kula, a town east of ?zmir, in western Turkey. Kula prayer rugs were produced throughout the 19th century and into the 20th and have been favourites among collectors. Usually the arch (to indicate the direction of Mecca, the holy city) is low and

  • kulak (Russian peasant class)

    Kulak, (Russian: “fist”), in Russian and Soviet history, a wealthy or prosperous peasant, generally characterized as one who owned a relatively large farm and several head of cattle and horses and who was financially capable of employing hired labour and leasing land. Before the Russian Revolution

  • Kulakova, Galina (Russian skier)

    Galina Kulakova, Russian skier of Udmurt descent who captured all three gold medals in women’s Nordic skiing at the 1972 Olympic Games in Sapporo, Japan, and a total of eight Olympic medals. A member of four Soviet Olympic ski teams from 1964 to 1976, Kulakova was a national champion from 1969 to

  • Kulaly (island, Kazakhstan)

    Caspian Sea: Physical features: Tyuleny, Morskoy, Kulaly, Zhiloy, and Ogurchin.

  • kulan (mammal)

    perissodactyl: The wild horse: The chigetia or kulan (E. hemionus hemionus), which was formerly widespread over an immense region of the Gobi, now occurs only in semidesert steppe country in central Mongolia. Hunting and competition for water by pastoral tribesmen are responsible for its decline. The kulan is slightly smaller than the…

  • Kulap Pailin (novel by Nhok Them)

    Khmer literature: French influence: They are Nhok Them’s Kulap Pailin (“The Rose of Pailin”), first serialized in Kambujasuriya in 1943, and Phka srabon (“The Faded Flower”) by Nou Hach, first serialized in the weekly newspaper Kambuja in 1947. In the former a hardworking but lowly gem miner wins the hand of the mine…

  • Kularnava-tantra (Hindu text)

    Hinduism: Shakta Tantras: …the Shakta Tantras are the Kularnava-tantra (“Ocean of Tantrism”), which gives details on the “left-handed” cult forms of ritual copulation (i.e., those that are not part of traditional Hindu practice); the Kulachudamani (“Crown Jewel of Tantrism”), which discusses ritual; and the Sharadatilaka (“Beauty Mark of the Goddess Sharada”) of Lakshmanadeshika…

  • Kula?ekhara dynasty (Indian history)

    Kerala: History: Under the Kulashekhara dynasty (c. 800–1102), Malayalam emerged as a distinct language, and Hinduism became prominent.

  • Kulayev, Nur-Pashi (Chechen militant)

    Beslan school attack: The survivor, Nur-Pashi Kulayev, escaped the school and was nearly lynched before authorities captured him. He was convicted in 2006 of terrorism, hostage taking, and murder and was sentenced to life in prison.

  • Kuldja (China)

    Kuldja, city, western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. It is the chief city, agricultural market, and commercial centre of the Ili River valley, which is a principal route from the Xinjiang region into Central Asia. The valley is far wetter than any other part of Xinjiang and has rich

  • Kuldja, Treaty of (Sino-Russian relations)

    Treaty of Kuldja, (1851), treaty between China and Russia to regulate trade between the two countries. The treaty was preceded by a gradual Russian advance throughout the 18th century into Kazakhstan. Encouraged by the success of Britain, France, and other Western powers in extracting concessions

  • kuleana (measurement)

    Hawaiian: …the ili were small areas, kuleanas, occupied by the common people, who also had certain rights of fishery, water, and mountain products. Besides open-sea fisheries, there were stone-walled fish ponds, some now 1,000 years old, built semicircularly from the shore. Taro was raised in terraces flooded by conduits from streams.…

  • Kulebaki (Russia)

    Kulebaki, city, Nizhegorod oblast (region), western Russia. It lies in the valley of the Tesha River, which is a tributary of the Oka River. The economic base of the city is metallurgy, including steel mills and the production of transportation equipment. Flour and timber milling are also

  • Kulenkampff, Hans-Joachim (German actor)

    Hans-Joachim Kulenkampff, German film, radio, and television actor and game-show host, whose wit and charm made him one of the most beloved personalities on TV and earned him a reputation as Germany’s master showman (b. April 27, 1921, Bremen, Ger.--d. Aug. 14, 1998, Seeham, near Salzburg,

  • Kuleshov effect (film technology)

    Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov: …who taught that structuring a film by montage (the cutting and editing of film and the juxtaposing of the images) was the most important aspect of filmmaking.

  • Kuleshov, Lev Vladimirovich (Russian film director)

    Lev Vladimirovich Kuleshov, Soviet film theorist and director who taught that structuring a film by montage (the cutting and editing of film and the juxtaposing of the images) was the most important aspect of filmmaking. In 1910, after his father’s death, Kuleshov and his mother moved to Moscow,

  • Kulik, Leonid Alekseyevich (Soviet scientist)

    Tunguska event: …expeditions led by Soviet scientist Leonid Alekseyevich Kulik. Around the epicentre (the location on the ground directly below the explosion), Kulik found felled splintered trees lying radially for some 15–30 km (10–20 miles); everything had been devastated and scorched, and very little was growing two decades after the event. The…

  • Kulikov, Viktor Georgiyevich (Soviet military officer)

    Viktor Georgiyevich Kulikov, Soviet military officer (born July 5, 1921, Oryol oblast, Russia—died May 28, 2013, Moscow, Russia), presided over dramatic increases in Soviet military size and strength and propelled the Warsaw Pact forces headlong into the arms race as their aggressive commander in

  • Kulikovo, Battle of (Russian history [1380])

    Battle of Kulikovo, (Sept. 8, 1380), military engagement fought near the Don River in 1380, celebrated as the first victory for Russian forces over the Tatars of the Mongol Golden Horde since Russia was subjugated by Batu Khan in the thirteenth century. It demonstrated the developing independence

  • Kulin (people)

    Victoria: Aboriginal peoples: …the eastern Murray, and the Kulin of the Central Divide. These groups were subdivided into about 34 distinct subgroups, each with its own territory, customs, laws, language, and beliefs. The basic unit was an extended family of 50–100 members. The Aboriginal peoples exploited the land efficiently by “firestick farming,” the…

  • Kulin (ruler of Bosnia)

    Kulin, ruler of Bosnia from about 1180 as ban, or viceroy, of the king of Hungary. During Kulin’s rule, Hungarian influence dwindled and Bosnia functioned as a largely independent state. The country also enjoyed a period of peace and relative prosperity through increased trade. From the 1190s a

  • Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus (dinosaur)

    dinosaur: Modern studies: The discovery of Kulindadromeus zabaikalicus, an early ornithischian dinosaur whose remains show evidence of featherlike structures on its limbs, suggests that feathers may even have been widespread among the dinosaurs. Gastroliths (“stomach stones”) used for processing food in the gizzard have been recovered from a variety of dinosaurs.

  • Kulinism (Hindu caste rules)

    Kulinism, in Hinduism, caste and marriage rules said to have been introduced by Raja Vallala Sena of Bengal (reigned 1158–69). The name derives from the Sanskrit word kulina (“of good family”). Hypergamy (marrying a bride of a lower caste) was allowed for the top three castes. Brahmans—members of

  • kulintang (music)

    Southeast Asian arts: The Philippines: …the more-developed ensemble is the kulintang, which, in its most common form, consists of seven or eight gongs in a row as melody instruments accompanied by three other gong types (a wide-rimmed pair; two narrow-rimmed pairs; one with turned-in rim) and a cylindrical drum. The kulintang scale is made up…

  • Kulish, Mykola (Ukrainian writer)

    Ukraine: Theatre and motion pictures: Preeminent among the playwrights was Mykola Kulish, whose Patetychna Sonata (“Sonata Pathétique”) combined Expressionist techniques with the forms of the Ukrainian vertep. From the mid-1930s, however, the theatre in Ukraine was dominated by Socialist Realism, the style enforced by the Communist Party. Oleksander Korniychuk was the most favoured of the…

  • Kulish, Panteleymon (Ukrainian poet)

    Ukrainian literature: …the most important Romantic was Panteleymon Kulish, poet, prose writer (Chorna rada; “The Black Council”), translator, and historian.

  • Kulja (China)

    Kuldja, city, western Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. It is the chief city, agricultural market, and commercial centre of the Ili River valley, which is a principal route from the Xinjiang region into Central Asia. The valley is far wetter than any other part of Xinjiang and has rich

  • Kulja, Treaty of (Sino-Russian relations)

    Treaty of Kuldja, (1851), treaty between China and Russia to regulate trade between the two countries. The treaty was preceded by a gradual Russian advance throughout the 18th century into Kazakhstan. Encouraged by the success of Britain, France, and other Western powers in extracting concessions

  • kulkeite (mineral)

    clay mineral: Interstratified clay minerals: (trioctahedral mica/vermiculite), aliettite (talc/saponite), and kulkeite (talc/chlorite). Other than the ABAB . . . type with equal numbers of the two component layers in a structure, many modes of layer-stacking sequences ranging from nearly regular to completely random are possible. The following interstratifications of two components are found in these…

  • kulla (building, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Housing: …houses of stone, known as kullas, that often featured an inner courtyard protected from outside view. Following the massive destruction that occurred during the 1998–99 conflict, more than 50,000 houses had to be rebuilt. Many of these newer buildings are taller than the traditional structures of the countryside, and they…

  • Kullab (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ninsun: …Sumerian deity, city goddess of Kullab in the southern herding region. As Ninsun’s name, Lady Wild Cow, indicates, she was originally represented in bovine form and was considered the divine power behind, as well as the embodiment of, all the qualities the herdsman wished for in his cows: she was…

  • Kullamaa prayers (Estonian literature)

    Estonian language: …materials in Estonian are the Kullamaa prayers of the 1520s.

  • Kullervo (Finnish epic character)

    Kalevala: …north; and the tragic hero Kullervo, who is forced by fate to be a slave from childhood.

  • Kullervo Symphony (work by Sibelius)

    Jean Sibelius: …first large-scale orchestral work, the Kullervo Symphony (1892), created something of a sensation. This and succeeding works, En Saga (1892), the Karelia music, and the Four Legends, established him as Finland’s leading composer. The third of the four symphonic poems in Four Legends is the well-known The Swan of Tuonela…

  • külliye (architecture)

    Islamic arts: Architecture: …complex was then called a külliye. All those buildings continued to develop the domed, central-plan structure constructed by the Seljuqs in Anatolia.

  • Kullman, Harry (Swedish author)

    children's literature: National and modern literature: Harry Kullman and Martha Sandwall-Bergstr?m are among the few Swedish writers who have used working class industrial backgrounds successfully. Kullman is also a historical novelist. The prolific Edith Unnerstad has written charming family stories, with a touch of fantasy, as has Karin Anckarsv?rd, whose Doktorns…

  • Kullu (India)

    Kullu, town, central Himachal Pradesh state, northwestern India. It lies on the Beas River about 60 miles (100 km) north of Shimla, the state capital, with which it is linked by road. The town is an agricultural trade centre. Hand-loom weaving is the principal industry, notably the production of

  • Kullu valley (valley, India)

    Himachal Pradesh: Cultural life: The Kullu valley, known as the valley of the gods, provides the setting for the Dussehra festival held each autumn to celebrate the defeat of the demon king, Ravana, by the prince Rama (as recounted in the ancient Hindu epic the Ramayana). During the festival, the…

  • Kulm (mountain, Switzerland)

    Schwyz: …of the Rigi massif (the Kulm, 5,899 feet [1,798 m], and the Scheidegg, 5,463 feet [1,665 m]) are within its borders; but the land is largely hilly rather than mountainous. The valley of Schwyz was first mentioned in 972 as Suittes. Later, a community of freemen settled at the foot…

  • Kulmhof (concentration camp, Poland)

    Chelmno, Nazi German extermination camp on the Ner River, a tributary of the Warta, in German-occupied western Poland. It opened in December 1941 and closed in January 1945 and was operated to execute Jews, most of whom were Polish. Some Soviet prisoners of war and more than 4,000 Roma (Gypsies)

  • K?lob (Tajikistan)

    K?lob, city, southwestern Tajikistan. It lies in the valley of the Iakhsu River and at the foot of the Khazratishokh Range, 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Dushanbe. The city was a trading point on the route from the Gissar (Hissar) valley to Afghanistan. Cotton and grain are cultivated throughout

  • Kül?n?s házasság (work by Mikszáth)

    Kálmán Mikszáth: …as his two principal works Kül?n?s házasság (1900; “A Strange Marriage”) and A Noszty fiu esete Tóth Marival (1908; “The Noszty Boy and Mary Tóth”). The first of these works is set in early 19th-century Hungary and deals with the fight of two lovers against the oppressive forces of society.…

  • Kulottunga I (Chola ruler)

    India: The Hoysalas and Pandyas: …confused until the emergence of Kulottunga I (reigned 1070–1122), but his reign was the last of any significance. The 12th and 13th centuries saw a gradual decline in Cola power, accelerated by the rise of the Hoysalas to the west and the Pandyas to the south.

  • Kulov, Feliks (Kyrgyz politician)

    Kurmanbek Bakiyev: …of the popular opposition leader Feliks Kulov, a former top security official. Bakiyev then turned his attention to restoring the economy, which had been in decline for more than a decade, and to trying to reassure the international community, particularly international donors, that Kyrgyzstan was returning to normal.

  • Külpe, Oswald (German psychologist and philosopher)

    Oswald Külpe, German psychologist and philosopher regarded as the guiding force behind the experimental study of thought processes identified with the Würzburg school of psychology. Külpe’s early academic interests vacillated between history and psychology. After completing a dissertation on

  • Külso-Somogy (region, Hungary)

    Somogy: …of the county, known as Külso-Somogy (“Outer Somogy”), lies in the Transdanubian hills and stretches from Lake Balaton to the Kapos River valley. The southern part of the county is largely a forested flatland known as Belso Somogy (“Inner Somogy”).

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