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  • Kunstkammern (art collection)

    art market: Northern Europe and the Austrian Empire: …Alps these were known as Kunstkammern or Wunderkammern, from Kunst (“man-made objects”), Wunder (“natural curiosities”), and Kammern (“chambers, rooms”).

  • Künstler, Der (work by Rank)

    Otto Rank: …Dreams inspired him to write Der Künstler (1907; “The Artist”), an attempt to explain art by using psychoanalytic principles. This work brought him to the attention of Freud, who helped arrange his entry to the University of Vienna, from which he received his doctorate in philosophy in 1912. While studying…

  • Kunstler, William (American lawyer)

    William Moses Kunstler, U.S. lawyer (born July 7, 1919, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 4, 1995, New York), was a flamboyant radical who defended a number of controversial clients in high-profile cases. He gained national renown during the trial of the "Chicago Seven" on charges of having conspired to

  • Kunstler, William Moses (American lawyer)

    William Moses Kunstler, U.S. lawyer (born July 7, 1919, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 4, 1995, New York), was a flamboyant radical who defended a number of controversial clients in high-profile cases. He gained national renown during the trial of the "Chicago Seven" on charges of having conspired to

  • Künstlerroman (literary genre)

    Künstlerroman , (German: “artist’s novel”), class of Bildungsroman, or apprenticeship novel, that deals with the youth and development of an individual who becomes—or is on the threshold of becoming—a painter, musician, or poet. The classic example is James Joyce’s Portrait of the Artist as a Young

  • Kunstm?rchen

    Fairy tale, wonder tale involving marvellous elements and occurrences, though not necessarily about fairies. The term embraces such popular folktales (M?rchen, q.v.) as “Cinderella” and “Puss-in-Boots” and art fairy tales (Kunstm?rchen) of later invention, such as The Happy Prince (1888), by the

  • Kunstmuseum-?ffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel (museum, Basel, Switzerland)

    Kunstmuseum-?ffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel, (German: “Basel Art Museum-Public Art Collection”), museum of art in Basel, Switz., established in 1662 by the city and its university. The founding collection, the first publicly owned art collection in Europe, was purchased from extensive holdings of

  • Kunstwerk der Zukunft, Das (work by Wagner)

    Richard Wagner: Exile: …Das Kunstwerk der Zukunft (The Art Work of the Future), Eine Mitteilung an meine Freunde (A Communication to My Friends), and Oper und Drama (Opera and Drama). The latter outlined a new, revolutionary type of musical stage work—the vast work, in fact, on which he was engaged. By 1852…

  • Kunstwerk im Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit, Das (work by Benjamin)

    aesthetics: Marxist aesthetics: …Zeitalter seiner technischen Reproduzierbarkeit (1936; The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction) attempts to describe the changed experience of art in the modern world and sees the rise of Fascism and mass society as the culmination of a process of debasement, whereby art ceases to be a…

  • Kunta (people)

    Islamic world: Trans-Saharan Islam: …teaching-trading families such as the Kunta. Ordinarily the ruling elites became Muslim first, employing the skills of Arab immigrants, traders, or travelers, and taking political and commercial advantage of the Arabic language and the Sharī?ah without displacing indigenous religious practices or legitimating principles. By the 16th century the Muslim states…

  • Kuntaur (The Gambia)

    Kuntaur, town, port on the Gambia River, MacCarthy Island division, central Gambia. Oceangoing vessels of 17-ft (5-m) draft navigate 150 mi (240 km) upstream to Kuntaur to load peanuts (groundnuts) for export. The Gambia Produce Marketing Board, which has operated a peanut decorticating plant since

  • kunten mark (Japanese writing)

    punctuation: Punctuation in Asian and African languages: …complicated system of kaeriten and kunten marks was used from the 8th century onward to clarify the meaning and grammatical construction of texts in Chinese. As a result of contact with Europeans in the 15th and 16th centuries, a hollow point and a reversed virgule (\) were used during the…

  • kuntros (commentary)

    Rashi: …commentary, sometimes referred to as kuntros (literally, “notebook”), resembles a living tutor; it explains the text in its entirety, guides the student in methodological and substantive matters, resolves linguistic difficulties, and indicates the normative conclusions of the discussion. Unlike Maimonides’ commentary on the Mishna (the authoritative compendium of Jewish Oral…

  • Kuntsnmakher fun Lublin, Der (novel by Singer)

    The Magician of Lublin, novel by Isaac Bashevis Singer, published serially as Der Kuntsnmakher fun Lublin in the Yiddish-language daily newspaper Forverts in 1959 and published in book form in English in 1960. The entire novel did not appear in Yiddish in book form until 1971. The novel is set in

  • Kununurra (Western Australia, Australia)

    Kimberley: A new community, Kununurra, was built on the Ord in the 1960s as a service centre for development in that area. Some mineral deposits, including kimberlite (diamond-bearing rock) and traces of oil, have been found on the plateau, and diamonds are now mined at Argyle. There are more…

  • Kununurra Diversion Dam (dam, Western Australia, Australia)

    Ord River: The Kununurra Diversion Dam, completed in 1967, allowed for the cultivation of the first portion of this land under the project. Kununurra town was built nearby as the service and residential centre. A larger dam, built 25 miles south of Kununurra in 1970–72, holds the main…

  • Kunya-Urgench (Turkmenistan)

    Urgench: …city of Urgench, near present-day Kunya-Urgench, 80 miles (130 km) to the northwest, moved there in the mid-17th century because of their lack of water supply. Formerly a centre of trade in the khanate of Khiva, Urgench now has several light industries and a music and drama theatre. Pop. (2014…

  • Kunzel, Erich, Jr. (American conductor)

    Erich Kunzel, Jr., American conductor (born March 21, 1935, New York, N.Y.—died Sept. 1, 2009, Bar Harbor, Maine), brought orchestral music to national audiences with a showman’s flair. He led the much-recorded Cincinnati Pops Orchestra from its founding in 1977, and he conducted the National

  • Kuo Hsi (Chinese painter)

    Guo Xi, one of the most famous artists of the Northern Song period in China. Guo’s collected notes on landscape painting, Linquan Gaozhi (“Lofty Record of Forests and Streams”), describes with much detail the purposes and techniques of painting and is a valuable aid to understanding the landscape

  • Kuo Hsiang (Chinese philosopher)

    Guo Xiang, Chinese neo-Daoist philosopher to whom is attributed a celebrated commentary on the Zhuangzi, one of the basic Daoist writings. Guo was a high government official. His Zhuangzizhu (“Commentary on the Zhuangzi”) is thought to have been begun by another neo-Daoist philosopher, Xiang Xiu.

  • Kuo Mo-jo (Chinese scholar)

    Guo Moruo, Chinese scholar, one of the leading writers of 20th-century China, and an important government official. The son of a wealthy merchant, Guo Moruo early manifested a stormy, unbridled temperament. After receiving a traditional education, he in 1913 abandoned his Chinese wife from an

  • Kuo Sung-t’ao (Chinese diplomat)

    Guo Songtao, Chinese diplomat and liberal statesman who was his country’s first resident minister of modern times to be stationed in a Western country. Guo served in various Chinese bureaucratic and administrative posts during the 1850s and ’60s. He was notable for his advocacy of a peaceful

  • Kuo T’ai-ch’i (Chinese diplomat)

    Guo Taiqi, Chinese official and diplomat who played a major role in determining his country’s foreign policy during the 1930s and ’40s. The son of a scholar, Guo was sent by the Chinese government to study in the United States in 1904. The Chinese Revolution of 1911 broke out while he was studying

  • Kuo Tzu-i (Chinese general)

    Guo Ziyi, one of the greatest of Chinese generals, later deified in popular religion. Guo served three emperors of the Tang dynasty and is most noted for his successful fight against the rebellion of the Chinese general An Lushan in 755–757. From 760 to 765 he was occupied in defending China’s

  • Kuo yu

    Chinese languages: Modern Standard Chinese (Mandarin): The pronunciation of Modern Standard Chinese is based on the Beijing dialect, which is of the Northern, or Mandarin, type. It employs about 1,300 different syllables. There are 22 initial consonants, including stops (made with momentary, complete closure in the vocal…

  • Kuo-min Tang (Chinese political party)

    Nationalist Party, political party that governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then. Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the

  • Kuolleet omenapuut (work by Lehtonen)

    Joel Lehtonen: …returns in the short-story collection Kuolleet omenapuut (1918; “The Dead Apple Trees”) to the subject of the Finnish civil war and views it with doubt and disgust. Nihilism dominates his view of man in Putkinotko (1919–20). In it, Lehtonen despairs of the future and views the growth of industrial society…

  • Kuomintang (Chinese political party)

    Nationalist Party, political party that governed all or part of mainland China from 1928 to 1949 and subsequently ruled Taiwan under Chiang Kai-shek and his successors for most of the time since then. Originally a revolutionary league working for the overthrow of the Chinese monarchy, the

  • Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee (Chinese political organization)

    Song Qingling: …became honorary chairman of the Kuomintang Revolutionary Committee, a splinter group organized in Hong Kong to oppose Chiang Kai-shek’s Kuomintang. After the establishment of the People’s Republic of China in 1949, Song remained on the mainland, where she was held in great deference by the communists because she symbolized a…

  • Kuopio (Finland)

    Kuopio, city, south central Finland, on the Kallavesi (lake). Originally founded in 1653, Kuopio existed as little more than a village until 1776, when King Gustav III ordered new city plans drawn up. It received its municipal charter in 1782. Kuopio is the centre of the Finnish Orthodox Church and

  • Kuosa-Aleksandri?kis, Jonas (Lithuanian poet)

    Jonas Aistis, poet whose lyrics are considered among the best in Lithuanian literature and who was the first modern Lithuanian poet to turn to personal expression. Aistis studied literature at the University of Kaunas and in 1936 went to France to study French literature at the University of

  • Kupa (river, Croatia)

    Croatia: Drainage: The Kupa, which forms part of the frontier between Slovenia and Croatia, and the Una River, which meanders along part of the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, both flow into the Sava. In Dalmatia the Krka and Cetina rivers are of particular importance because…

  • Kupala, Yanka (Belarusian poet)

    Belarus: Literature: …Harun, Vladimir Zylka, Kazimir Svayak, Yanka Kupala, and Yakub Kolas and the prose writers Zmitrok Byadulya and Maksim Haretski. Many of these writers had been contributors to the influential Belarusian newspaper Nasha Niva (“Our Field”), published in Vilnius during the period 1906–16. Of crucial importance for an understanding of the…

  • Kupang (Indonesia)

    Kupang, city and capital of East Nusa Tenggara propinsi (or provinsi; province), Timor island, Indonesia. It is located near the southwestern tip of the island on Kupang Bay of the Savu Sea. Roads link it with Soe in the province and Dili in East Timor; Kupang also has an airport and lies on the

  • Kupcinet, Irving (American journalist)

    Irving Kupcinet, (“Irv”), American newspaper columnist (born July 31, 1912, Chicago, Ill.—died Nov. 10, 2003, Chicago), became a Chicago institution by way of the celebrities, politicians, and other notables he knew and reported on in “Kup’s Column,” his syndicated gossip column in the Chicago S

  • Kupfernickel (mineral)

    Niccolite, an ore mineral of nickel, nickel arsenide (NiAs). It is commonly found associated with other nickel arsenides and sulfides, as in the Natsume nickel deposits, Japan; Andreas-Berg, Ger.; Sudbury, Ont.; and Silver Cliff, Colo. Niccolite is classified in a group of sulfide minerals that

  • Kupferschiefer (mineral deposits, Germany)

    black shale: …eastern Germany and Poland the Kupferschiefer, a bituminous shale, is mined for copper, lead, and zinc.

  • Kupffer cell (anatomy)

    Kupffer cell, any of the stellate (star-shaped) cells in the linings of the liver sinusoids. The sinusoids are microscopic blood channels. The Kupffer cells are phagocytic, i.e., capable of ingestion of other cells and of foreign particles. They also store hemosiderin so that it is available for

  • Kupka, Fran?ois (Czech artist)

    Franti?ek Kupka, Czech-born French pioneer of abstract painting and one of the first completely nonrepresentational artists. His mature works contributed much to the foundations of purely abstract painting in the 20th century. Kupka studied at the Prague and Vienna art academies and at the école

  • Kupka, Frank (Czech artist)

    Franti?ek Kupka, Czech-born French pioneer of abstract painting and one of the first completely nonrepresentational artists. His mature works contributed much to the foundations of purely abstract painting in the 20th century. Kupka studied at the Prague and Vienna art academies and at the école

  • Kupka, Franti?ek (Czech artist)

    Franti?ek Kupka, Czech-born French pioneer of abstract painting and one of the first completely nonrepresentational artists. His mature works contributed much to the foundations of purely abstract painting in the 20th century. Kupka studied at the Prague and Vienna art academies and at the école

  • Küpper, Christian Emil Marie (Dutch artist)

    Theo van Doesburg, Dutch painter, decorator, poet, and art theorist who was the leader of the De Stijl movement. Originally van Doesburg intended to pursue a career in the theatre, but he turned to painting about 1900. He worked in Post-Impressionist and Fauvist styles until 1915, when he

  • Kuprin, Aleksandr Ivanovich (Russian author)

    Aleksandr Ivanovich Kuprin, Russian novelist and short-story writer, one of the last exponents of the great tradition of Russian critical realism. Educated in military schools, he served as an officer in the army, a career he soon abandoned for a more lively and diversified life as a journalist,

  • Kuqa (China)

    Kucha, oasis town, northwestern Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. It lies at the foot of the southern slope of the Tien Shan (“Celestial Mountains”) on the northern rim of the Tarim Basin. The oasis is watered by the Kucha (Kuqa) and Muzart rivers, which during rainy spells flow into the

  • Kur (people)

    Courland: …inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). The duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, included this area as well as Semigallia (Zemgale), a region located east of Courland proper.

  • Kür River (river, Asia)

    Kura River, river in Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The Kura is the largest river in Transcaucasia. It rises on the slopes of Mount K?s?r?nda?? in extreme eastern Turkey and cuts northward through the Lesser Caucasus range in a series of gorges with many rapids. Some distance after entering

  • Kur-Araz Lowland (region, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Relief, drainage, and soils: …lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

  • Kura River (river, Asia)

    Kura River, river in Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The Kura is the largest river in Transcaucasia. It rises on the slopes of Mount K?s?r?nda?? in extreme eastern Turkey and cuts northward through the Lesser Caucasus range in a series of gorges with many rapids. Some distance after entering

  • Kura-Araks Lowland (region, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Relief, drainage, and soils: …lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

  • Kura-Araksinskaya Nizmennost (region, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Relief, drainage, and soils: …lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

  • Kura-Aras culture (prehistoric Asian culture)

    history of Transcaucasia: A South Caucasian, or Kura-Aras, culture, again associated with rich metalwork and characterized also by tholoi (beehive-shaped tombs), cyclopean masonry (characterized by large, irregular stone blocks fitted without mortar), and burnished black pottery with incised spiral decoration, dates from the late 3rd millennium bc. Evidence of…

  • Kura-Aras Lowland (region, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Relief, drainage, and soils: …lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

  • Kurahashi Kumakichi (Japanese artist)

    Utagawa Toyokuni, Japanese artist of the ukiyo-e (“pictures of the floating world”) movement who developed the style of his master, Utagawa Toyoharu, making it one of the most popular of its day. Toyokuni specialized in prints of actors but was also known for his portraits of women. His “Yakusha

  • Kurai e (work by Noma)

    Noma Hiroshi: …the war with the novels Kurai e (1946; “Dark Painting”) and Kao no naka no akai tsuki (1947; A Red Moon in Her Face), both of which present a protagonist’s conflict between self-image and carnal desire. The novel Kurai e combined the techniques of Symbolism and the Proletarian Literature Movement,…

  • kurairechi (Japanese society)

    Japan: The Hideyoshi regime: For example, the kurairechi (lands under its direct control), which were the immediate financial base of the regime, amounted to more than 2.2 million koku by the time of Hideyoshi’s death, nearly one-eighth of Japan’s cultivated land. But aside from those in the metropolitan and surrounding provinces, these…

  • Kuraish (people)

    Quraysh, the ruling tribe of Mecca at the time of the birth of the Prophet Mu?ammad. There were 10 main clans, the names of some of which gained great lustre through their members’ status in early Islām. These included Hāshim, the clan of the Prophet himself (see Hāshimite); Zuhra, that of his

  • Kurakin, A. B., Prince (Russian statesman)

    Mikhail Mikhaylovich, Count Speransky: Secretary to Prince Kurakin.: At this point, Speransky’s future prospects were radically changed. Prince A.B. Kurakin took him into his household as secretary. Here he deepened his knowledge of the thought of the French Enlightenment and was introduced to the Idealist philosophy of Immanuel Kant. On the accession…

  • Kurakin, Boris Ivanovich, Prince (Russian diplomat)

    Boris Ivanovich, Prince Kurakin, one of the first professional diplomats of Russia, who represented Peter I the Great in western Europe. In 1691 Kurakin became Peter’s brother-in-law by marrying the sister of the tsar’s first wife, Eudoxia. Although he was a member of the old Muscovite aristocracy

  • Kural (work by Tiruvalluvar)

    Tirukkural, (Tamil: “Sacred Couplets”) the most celebrated of the Patiren-kirkkanakku (“Eighteen Ethical Works”) in Tamil literature and a work that has had an immense influence on Tamil culture and life. It is usually attributed to the poet Tiruvalluvar, who is thought to have lived in India in

  • Kuralt, Charles (American journalist)

    Charles Kuralt, American broadcast journalist and author (born Sept. 10, 1934, Wilmington, N.C.—died July 4, 1997, New York, N.Y.), chronicled everyday life in the "On the Road" television segments that appeared for some 13 years during the "CBS Evening News." Each year from 1967 to 1980, he t

  • kuramai (rice stipend)

    Japan: The establishment of the system: …instead with rice stipends (kuramai), thus increasing their dependence on the daimyo. At the same time, this policy increased the lands under the direct control of the daimyo, strengthening the economic base of the domain. Thus, the daimyo employed the same methods toward their own vassals as the bakufu…

  • Kuranko (people)

    Sierra Leone: Ethnic groups: …major groups include the Limba, Kuranko, Susu, Yalunka, and Loko in the north; the Kono and Kisi in the east; and the Sherbro in the southwest. Minor groups include the coastal Bullom, Vai, and Krim and the Fulani

  • Kurashiki (Japan)

    Kurashiki, city, southwestern Okayama ken (prefecture), western Honshu, Japan. It is situated on the eastern bank of the lower Takahashi River at its mouth on the Inland Sea. During the Edo (Tokugawa) period (1603–1867), it was an important trading centre for rice, cotton, and oil; many of its

  • Kurath, Hans (American linguist)

    Hans Kurath, American linguist, best known as the chief editor of the Linguistic Atlas of New England, the first comprehensive linguistic atlas of a large region. Kurath emigrated from Austria to the United States in 1907 and became a citizen in 1912. He studied at the University of Texas (A.B.,

  • Kurathi (rock, Idukki, India)

    Idukki: It connects two huge rocks—Kurathi, 3,035 feet (925 metres) high, and Kuravan, 2,753 feet (839 metres) high. Together with the Cheruthoni dam (1976), on the Cheruthoni River, and the Kulamavu dam (1977), on the Muvattu Puzha River, the Idukki dam forms a large reservoir. The dam is used primarily…

  • Kuratowski’s closure axioms (mathematics)

    topological space: …to rules known as the Kuratowski closure axioms. Any set of objects can be made into a topological space in various ways, but the usefulness of the concept depends on the manner in which the limit points are separated from each other. Most topological spaces that are studied have the…

  • Kuratowski’s theorem (mathematics)

    combinatorics: Planar graphs: The Polish mathematician Kazimierz Kuratowski in 1930 proved the following famous theorem:

  • Kuratowski, Kasimierz (Polish logician)

    Zorn's lemma: …maximum principle (the Polish mathematician Kazimierz Kuratowski discovered it in 1922), he demonstrated how useful this particular formulation could be in applications, particularly in algebra and analysis. He also stated, but did not prove, that the maximum principle, the axiom of choice, and German mathematician Ernst Zermelo’s well-ordering principle were…

  • Kuratowski, Kazimierz (Polish logician)

    Zorn's lemma: …maximum principle (the Polish mathematician Kazimierz Kuratowski discovered it in 1922), he demonstrated how useful this particular formulation could be in applications, particularly in algebra and analysis. He also stated, but did not prove, that the maximum principle, the axiom of choice, and German mathematician Ernst Zermelo’s well-ordering principle were…

  • Kuratowski-Zorn lemma (mathematics)

    Zorn’s lemma, statement in the language of set theory, equivalent to the axiom of choice, that is often used to prove the existence of a mathematical object when it cannot be explicitly produced. In 1935 the German-born American mathematician Max Zorn proposed adding the maximum principle to the

  • Kuratsukuri no Tori (Japanese sculptor)

    Kuratsukuri Tori, the first great Japanese sculptor of the Asuka period (552–645). Tori belonged to the hereditary kuratsukuri-be (“saddlemakers’ guild”), and, as an ardent Buddhist, he applied his technique of making gilt bronze ornaments for saddle trappings to the making of bronze Buddhas.

  • Kuratsukuri Tori (Japanese sculptor)

    Kuratsukuri Tori, the first great Japanese sculptor of the Asuka period (552–645). Tori belonged to the hereditary kuratsukuri-be (“saddlemakers’ guild”), and, as an ardent Buddhist, he applied his technique of making gilt bronze ornaments for saddle trappings to the making of bronze Buddhas.

  • Kuravan (rock, Idukki, India)

    Idukki: …feet (925 metres) high, and Kuravan, 2,753 feet (839 metres) high. Together with the Cheruthoni dam (1976), on the Cheruthoni River, and the Kulamavu dam (1977), on the Muvattu Puzha River, the Idukki dam forms a large reservoir. The dam is used primarily for flood control and to generate hydroelectric…

  • ku?ava?ci (dance-drama)

    South Asian arts: Other classical dance forms: Kuravanchi is a dance-drama of lyrical beauty prevalent in Tamil Nadu. It is performed by four to eight women, with a gypsy fortune-teller as initiator of the story of a lady pining for her lover. Formally, it is a mixture of the folk and classical…

  • Kurayoshi (Japan)

    Kurayoshi, city, northern Tottori ken (prefecture), west-central Honshu, Japan. It lies along a tributary of the Tenjin River and occupies a strategic position on a plain bounded to the south by the Chūgoku Range. The city was the capital of Hōki province (now in Tottori prefecture) from early

  • Kurayoshi-kasuri (cloth)

    Kurayoshi: …distinctive cotton cloth known as Kurayoshi-kasuri (“Kurayoshi splashed pattern”). Its modern industrial products include silk, agricultural machinery, beverages, and wood articles. Pop. (2005) 52,592; (2010) 50,720.

  • Kurban Bayram (Islamic festival)

    Eid al-Adha, (Arabic: “Festival of Sacrifice”) the second of two great Muslim festivals, the other being Eid al-Fitr. Eid al-Adha marks the culmination of the hajj (pilgrimage) rites at Minā, Saudi Arabia, near Mecca, but is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world. As with Eid al-Fitr, it is

  • Kurbas, Les (Ukrainian director)

    Ukraine: Theatre and motion pictures: …Kharkiv, under the artistic director Les Kurbas, was the most distinguished troupe. Preeminent among the playwrights was Mykola Kulish, whose Patetychna Sonata (“Sonata Pathétique”) combined Expressionist techniques with the forms of the Ukrainian vertep. From the mid-1930s, however, the theatre in Ukraine was dominated by Socialist Realism, the style enforced…

  • Kurbsky, Andrey Mikhaylovich, Prince (Russian military commander)

    Andrey Mikhaylovich, Prince Kurbsky, Russian military commander who was a close associate and adviser to Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible of Russia during the 1540s and ’50s. A member of the princely house of Smolensk-Yaroslavl, Kurbsky became attached to the special advisory council (Izbrannaya Rada, or

  • Kurchatov, Igor Vasilyevich (Soviet physicist)

    Igor Vasilyevich Kurchatov, Soviet nuclear physicist who guided the development of his country’s first atomic bomb, first practical thermonuclear bomb, and first nuclear reactor. Kurchatov’s father was a surveyor and his mother a teacher. In 1912 the family moved to Simferopol in Crimea. In 1920

  • kurchatovium (chemical element)

    Rutherfordium (Rf), an artificially produced radioactive transuranium element in Group IVb of the periodic table, atomic number 104. Soviet scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna, Russia, U.S.S.R., announced in 1964 the discovery of element 104, which they named

  • Kurd (people)

    Kurd, member of an ethnic and linguistic group living in the Taurus Mountains of southeastern Anatolia, the Zagros Mountains of western Iran, portions of northern Iraq, northeastern Syria, and western Armenia, and other adjacent areas. Most of the Kurds live in contiguous areas of Iran, Iraq, and

  • Kurd ?Alī, Mu?ammad (Syrian scholar)

    Islamic arts: Arab literatures: …1946), of Druze origin, and Mu?ammad Kurd ?Alī (died 1953), the founder of the Arab Academy of Damascus, each of whom, by encouraging a new degree of awareness, made an important contribution to the education of modern historians and persons of letters. An inclination toward Romanticism can be detected in…

  • Kurdish Democratic Party (political party, Iraq)

    Mustafa al-Barzani: He also founded the Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP), which was to remain the most powerful group in Kurdish politics for decades.

  • Kurdish language

    Kurdish language, a West Iranian language, one of the Indo-Iranian languages, chiefly spoken in Kurdistan. It ranks as the third largest Iranian language, after Persian and Pashto, and has numerous dialects. It is thought to be spoken by some 20–40 million people. There are three main dialect

  • Kurdish National League (political group)

    Badr Khānī Jāladat: …president of the Khoybun (Kurdish National League) and three years later participated in the unsuccessful Kurdish rebellion in Turkey. He became the first editor (May 1932) of the bilingual Kurdish–French review ?awār (“Summons”), which, together with his later illustrated publication Runahi (“Light”), promoted understanding among the diverse and often…

  • Kurdish rug

    Kurdish rug, floor covering handcrafted by people of Kurdish stock in Iran, eastern Anatolia, perhaps to a limited extent in Iraq, and in the southernmost Caucasus. These rugs are stout and solid in structure, usually made in symmetrical knotting upon a woolen foundation. Among older examples,

  • Kurdistan (region, Asia)

    Kurdistan, broadly defined geographic region traditionally inhabited mainly by Kurds. It consists of an extensive plateau and mountain area, spread over large parts of what are now eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and western Iran and smaller parts of northern Syria and Armenia. Two of these

  • Kurdistan (region, Iran)

    Kordestān, geographic region, northwestern Iran. It is bounded by the Iranian region of Azerbaijan on the north, and it borders Iraq on the west. The name Kordestān means “Country of the Kurds,” referring to the region’s principal inhabitants. After the Turkish invasion of Iran in the 11th century

  • Kurdistān (region, Asia)

    Kurdistan, broadly defined geographic region traditionally inhabited mainly by Kurds. It consists of an extensive plateau and mountain area, spread over large parts of what are now eastern Turkey, northern Iraq, and western Iran and smaller parts of northern Syria and Armenia. Two of these

  • Kurdistan People’s Congress (Kurdish militant organization)

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), militant Kurdish nationalist organization founded by Abdullah (“Apo”) ?calan in the late 1970s. Although the group initially espoused demands for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state, its stated aims were later tempered to calls for greater Kurdish

  • Kurdistan Region (region, Iraq)

    Iraq: The invasion: …to direct affairs in the Kurdish autonomous region by various means, including military force. The Iraqi military launched a successful attack against the Kurdish city of Erbil in 1996 and engaged in a consistent policy of ethnic cleansing in areas directly under its control—particularly in and around the oil-rich city…

  • Kurdistan Regional Government (government, Iraq)

    Iraq: U.S. withdrawal and the rise of the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL): …autonomous zone controlled by the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG). On August 8 the United States began to launch limited air strikes against ISIL to prevent it from advancing farther into Kurdish territory. KRG forces, known as the peshmerga, were able to drive out ISIL from some areas—including areas that were…

  • Kurdistan Workers’ Party (Kurdish militant organization)

    Kurdistan Workers’ Party (PKK), militant Kurdish nationalist organization founded by Abdullah (“Apo”) ?calan in the late 1970s. Although the group initially espoused demands for the establishment of an independent Kurdish state, its stated aims were later tempered to calls for greater Kurdish

  • Kurdnatta (South Australia, Australia)

    Port Augusta, city and former port, South Australia, at the head of Spencer Gulf. Founded in 1852 and named for the wife of Sir Henry Fox Young, an early colonial governor of South Australia, Port Augusta was incorporated as a town in 1875 and in 1878 was linked by rail to Adelaide, 191 miles (307

  • Kurdufān (historical region, Sudan)

    Kordofan, region constituting the central and southern area of Sudan. It lies between Darfur on the west and the valley of the White Nile River on the east. Kordofan was originally inhabited by brown-skinned Nubian-speaking peoples, and the region’s name may be derived from the Nubian word kurta,

  • Kurdzali (Bulgaria)

    K?rdzhali, town, south-central Bulgaria, in a broad valley on the Arda River between the K?rdzhali and Studen Kladenets dams, both important hydroelectric power and irrigation stations. The town became part of Bulgaria after the 1912–13 Balkan Wars. Its strong traditional Oriental character has

  • K?rdzhali (Bulgaria)

    K?rdzhali, town, south-central Bulgaria, in a broad valley on the Arda River between the K?rdzhali and Studen Kladenets dams, both important hydroelectric power and irrigation stations. The town became part of Bulgaria after the 1912–13 Balkan Wars. Its strong traditional Oriental character has

  • Kure (Japan)

    Kure, city, southern Hiroshima ken (prefecture), southwestern Honshu, Japan. It is situated on the Inland Sea, just southeast of Hiroshima city. Kure’s excellent natural harbour is surrounded by mountains and screened from the sea by mountainous islands. Because of its seclusion, Kure was chosen as

  • Küre Mountains (mountains, Turkey)

    Turkey: The northern folded zone: …are four main ridges: the Küre, Bolu, Ilgaz, and K?ro?lu mountains. East of the Ye?il the system is higher, narrower, and steeper. Less than 50 miles from the coast, peaks rise to more than 10,000 feet (3,000 metres), with a maximum elevation of 12,917 feet (3,937 metres) in the Ka?kar…

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