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  • kultar (marsupial)

    marsupial mouse: …legs—are the two species of Antechinomys, also of the Australian outback. The two species of brush-tailed marsupial mice, or tuans (Phascogale), are grayish above and whitish below in colour; the distal half of the long tail is thickly furred and resembles a bottle brush when the hairs are erected. Tuans…

  • Kulten (poetry by Uppdal)

    Kristofer Oliver Uppdal: Kulten (1947) is a colossal work containing an enormously difficult mixture of poetry and philosophy. Uppdal’s later years were unproductive, presumably as a result of mental illness.

  • Kültepe (archaeological site, Turkey)

    Kültepe, (Turkish: “Ash Hill”), ancient mound covering the Bronze Age city of Kanesh, in central Turkey. Kültepe was known to archaeologists during the 19th century, but it began to attract particular attention as the reputed source of so-called Cappadocian tablets in Old Assyrian cuneiform writing

  • kultrún (music instrument)

    Native American music: Southern Cone: …Mapuche musical instruments are the kultrún drum, played by female shamans, and the trutruka, a long bamboo trumpet played by men for ceremonial events. Instruments from the Chaco region include gourd rattles used in shamanic curing rituals, water drums, and bamboo stamping tubes played by Maká women. In the Misiones…

  • Kultur der Renaissance in Italien, Die (work by Burckhardt)

    Jacob Burckhardt: …of art and culture, whose Die Kultur der Renaissance in Italien (1860; The Civilization of the Renaissance in Italy, 1878, reprinted 1945) became a model for the treatment of cultural history in general.

  • Kultur und Wissenschaft der Juden, Verein für (German Jewish organization)

    Leopold Zunz: …Moses Moser, Zunz founded the Verein für Kultur und Wissenschaft der Juden (“Society for Jewish Culture and Science”). He and his colleagues hoped that an analysis and exposition of the breadth and depth of Jewish history, literature, and culture would lead to general acceptance of the Jews. From 1822 to…

  • Kulturfilme (German film series)

    documentary film: The German Kulturfilme, such as the feature-length film Wege zu Kraft und Sch?nheit (1925; Ways to Health and Beauty), were in international demand.

  • Kulturgeschichte (German cultural history)

    Johannes Janssen: …in the development of German Kulturgeschichte (“history of civilization”) and is valuable for its detailed contribution to studies on the 15th century.

  • Kulturkampf (German history)

    Kulturkampf, (German: “culture struggle”), the bitter struggle (c. 1871–87) on the part of the German chancellor Otto von Bismarck to subject the Roman Catholic church to state controls. The term came into use in 1873, when the scientist and Prussian liberal statesman Rudolf Virchow declared that

  • Kulturkreis (anthropology)

    Kulturkreis, (German: “culture circle” or “cultural field”) location from whence ideas and technology subsequently diffused over large areas of the world. It was the central concept of an early 20th-century German school of anthropology, Kulturkreislehre, which was closely related to the

  • Kulturkreise (anthropology)

    Kulturkreis, (German: “culture circle” or “cultural field”) location from whence ideas and technology subsequently diffused over large areas of the world. It was the central concept of an early 20th-century German school of anthropology, Kulturkreislehre, which was closely related to the

  • Kulturphilosophie (work by Schweitzer)

    Albert Schweitzer: …was moved to write his Kulturphilosophie (1923; “Philosophy of Civilization”), in which he set forth his personal philosophy of “reverence for life,” an ethical principle involving all living things, which he believed essential to the survival of civilization.

  • Kulu (India)

    Kullu, town, central Himachal Pradesh state, northwestern India. It lies on the Beas River about 60 miles (100 km) north of Shimla, the state capital, with which it is linked by road. The town is an agricultural trade centre. Hand-loom weaving is the principal industry, notably the production of

  • Kulunda Steppe (lowland, Asia)

    Kulunda Steppe, lowland constituting the extreme southern extension of the West Siberian Plain. Most of the steppe lies in Russia, but its western part extends into Kazakhstan. Roughly triangular in shape, with its point to the south, it covers an area of approximately 39,000 square miles (100,000

  • Kulundinskaya Ravnina (lowland, Asia)

    Kulunda Steppe, lowland constituting the extreme southern extension of the West Siberian Plain. Most of the steppe lies in Russia, but its western part extends into Kazakhstan. Roughly triangular in shape, with its point to the south, it covers an area of approximately 39,000 square miles (100,000

  • Kulwicki, Alan (American race-car driver)

    Alan Kulwicki, U.S. race-car driver (born Dec. 14, 1954, Greenfield, Wis.—died April 1, 1993, near Bristol, Tenn.), in the closest championship points battle in stock-car history, won the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing’s (NASCAR’s) 1992 Winston Cup. Kulwicki, an anomaly in the s

  • Kulyab (Tajikistan)

    K?lob, city, southwestern Tajikistan. It lies in the valley of the Iakhsu River and at the foot of the Khazratishokh Range, 125 miles (200 km) southeast of Dushanbe. The city was a trading point on the route from the Gissar (Hissar) valley to Afghanistan. Cotton and grain are cultivated throughout

  • kum (musical instrument)

    K?mungo, Korean long board zither that originated in the 7th century. The k?mungo is about 150 cm (5 feet) long and has three movable bridges and 16 convex frets supporting six silk strings. The front plate of the instrument is made of paulownia wood and the back plate is made of chestnut wood.

  • Kum Ombu (Egypt)

    Kawm Umbū, town and valley of Upper Egypt, situated about 30 miles (48 km) north of the Aswan High Dam in Aswān mu?āfa?ah (governorate). The town, an agricultural marketplace and a sugarcane-processing and cotton-ginning centre, lies on the east bank of the Nile River between the main valley

  • K?m River (river, South Korea)

    K?m River, river, southwestern South Korea. It rises east of Ch?nju in North Ch?lla do (province) and flows north-northwest through North Ch’ungch’?ng do, where it turns southwest and empties into the Yellow Sea at Kunsan. The K?m River is 249 miles (401 km) long and is navigable for 81 miles (130

  • K?m-gang (river, South Korea)

    K?m River, river, southwestern South Korea. It rises east of Ch?nju in North Ch?lla do (province) and flows north-northwest through North Ch’ungch’?ng do, where it turns southwest and empties into the Yellow Sea at Kunsan. The K?m River is 249 miles (401 km) long and is navigable for 81 miles (130

  • Kuma (Japanese crime boss)

    Taoka Kazuo, Japan’s major crime boss (oyabun), who, after World War II, rose to head a giant crime organization, the Yamaguchi-gumi. Though centred in Kōbe, it had interests and affiliates nationwide and consisted of more than 10,000 members (known as yakuza) divided into more than 500 bands. T

  • Kuma Plain (plain, Russia)

    Russia: The Russian Plain: The large Kuban and Kuma plains of the North Caucasus are separated by the Stavropol Upland at elevations of 1,000 to 2,000 feet (300 to 600 metres).

  • Kuma-Manych Depression (geological feature, Russia)

    Kuma-Manych Depression, geologic depression in western Russia that divides the Russian Plain (north) from the North Caucasus foreland (south). It is often regarded as the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. The depression runs northwest-southeast from the Don River valley to the Caspian

  • kumadori (makeup)

    stagecraft: Chinese and Japanese traditions: The makeup style known as kumadori (literally, “to follow lines”) exaggerates all facial lines and features. It is generally used for emotionally charged roles—strong masculine characters, mythological gods, and beasts. While the kumadori style of makeup follows the actor’s natural facial lines, the specific design mirrors the emotional nature and…

  • Kumagaya (Japan)

    Kumagaya, city, northwest-central Saitama ken (prefecture), east-central Honshu, Japan. It lies on the Ara River, at the western edge of the Kantō Plain. The city was named for the 12th-century warrior Kumagai Naozane. It was a post town and silk market during the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867)

  • Kumai Kei (Japanese film director)

    Kei Kumai, Japanese film director (born June 1, 1930, Nagano, Japan—died May 23, 2007, Tokyo, Japan), earned international recognition for his powerful dramatic films, many of which explored controversial topics and social issues. Kumai embarked on a career in film in the mid-1950s and landed a job

  • Kumamoto (prefecture, Japan)

    Kumamoto, ken (prefecture), located in central Kyushu, Japan, facing the Amakusa Sea and including the Amakusa Islands. The city of Kumamoto is the prefectural capital. The prefecture, once predominantly agricultural, now has a strong manufacturing and service-oriented economy. Rice, fruits and

  • Kumamoto (Japan)

    Kumamoto, city and prefectural capital, Kumamoto ken (prefecture), central Kyushu, Japan. It lies on Shimabara Bay, although the city centre is about 6 miles (10 km) inland on the Shira River. Kumamoto has long been the largest and most influential city of central Kyushu. It is known for its castle

  • Kuman (people)

    Kipchak, a loosely organized Turkic tribal confederation that by the mid-11th century occupied a vast, sprawling territory in the Eurasian steppe, stretching from north of the Aral Sea westward to the region north of the Black Sea. Some tribes of the Kipchak confederation probably originated near

  • Kumanovo (North Macedonia)

    Kumanovo, city in northern North Macedonia. It lies northeast of Skopje, on the rail and road link between Ni?, Serbia, and Skopje. Agriculture and metal and tobacco processing contribute to the local economy. In 1912 the Serbians defeated a Turkish army on the Kumanovo plain. About 8 miles (13 km)

  • Kumar, A. S. Dileep (Indian composer)

    A.R. Rahman, Indian composer whose extensive body of work for film and stage earned him the nickname “the Mozart of Madras.” Rahman’s father, R.K. Sekhar, was a prominent Tamil musician who composed scores for the Malayalam film industry, and Rahman began studying piano at age four. The boy’s

  • Kumar, Akshay (Indian actor)

    Akshay Kumar, Indian actor who became one of Bollywood’s leading performers, known for his versatility. Bhatia was the son of a government worker in a country in which acting often runs in the family. As a young man, he trained extensively in dance and martial arts, and his first movie role,

  • Kumar, Ashok (Indian actor)

    Ashok Kumar, (Kumadlal Kunjilal Ganguly), Indian actor (born Oct. 13, 1911, Bhagalpur, Bihar, India—died Dec. 10, 2001, Mumbai [Bombay], India), became one of the most popular, best-loved, and longest-lasting stars of India’s “Bollywood” motion picture industry in a career that spanned more than 6

  • Kumar, Dilip (Indian actor)

    Dilip Kumar, one of the legendary actors of Bollywood. With his low-key, naturalistic acting style, he excelled in a wide range of roles. In addition to his acting, he was noted for his good looks, deep voice, and fine accent. Kumar was born into a Pashtun family of 12 children. He moved to Bombay

  • Kumar, Kishore (Indian actor, singer, composer, and director)

    Kishore Kumar, Indian actor, playback singer, composer, and director known for his comic roles in Indian films of the 1950s and for his expressive and versatile singing voice, which, in the course of a career that spanned nearly four decades, he lent to many of India’s top screen actors. Kumar was

  • Kumar, Meira (Indian diplomat and politician)

    Meira Kumar, Indian diplomat, politician, and government official who served as speaker of the Lok Sabha (lower chamber of the Indian parliament) from 2009 to 2014, the first woman to hold that position. Kumar was born into a political family of Dalit (formerly untouchable; now, officially,

  • Kumar, Raaj (Indian actor)

    Raaj Kumar, (KULBHUSHAN NATH PANDIT), Indian motion picture actor whose elegant delivery of dialogue graced more than 60 films in some 40 years and helped make him a cult figure among college youths (b. Oct. 8, 1927?--d. July 3,

  • Kumāra (Hindu deity)

    Skanda, Hindu god of war who was the firstborn son of Shiva. The many legends giving the circumstances of his birth are often at variance with one another. In Kalidasa’s epic poem Kumarasambhava (“The Birth of the War God”; 5th century ce), as in most versions of the story, the gods wished for

  • Kumara Gupta (Gupta ruler)

    Gupta dynasty: His successors—Kumara Gupta, Skanda Gupta, and others—saw the gradual demise of the empire with the invasion of the Hunas (a branch of the Hephthalites). By the mid-6th century, when the dynasty apparently came to an end, the kingdom had dwindled to a small size.

  • Kumara Kampana (Vijayanagar ruler)

    India: The Muslim states of southern India, c. 1350–1680: The Vijayanagar invasion under Prince Kumara Kampana dealt a severe blow to Ma?bar’s commercial importance in 1347; Vijayanagar completed the conquest in 1377–78 under Harihara II.

  • Kumarajiva (Buddhist scholar)

    Kumarajiva, Buddhist scholar and seer, famed for his encyclopaedic knowledge of Indian and Vedantic learning. He is recognized as one of the greatest translators of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese, and it was largely owing to his efforts and influence that Buddhist religious and

  • Kumārajīva (Buddhist scholar)

    Kumarajiva, Buddhist scholar and seer, famed for his encyclopaedic knowledge of Indian and Vedantic learning. He is recognized as one of the greatest translators of Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese, and it was largely owing to his efforts and influence that Buddhist religious and

  • Kumārapāla (Caulukya king)

    India: The Rajputs: Kumarapala (reigned c. 1143–72) was responsible for consolidating the kingdom. He is also believed to have become a Jain and to have encouraged Jainism in western India. Hemacandra, an outstanding Jain scholar noted for his commentaries on political treatises, was a well-known figure at the…

  • Kumarasambhava (poem by Kalidasa)

    Kumarasambhava, (Sanskrit: “Birth of Kumara”) epic poem by Kalidasa written in the 5th century ce. The work describes the courting of the ascetic Shiva, who is meditating in the mountains, by Parvati, the daughter of the Himalayas; the conflagration of Kama (the god of desire)—after his arrow

  • Kumaratunga, Chandrika Bandaranaike (president of Sri Lanka)

    Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga, member of a prominent Sri Lankan political family, who was the first woman to serve as the country’s president (1994–2005). Chandrika Bandaranaike was the daughter of two former prime ministers. Her father was S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, founder of the socialist Sri

  • Kumaratunga, Vijaya (Sri Lankan actor and politician)

    Sirimavo Bandaranaike: …before marrying the film actor Vijaya Kumaratunga in 1978, and after his assassination in 1988 she rejoined her mother’s party. She soon came to head its left-wing faction, and a string of electoral victories propelled her to the leadership of an SLFP-based coalition that won the parliamentary elections of August…

  • Kumarbi (Hurrian god)

    Teshub: …the gods Alalu, Anu, and Kumarbi had successively been deposed and banished to the netherworld. Another myth, the “Song of Ullikummi,” describes the struggle between Teshub and a stone monster that grew out of the sea. Teshub’s consort was Hebat (Queen of Heaven), and they had a son, Sharruma. In…

  • Kumarhata (India)

    Halisahar, city, southeastern West Bengal state, northeastern India. It is situated on the east bank of the Hugli (Hooghly) River, just north of Hugli city. Halisahar is a noted home of Sanskrit scholars. It was constituted a municipality in 1903 when separated from Naihati municipality and

  • Kumarila (Indian dialectician, teacher, and interpreter)

    Kumarila, Indian dialectician, teacher, and interpreter of Jaimini’s Mimamsa-sutras (“The Profound-Thought Sutras”), or Purva-mimamsa system (200 bce). Tradition says that Kumarila was converted to Buddhism as a youth, but he returned to Hinduism and became a great defender of Vedic philosophy and

  • Kumarilla-bhatta (Indian dialectician, teacher, and interpreter)

    Kumarila, Indian dialectician, teacher, and interpreter of Jaimini’s Mimamsa-sutras (“The Profound-Thought Sutras”), or Purva-mimamsa system (200 bce). Tradition says that Kumarila was converted to Buddhism as a youth, but he returned to Hinduism and became a great defender of Vedic philosophy and

  • Kumaritashvili, Nodar (Georgian luger)

    Olympic Games: Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada, 2010: …the death of Georgian luger Nodar Kumaritashvili when he was thrown from the track during a training run hours before the opening ceremonies.

  • Kumasi (Ghana)

    Kumasi, city, south-central Ghana. Carved out of a dense forest belt among hills rising to 1,000 feet (300 metres), Kumasi has a humid, wet climate. Osei Tutu, a 17th-century Asante king, chose the site for his capital and conducted land negotiations under a kum tree, whence came the town’s name.

  • Kumauemon (Japanese artist)

    Utagawa Toyokuni, Japanese artist of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) movement who developed the style of his master, Utagawa Toyoharu, making it one of the most popular of its day. Toyokuni specialized in prints of actors but was also known for his portraits of women. His “Yakusha

  • Kumaun (geocultural region, Uttarakhand, India)

    Uttarakhand: Population composition: …of the state, and the Kumaun, which spans the southeast. Rajputs (various clans of landowning rulers and their descendants)—including members of the indigenous Garhwali, Gujjar, and Kumauni communities, as well as a number of immigrant peoples—constitute a large portion of the population. Of the total population, nearly one-fifth belongs to…

  • Kumaun Himalayas (mountains, India)

    Kumaun Himalayas, west-central section of the Himalayas in northern India, extending 200 miles (320 km) from the Sutlej River east to the Kali River. The range, comprising part of the Siwalik Range in the south and part of the Great Himalayas in the north, lies largely within the state of

  • Kumauni (people)

    adolescence: Physical and psychological transition: The Kumauni hill tribes of northern India offer a vivid example of a culture that traditionally celebrates distinct stages in every child’s life. When a girl reaches puberty, her home is decorated with elaborate representations of the coming of age of a certain goddess who, wooed…

  • Kumayri (Armenia)

    Gyumri, city, western Armenia. It is believed to have been founded by the Greeks in 401 bc, but it did not have a continuous existence. A fortress was constructed on the site by the Russians in 1837, and in 1840 the town of Alexandropol was founded nearby. Alexandropol was a trading and

  • Kumazawa Banzan (Japanese philosopher)

    Kumazawa Banzan, political philosopher who was a Japanese disciple of the Chinese neo-Confucian philosopher Wang Yangming (d. 1529) and who was one of the first in Japan to attempt to put Wang’s ideas into practice in his own daily life. Born a rōnin (masterless samurai), Banzan showed such great

  • Kumba (Cameroon)

    Kumba, town located in southwestern Cameroon. It is situated about 40 miles (65 km) north-northwest of Doula. Kumba is an important regional transportation centre, connected by railway to Douala and by roads to Buea (south), Mamfe (north), Bafang (northeast), and Douala. Kumba is also a trade

  • Kumbakonam (India)

    Kumbakonam, city, east-central Tamil Nadu state, southeastern India. It is located in the Kaveri (Cauvery) River delta, about 30 miles (48 km) west of Karaikal (Puducherry union territory). Kumbakonam was a Chola capital in the 7th century ce and has numerous Vaishnava and Shaiva temples and a rare

  • Kümbet Camii (church, Kars, Turkey)

    Kars: Kars’s historical buildings include Kümbet Camii (“Church of the Apostles”), an Armenian church that was converted into a mosque; a bath dating from the Ottoman period; and an old citadel overhanging the river that was once a strong military post (probably late 16th century). The region around Kars was…

  • Kumbh Mela (Hindu festival)

    Kumbh Mela, in Hinduism, religious festival that is celebrated four times over the course of 12 years, the site of the observance rotating between four pilgrimage places on four sacred rivers—at Haridwar on the Ganges River, at Ujjain on the Shipra, at Nashik on the Godavari, and at Prayag (modern

  • Kumbha Mela (Hindu festival)

    Kumbh Mela, in Hinduism, religious festival that is celebrated four times over the course of 12 years, the site of the observance rotating between four pilgrimage places on four sacred rivers—at Haridwar on the Ganges River, at Ujjain on the Shipra, at Nashik on the Godavari, and at Prayag (modern

  • Kumbhkaran Lungur (mountain, Asia)

    Kanchenjunga, world’s third highest mountain, with an elevation of 28,169 feet (8,586 metres). It is situated in the eastern Himalayas on the border between Sikkim state, northeastern India, and eastern Nepal, 46 miles (74 km) north-northwest of Darjiling, Sikkim. The mountain is part of the Great

  • Kumbi (historical city, Mali)

    Kumbi, last of the capitals of ancient Ghana, a great trading empire that flourished in western Africa from the 9th through the 13th century. Situated about 200 miles (322 km) north of modern Bamako, Mali, Kumbi at the height of its prosperity, before 1240, was the greatest city of western Africa w

  • Kumbi Savara (people)

    Savara: …Kindal, basket makers; and the Kumbi, potters. The traditional social unit is the extended family, including both males and females descended from a common male ancestor.

  • Kume Masao (Japanese author)

    Kume Masao, novelist and playwright, one of Japan’s most popular writers of the 1920s and ’30s. As a student, Kume was associated with the writers Akutagawa Ryūnosuke and Kikuchi Kan on the famous school literary journal Shinshichō (“New Currents of Thought”). He had started writing haiku in high

  • K?mgang, Mount (mountain, North Korea)

    Kangw?n: …of the T’aebaek Mountains, where Mount K?mgang (5,374 feet [1,638 metres]) is located. Mount K?mgang has been known since antiquity as one of the most picturesque places in East Asia. The mountain and its foothills have many jagged rocks and peaks (12,000 have been counted), precipices and stone pillars formed…

  • Kumi (South Korea)

    Kumi, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), south-central South Korea. It lies near the junction of the Kumi River and the Naktong River. After the Korean War (1950–53) Kumi began to be developed as an industrial centre. During the administration of Pres. Park Chung-Hee (1963–79), who

  • Kumilla (Bangladesh)

    Comilla, city, eastern Bangladesh. It is situated just south of the Gumti River, which is a tributary of the Meghna River. Connected by road and rail with Dhaka and Chittagong, Comilla has been a centre for the collection of hides and skins; it also has jute and cotton mills as well as a thermal

  • Kumin, Maxine (American author)

    Maxine Kumin, American Pulitzer Prize-winning poet, novelist, essayist, and children’s author. Kumin’s novels were praised in literary circles, but she was best known for her poetry, written primarily in traditional forms, on the subjects of loss, fragility, family, and the cycles of life and

  • Kumina (religious sect)

    Jamaica: Religion: …example, is spirit possession; the Kumina sect has rituals characterized by drumming, dancing, and spirit possession. Obeah (Obia) and Etu similarly recall the cosmology of Africa, while Revival Zion has elements of both Christian and African religions.

  • kumiss (alcoholic beverage)

    Khalkha: …mare’s milk, or airag, called kumys in Russian (koumiss).

  • kumite (martial arts)

    karate: …sporting karate and sparring (kumite) in training, blows and kicks are stopped short, preferably within an inch of contact. Sporting matches commonly last about three minutes, to a decision, if neither contestant has scored a clean “killing” point in the estimation of the judges. Contests of form (kata) are…

  • kumiuta (Japanese songs)

    Japanese music: Schools and genres: The sets were called kumiuta, a term applied to much of the chamber music that followed. The 16th-century priest Kenjun is credited with the creation of the school and its first compositions. The tradition became more secular when it appeared in Edo. There a 17th-century blind musician named Jōhide,…

  • Kummanni (ancient city, Turkey)

    Hebat: …Hebat had cult centres at Kummanni (classical Comana Cappadociae) and at Aleppo (?alab) and other cities in the region of the Taurus Mountains. Hebat is represented as a matronly figure either standing on a lion or seated on a throne. She survived during Hellenistic times as Hipta, a goddess of…

  • Kummer, Clarence (jockey)

    Man o' War: Breeding and early racing career: …but Man o’ War’s jockey, Clarence Kummer, was given instructions to hold him back and win by not too big of a margin. It was a tall order for the fiercely competitive horse, and at the end of 1 4 of a mile, Man o’ War was 20 lengths ahead.…

  • Kummer, Ernst Eduard (German mathematician)

    Ernst Eduard Kummer, German mathematician whose introduction of ideal numbers, which are defined as a special subgroup of a ring, extended the fundamental theorem of arithmetic (unique factorization of every integer into a product of primes) to complex number fields. After teaching in Gymnasium 1

  • Kummuhu (historical state, Turkey)

    Anatolia: The neo-Hittite states from c. 1180 to 700 bce: …(in a battle in southern Kummuhu) and then in 735 (when the Assyrian king penetrated into the heart of Urartu), the Luwian and Aramaean kings began to suspect that Urartu was doomed. In 743 Milid, Kummuhu, Arpad, and Gurgum still belonged to the Urartian sphere of influence, but in 740…

  • Kumo (Nigeria)

    Kumo, town, Gombe state, northeastern Nigeria. One of the largest towns of the traditional Gombe emirate, Kumo serves as a collecting point for peanuts (groundnuts), cotton, and corn (maize) and as a local trade centre for the sorghum, millet, cowpeas, cassava (manioc), peanuts, goats, cattle,

  • K?mo shinhwa (work by Kim Sisūp)

    Kim Sis?p: …five stories contained in the K?mo sinwha (“New Stories from Golden Turtle Mountain”) are written in Chinese in the tradition of the ch’uan-ch’i. The subject material of these stories include love affairs between mortals and ghosts and dream journeys to the Underworld or to the Dragon Palace. He promoted the…

  • K?mo sinhwa (work by Kim Sisūp)

    Kim Sis?p: …five stories contained in the K?mo sinwha (“New Stories from Golden Turtle Mountain”) are written in Chinese in the tradition of the ch’uan-ch’i. The subject material of these stories include love affairs between mortals and ghosts and dream journeys to the Underworld or to the Dragon Palace. He promoted the…

  • Kumo-Manychskaya Vpadina (geological feature, Russia)

    Kuma-Manych Depression, geologic depression in western Russia that divides the Russian Plain (north) from the North Caucasus foreland (south). It is often regarded as the natural boundary between Europe and Asia. The depression runs northwest-southeast from the Don River valley to the Caspian

  • Kumonjo (Japanese government)

    Japan: Muromachi government structure: The official business of the Mandokoro was to control the finances of the bakufu; and later the Ise family, who were hereditary retainers of the Ashikaga, came to inherit this office. The Samurai-dokoro, besides handling legal judgments, was entrusted with the control of the capital. Leading officials called shoshi who…

  • Kumonosu-jo (film by Kurosawa Akira [1957])

    Kurosawa Akira: Films of the 1950s: …the same title, Kumonosu-jo (Throne of Blood) was adapted from Shakespeare’s Macbeth, and Donzoko (1957; The Lower Depths) was from Maxim Gorky’s drama: each of these films is skillfully Japanized. Throne of Blood, which reflects the style of the sets and acting of the Japanese Noh play and uses…

  • kumquat (plant)

    Kumquat, (genus Fortunella), genus of evergreen shrubs or trees of the family Rutaceae, grown for their tart orange fruits. Native to eastern Asia, these small trees are cultivated throughout the subtropics. Kumquat fruits may be eaten fresh, or they may be preserved and made into jams and jellies.

  • Kumrāhar (archaeological site, Patna, India)

    South Asian arts: The Maurya period (c. 321–185 bc): A hall excavated at Kumrāhar in Patna had a high wooden platform of most excellent workmanship, on which stood eight rows of 10 columns each, which once supported a second story. Only one stone pillar has been recovered, and it is circular in shape and made of sandstone that…

  • Kumran (region, Middle East)

    Qumrān, region on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea, notable since 1947 as the site of the caves where the Dead Sea Scrolls (q.v.) were first discovered. Excavations (since 1949) at a site called Khirbet Qumrān (Arabic: “Qumrān Ruins”), less than a mile from the sea and north of the waterway

  • K?ms?ng (South Korea)

    Ky?ngju, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is 17 miles (28 km) inland from the coast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and 34 miles (55 km) east of the provincial capital, Taegu (Daegu). It was the capital of the Silla kingdom (57 bce–935 ce), and its

  • Kumuhi (historical region, Near East)

    Commagene, region in northern ancient Syria (modern south-central Turkey) bounded by Cilicia on the west and Cappadocia on the north. Its eastern boundary on the Euphrates River, at the conjunction of several routes over the Taurus Mountains, gave Commagene a strategic position between the Roman

  • Kumyk (people)

    Caucasian peoples: The indigenous Kumyk, like the other Kipchak Turks, are largely Muslim. Their language was for some three centuries the lingua franca of the region, but in the 20th century it was supplanted by Russian. The Nogay are thought to have become a distinct group formed after the…

  • kumys (alcoholic beverage)

    Khalkha: …mare’s milk, or airag, called kumys in Russian (koumiss).

  • kumyss (alcoholic beverage)

    Khalkha: …mare’s milk, or airag, called kumys in Russian (koumiss).

  • Kun (people)

    Cuman, member of a nomadic Turkish people, comprising the western branch of the Kipchak confederation until the Mongol invasion (1237) forced them to seek asylum in Hungary. During the 12th century the Cumans acted as auxiliary troops for the Russian princes and in that capacity clashed with H

  • kun (Japanese writing)

    Kun, (Japanese: “reading”) one of two alternate readings (the other is the on) for a kanji (Chinese ideogram, or character). The ambiguity of a kanji arises from its having two values, the first being the meaning of the original Chinese character from which the kanji is derived and a Chinese

  • Kun László (king of Hungary)

    Ladislas IV, king of Hungary who, by his support of the German king Rudolf I at the Battle of Dürnkrut, helped to establish the future power of the Habsburg dynasty in Austria. The son of Stephen V, Ladislas IV became king of Hungary on his father’s death in 1272. His minority (until 1277) was

  • Kun school (Chinese theatre)

    Kunqu, form of Chinese drama that developed in the 16th century. The term kunshan qiang (“Kunshan tune”) originally referred to a style of music that emerged in the late Yuan dynasty (early 14th century). It was created by Gu Jian, a musician of Kunshan (near Suzhou), who combined the music of the

  • kun’yomi (Japanese writing)

    Kun, (Japanese: “reading”) one of two alternate readings (the other is the on) for a kanji (Chinese ideogram, or character). The ambiguity of a kanji arises from its having two values, the first being the meaning of the original Chinese character from which the kanji is derived and a Chinese

  • Kun, Béla (Hungarian communist leader)

    Béla Kun, communist leader and head of the Hungarian Soviet Republic of 1919. The son of a Jewish village clerk, Kun became active in Social Democratic politics early in life, working at first in Transylvania and later in Budapest. He was mobilized in the Austro-Hungarian army at the outbreak of

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