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  • Kürenberger, Der (Austrian minnesinger)

    Der Kürenberger, the earliest of the German poet-musicians called minnesingers known by name. Probably an Austrian nobleman from near Linz, Kürenberger wrote proud and imperious love songs that lack the homage to women expressed by later minnesingers and their French or Proven?al models. His poems

  • Kurent (Slovenian mythical figure)

    Slovenia: Daily life and social customs: …name is derived from the Kurent, a mythical figure who was believed to have the power to chase away winter and usher in spring. Groups of people dressed as Kurents (Kurenti) wear sheepskin, don masks and fur caps, and travel through town chasing away winter and “evil spirits.”

  • Kurentovanje (Slovenian festival)

    Slovenia: Daily life and social customs: Kurentovanje, a pre-Lenten festival marking the beginning of spring and grounded in fertility rites, is celebrated in most towns. Its name is derived from the Kurent, a mythical figure who was believed to have the power to chase away winter and usher in spring. Groups…

  • Kureyka (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River: Physiography: …as the confluence of the Kureyka (the next considerable tributary north of the Lower Tunguska). Below Dudinka the bed is in places divided by islands, some of them 10 or 12 miles (16 or 19 km) long, and a true delta begins north of Ust-Port, where the numerous Brekhov Islands…

  • Kurfürst (German prince)

    Elector, prince of the Holy Roman Empire who had a right to participate in the election of the emperor (the German king). Beginning around 1273 and with the confirmation of the Golden Bull of 1356, there were seven electors: the archbishops of Trier, Mainz, and Cologne; the duke of Saxony; the c

  • Kurfürstenhumpen (glass)

    glassware: Germany: …or mounted on horseback (Kurfürstenhumpen); subjects from the Old and New Testaments; and allegorical themes such as the Eight Virtues and the Ages of Man. These were painted between borders of multicoloured or white dots or intersecting ellipses, often on a gold ground. This general style continued into the…

  • Kurgan (oblast, Russia)

    Kurgan, oblast (region), west-central Russia, on the southern edge of the West Siberian Plain, in the Tobol Basin. It is a level plain with innumerable small lakes, often saline, in shallow depressions. The steppe-grass vegetation has been largely ploughed up, and many shelter belts of trees have

  • kurgan (burial mound)

    Slavic religion: Communal banquets and related practices: …the northwest, the so-called long kurgans (burial mounds), contained cinerary urns buried in the tumulus together and all at one time. Such a practice could occur only as the consequence of collective and simultaneous cremation. There must, therefore, have existed a periodic cremation season or date, as for the opening…

  • Kurgan (Russia)

    Kurgan, city and administrative centre of Kurgan oblast (region), west-central Russia, on the Tobol River. In 1553 the fortified settlement of Tsaryovo Gorodishche was founded on a large ancient tumulus or artificial mound (Russian kurgan); it became a town in 1782, and by the late 19th century it

  • Kurgan culture (prehistoric culture)

    Kurgan culture, . By about 2300 bc the Kurgans arrived in the Aegean and Adriatic regions. The Kurgans buried their dead in deep shafts within artificial burial mounds, or barrows. The word kurgan means “barrow,” or “artificial mound,” in Turkic and

  • Kurgan-Tyube (Tajikistan)

    Qǔrghonteppa, city, southwestern Tajikistan. It lies in the Vakhsh River valley, 62 miles (100 km) south of Dushanbe. Qǔrghonteppa has existed since the 17th century. It is on the railway line between Dushanbe and Kulyab. The city has food-processing plants, clothing manufacturers, an

  • Kurgapkina, Ninel (Russian ballerina)

    Ninel Kurgapkina, Russian ballerina (born Feb. 13, 1929, Leningrad, Russia, U.S.S.R. [now St. Petersburg, Russia]—died May 8, 2009, St. Petersburg), danced as lead soubrette for the Kirov Ballet (now Mariinsky Ballet) for more than three decades. After Kurgapkina graduated (1947) from the Vaganova

  • Kurhessen (former landgraviate, Germany)

    Hesse-Kassel, former landgraviate of Germany, formed in 1567 in the division of old Hesse. In 1567 Hesse was partitioned among four sons of Landgrave Philip the Magnanimous, Hesse-Kassel going to William IV the Wise. Hesse-Kassel was the largest, most important, and most northerly of the four

  • Kuri (people)

    Lake Chad: Settlement history: …of Lake Chad, and the Kuri did the same in inaccessible areas along the eastern margin of the lake.

  • Kuria Muria (island group, Oman)

    Khurīyā Murīyā, island group of Oman, in the Arabian Sea, situated 25 miles (40 km) off the country’s southeastern coast. The five islands, which have a total land area of 28 square miles (73 square km), are composed largely of granite and represent the peaks of a submarine ridge. From west to east

  • Kuribayashi Tadamichi (Japanese general)

    Battle of Iwo Jima: Battle: Kuribayashi Tadamichi to organize the defense of Iwo Jima. Despite the apparent futility of resistance, Kuribayashi resolved to make the United States bleed for its victory. He began by ordering the construction of a tunnel network beneath the island to provide both protection and a…

  • Kuricali Ko?u Mustafa Bey (Ottoman statesman)

    Ko?u Bey, Turkish minister and reformer, a notable early observer of the Ottoman decline. Originally from Albania, Ko?u Bey was sent to Constantinople, where he was educated in the Imperial Palace. He later entered the service of a number of Ottoman sultans, finding particular favour with Murad IV

  • Kurien, Verghese (Indian engineer and entrepreneur)

    Verghese Kurien, Indian engineer and entrepreneur who was regarded as the architect of India’s “white revolution,” which transformed the country from an importer of dairy products to the world’s largest milk producer through a system of farmer cooperatives. Kurien was born into a wealthy Syrian

  • Kurigalzu I (Kassite king)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Kassites in Babylonia: …was founded and named after Kurigalzu I (c. 1400–c. 1375). His successors Kadashman-Enlil I (c. 1375–c. 1360) and Burnaburiash II (c. 1360–c. 1333) were in correspondence with the Egyptian rulers Amenhotep III and Akhenaton (Amenhotep IV). They were interested in trading their lapis lazuli and

  • Kurigalzu II (Kassite king)

    history of Mesopotamia: The Kassites in Babylonia: Kurigalzu II (c. 1332–c. 1308) fought against the Assyrians but was defeated by them. His successors sought to ally themselves with the Hittites in order to stop the expansion of the Assyrians. During the reign of Kashtiliash IV (c. 1232–c. 1225), Babylonia waged war on…

  • Kurihara Harumi (Japanese chef)

    Kurihara Harumi, Japanese chef, lifestyle expert, and television personality who in 1994 founded the media and home furnishing corporation Yutori no Kūkan (“A Place to Relax”). Kurihara was taught by her mother how to cook. After marrying a well-known newscaster in Japan, her exceptional cooking

  • Kuril Basin (basin, Pacific Ocean)

    back-arc basin: …the Sea of Japan, the Kuril Basin in the Sea of Okhotsk, the Mariana Trough in the Philippine Sea, and the South Fiji Basin.

  • Kuril Current (current, Pacific Ocean)

    Oya Current, surface oceanic current flowing southwest along the Kamchatka Peninsula and the Kuril Islands. Meeting the Kuro Current Extension east of Japan, part of the cold, less saline water of the Oya Current sinks below the Kuro Current and continues southward; the confluence of these currents

  • Kuril Islands (islands, Russia)

    Kuril Islands, archipelago in Sakhalin oblast (province), far-eastern Russia. The archipelago extends for 750 miles (1,200 km) from the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) to the northeastern corner of Hokkaido island (Japan) and separates the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. The

  • Kuril Trench (submarine feature, Pacific Ocean)

    Kuril Trench, deep submarine depression in the western Pacific Ocean, situated on the east side of the Kamchatka Peninsula, the Kuril Islands, and Hokkaido island, Japan. Extending for about 1,800 miles (2,900 km) north-south, it has a maximum depth of 34,587 feet (10,542 metres) and covers a total

  • Kuril-Kamchatka (island arc, Asia)

    Asia: East Asia: …of the Ryukyu-Korean, Honshu-Sakhalin, and Kuril-Kamchatka mountain-island arcs. Dating from the Mesozoic and Cenozoic eras, those arcs have complex knots at their junctions, represented by the topography of the Japanese islands of Kyushu and Hokkaido. The mountains are of low or moderate height and are formed of folded and faulted…

  • Kurilskiye Ostrova (islands, Russia)

    Kuril Islands, archipelago in Sakhalin oblast (province), far-eastern Russia. The archipelago extends for 750 miles (1,200 km) from the southern tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia) to the northeastern corner of Hokkaido island (Japan) and separates the Sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific Ocean. The

  • kuriltai (Mongolian government)

    Giovanni Da Pian Del Carpini: …formal election in a great kuriltai, or general assembly of shamans, was witnessed by the friars along with more than 3,000 envoys and deputies from all parts of the Mongol Empire. On August 24 they were present at the formal enthronement at the nearby camp of the “Golden” Ordu and…

  • ku?i?ci (literary genre)

    South Asian arts: ?a?gam literature: , the ku?i?ci genre, in love poetry, which dealt with the lovers’ clandestine union on a hillside by night; and the ve?ci genre, in heroic poetry, which dealt with the first onset of war, by nocturnal cattle stealing. Both ku?i?ci and ve?ci are names of flowers that…

  • Kurisches Haff (gulf, Baltic Sea)

    Curonian Lagoon, gulf of the Baltic Sea at the mouth of the Neman River, in Lithuania and Russia. The lagoon, with an area of 625 square miles (1,619 square km), is separated from the Baltic Sea by a narrow, dune-covered sandspit, the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kur?iu Nerija; Russian: Kurskaya

  • Kurit Dam (ancient dam, Persia)

    dam: Early dams of East Asia: …the Kebar Dam and the Kurit Dam represented the world’s first large-scale thin-arch dams. The Kebar and Kurit dams were built early in the 14th century by Il-Khanid Mongols; the Kebar Dam reached a height of 26 metres (85 feet), and the Kurit Dam, after successive heightenings over the centuries,…

  • Kurita Takeo (Japanese military officer)

    World War II: The Philippines and Borneo, from September 1944: …stronger group, under Vice Admiral Kurita Takeo, would enter the Pacific through the San Bernardino Strait between the Philippine islands of Samar and Luzon; the other, under Vice Admiral Nishimura Teiji, would pass through the Surigao Strait.

  • Kurja (Indian folk song)

    Rajasthan: Literature: The most-famous song is “Kurja,” which tells the story of a woman who wishes to send a message to her absent husband by a kurja (a type of bird), who is promised a priceless reward for his service. In the literary tradition, Chand Bardai’s epic poem Prithviraj Raso (or…

  • Kurland (historical region, Europe)

    Courland, region on the Baltic seacoast, located south of the Western Dvina River and named after its inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). The duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, included this area as well as Semigallia (Zemgale), a region located east of

  • Kurland, Bob (American athlete)

    basketball: U.S. high school and college basketball: Bob Kurland (7 feet [2.13 metres]) led Oklahoma A&M to two NCAA championships in the 1940s and led the nation in scoring in 1945–46. In the same era George Mikan (6 feet 10 inches [2.08 metres]) scored more than 550 points in each of his…

  • Kurma (Hindu mythology)

    Kurma, (Sanskrit: “Tortoise”) one of the 10 avatars (incarnations) of the Hindu god Vishnu. In this incarnation Vishnu is associated with the myth of the churning of the ocean of milk. The gods and the asuras (demons, or titans) cooperated in the churning to obtain amrita, the elixir of

  • Kurnai (people)

    Victoria: Aboriginal peoples: …Aboriginal groups in Victoria: the Kurnai of Gippsland, the Yorta Yorta of the eastern Murray, and the Kulin of the Central Divide. These groups were subdivided into about 34 distinct subgroups, each with its own territory, customs, laws, language, and beliefs. The basic unit was an extended family of 50–100…

  • Kürnberger, Ferdinand (Austrian writer)

    Ferdinand Kürnberger, Austrian writer known for his participation in the Austrian revolution of 1848 and the Dresden rebellion of 1849. Kürnberger was forced to leave Austria after his participation in the first rebellion and was jailed for his involvement in the second. He lived in Germany until

  • Kurnell (historical site, New South Wales, Australia)

    Kurnell, historic site on the southern side of the entrance to Botany Bay, New South Wales, Australia. Kurnell was the first landing place in Australia of Capt. James Cook on April 29, 1770. Drawing on Cook’s favourable account, the First Fleet—the first group of British settlers in

  • Kurnool (India)

    Kurnool, city, western Andhra Pradesh state, southern India. It lies in an upland region at the confluence of the Tungabhadra and Hindri rivers, about 100 miles (160 km) south-southeast of Hyderabad in Telangana state. Kurnool was made a municipality in 1866 and was the capital of Andhra state (the

  • Kuro Current (ocean current)

    equatorial current: This flow, known as the Kuro Current, moves north as far as Japan, then east as the North Pacific Current (West Wind Drift), part of which then turns south as the California Current, which joins the equatorial countercurrent to form the Pacific North Equatorial Current.

  • kuroboku (soil type)

    Japan: Soils: Kuroboku soils (black soils rich in humus content) are found on terraces, hills, and gentle slopes throughout Japan, while gley (sticky, blue-gray compact) soils are found in the poorly drained lowlands. Peat soils occupy the moors in Hokkaido and Tōhoku. Muck (dark soil, containing a…

  • Kurobune (Japanese opera)

    Japanese music: Composers in Western styles: His opera Kurobune (1940; The Black Ships) deals with the opening of Japan to the West and reflects his knowledge of Wagnerian style. Attempts at nationalistic operas can be represented better by the work Yuzuru (1952; Twilight Crane) by Ikuma Dan. The plot is a Japanese folktale, and, although…

  • Kuroda Kiyotaka, Count (prime minister of Japan)

    Count Kuroda Kiyotaka, Japanese statesman who played a leading role in the Meiji Restoration, the 1868 overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and reestablishment of imperial rule in Japan. He served as prime minister from April 1888 to October 1889. Kuroda was one of the original genro, the handful of

  • Kuroda Kiyotaka, Hakushaku (prime minister of Japan)

    Count Kuroda Kiyotaka, Japanese statesman who played a leading role in the Meiji Restoration, the 1868 overthrow of the Tokugawa shogunate and reestablishment of imperial rule in Japan. He served as prime minister from April 1888 to October 1889. Kuroda was one of the original genro, the handful of

  • Kuroda Nagamasa (Japanese warrior)

    Kuroda Nagamasa, noted Japanese warrior who rendered important service to two leaders, Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, in their campaigns to dominate Japan. Upon his father’s death, Kuroda succeeded him as one of Hideyoshi’s generals in his battles to dominate Japan. When Hideyoshi invaded

  • Kuroda Seiki (Japanese painter)

    Japanese art: Western-style painting: Asai’s contemporary Kuroda Seiki studied in France under Raphael Collin and was among the most prominent exponents of a style that was strongly influenced by Impressionism in its informality and its use of lighter, brighter colours.

  • Kurōdo-dokoro (Japanese government)

    Kurōdo-dokoro, Japanese bureau of archivists originally established for the transmission and receipt of documents for the emperor. Initiated by the emperor Saga in 810, the Kurōdo-dokoro soon became the major organ for conveying memorials to the emperor and issuing imperial decrees. During the

  • Kuroi ame (work by Ibuse Masuji)

    Ibuse Masuji: …the novel Kuroi ame (1966; Black Rain), which deals with the terrible effects of the bombing of Hiroshima during World War II.

  • Kurokawa, Kishō (Japanese architect)

    Kurokawa Kishō, Japanese architect, who was one of the leading members of the Metabolist movement in the 1960s and ’70s. In his later work he achieved increasingly poetic qualities. The son of a respected Japanese architect from the pre-World War II era, Kurokawa studied architecture under Tange

  • Kurokawa, Noriaki (Japanese architect)

    Kurokawa Kishō, Japanese architect, who was one of the leading members of the Metabolist movement in the 1960s and ’70s. In his later work he achieved increasingly poetic qualities. The son of a respected Japanese architect from the pre-World War II era, Kurokawa studied architecture under Tange

  • kuroko deposit (mineralogy)

    mineral deposit: Volcanogenic massive sulfides: …found in Japan and called kuroko deposits, yield ores that contain as much as 20 percent combined copper, lead, and zinc by weight, plus important amounts of gold and silver. Other famous VMS deposits are the historic copper deposits of Cyprus and, in Canada, the Kidd Creek deposit in Ontario…

  • Kuron, Jacek (Polish leader)

    Jacek Jan Kuron, Polish dissident (born March 3, 1934, Lvov, Pol. [now Lviv, Ukraine]—died June 17, 2004, Warsaw, Pol.), was the intellectual leader of the Solidarity labour union movement in Poland in the 1980s; he negotiated the end of the communist regime there and served as a crucial adviser t

  • Kuronian (people)

    Courland: …inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). The duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, included this area as well as Semigallia (Zemgale), a region located east of Courland proper.

  • Kuropatkin, Aleksey (Russian general)

    Aleksey Kuropatkin, Russian general. He was chief of staff during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), commander in chief in Caucasia in 1897, and minister of war (1898–1904). In the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) he commanded the Russian troops in Manchuria; he resigned after the Russian defeat at the

  • Kuropatkin, Aleksey Nikolayevich (Russian general)

    Aleksey Kuropatkin, Russian general. He was chief of staff during the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78), commander in chief in Caucasia in 1897, and minister of war (1898–1904). In the Russo-Japanese War (1904–05) he commanded the Russian troops in Manchuria; he resigned after the Russian defeat at the

  • Kurosawa Akira (Japanese film director)

    Kurosawa Akira, first Japanese film director to win international acclaim, with such films as Rashomon (1950), Ikiru (1952), Seven Samurai (1954), Throne of Blood (1957), Kagemusha (1980), and Ran (1985). Kurosawa’s father, who had once been an army officer, was a teacher who contributed to the

  • Kuroshio (oceanic current, Pacific Ocean)

    Kuroshio, (Japanese: “Black Current”, ) strong surface oceanic current of the Pacific Ocean, the northeasterly flowing continuation of the Pacific North Equatorial Current between Luzon of the Philippines and the east coast of Japan. The temperature and salinity of Kuroshio water are relatively

  • Kuroshio Extension (oceanic current, Pacific Ocean)

    Pacific Ocean: Surface currents: …swings eastward to form the Kuroshio Extension. The branching of this current in the region of 160° E results in the movement known as the North Pacific Current. The surface waters of the Bering Sea circulate in a counterclockwise direction. The southward extension of the Kamchatka Current forms the cold…

  • Kuroshio-North Pacific Current (oceanic current, Pacific Ocean)

    Kuroshio, (Japanese: “Black Current”, ) strong surface oceanic current of the Pacific Ocean, the northeasterly flowing continuation of the Pacific North Equatorial Current between Luzon of the Philippines and the east coast of Japan. The temperature and salinity of Kuroshio water are relatively

  • Kurozumi Munetada (Japanese priest)

    Kurozumi-kyō: …Japan, named for its founder, Kurozumi Munetada (1780–1850), a Shintō priest of the area that is now Okayama prefecture. The believers venerate the Shintō sun goddess Amaterasu as the supreme god and creator of the universe and consider the other traditional 8,000,000 Shintō kami (gods, or sacred powers) to be…

  • Kurozumi-kyō (Japanese religion)

    Kurozumi-kyō, prototype of the contemporary “new religions” of Japan, named for its founder, Kurozumi Munetada (1780–1850), a Shintō priest of the area that is now Okayama prefecture. The believers venerate the Shintō sun goddess Amaterasu as the supreme god and creator of the universe and

  • kurra (dance)

    Islamic arts: Dance: One of those dances, the kurra? (sometimes called kurra), developed into a song and dance festival held at the caliph’s court. Since the latter part of the 19th century, the dancing profession has lost ground to the performance of U.S., Latin American, and western European dances in cabarets. In a…

  • Kurrachee (Pakistan)

    Karāchi, city and capital of Sindh province, southern Pakistan. It is the country’s largest city and principal seaport and is a major commercial and industrial centre. Karāchi is located on the coast of the Arabian Sea immediately northwest of the Indus River Delta. The city has been variously

  • kurra? (dance)

    Islamic arts: Dance: One of those dances, the kurra? (sometimes called kurra), developed into a song and dance festival held at the caliph’s court. Since the latter part of the 19th century, the dancing profession has lost ground to the performance of U.S., Latin American, and western European dances in cabarets. In a…

  • Kurri Kurri (New South Wales, Australia)

    Kurri Kurri, town, now part of the city of Cessnock, eastern New South Wales, Australia. It is located in the Hunter River valley. Sydney lies 106 miles (170 km) to the south. Kurri Kurri was laid out in 1902 as a centre for the surrounding coalfields, its name coming from an Aboriginal term

  • Kursi (people)

    Courland: …inhabitants, the Latvian tribe of Curonians (Kurs, Cori, Cours; Latvian: Kursi). The duchy of Courland, formed in 1561, included this area as well as Semigallia (Zemgale), a region located east of Courland proper.

  • Kur?iu Marios (gulf, Baltic Sea)

    Curonian Lagoon, gulf of the Baltic Sea at the mouth of the Neman River, in Lithuania and Russia. The lagoon, with an area of 625 square miles (1,619 square km), is separated from the Baltic Sea by a narrow, dune-covered sandspit, the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kur?iu Nerija; Russian: Kurskaya

  • Kur?iu Nerija (spit, Baltic Sea)

    Curonian Lagoon: …a narrow, dune-covered sandspit, the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kur?iu Nerija; Russian: Kurskaya Kosa), 60 miles (100 km) long and 1–2 miles (1.5–3 km) wide. A road along the spit connects resort and fishing villages. At its north end, the lagoon is connected to the Baltic Sea by a navigable strait,…

  • Kursk (oblast, Russia)

    Kursk, oblast (region), western Russia. The oblast is centred on Kursk city. It extends across the southern end of the Central Russian Upland. The surface is a rolling plateau, broken by broad, shallow valleys. Almost everywhere the natural forest-steppe vegetation has been replaced by farming,

  • Kursk (film by Vinterberg [2018])

    Max von Sydow: …The Command (2018; also called Kursk).

  • Kursk (Russia)

    Kursk, city and administrative centre of Kursk oblast (region), western Russia. It lies along the upper Seym River, about 280 miles (450 km) south of Moscow. Kursk is one of the oldest cities in Russia. It was first mentioned in documents from 1032. Completely destroyed by the Tatars in 1240, it

  • Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (region, Russia)

    Europe: Iron ores: >Kursk region in Russia. High-quality ores (of 60 percent iron), however, have been exhausted or have become expensive to mine. The Kursk Magnetic Anomaly, located in southwestern Russia, has iron-rich quartzites. Sweden is another producer of iron ore, notably in the Kiruna region. Deposits in…

  • Kursk submarine disaster (Russian history)

    Kursk submarine disaster, one of Russia’s most serious naval disasters. WHEN: August 12-13, 2000 WHERE: Barents Sea, off the Arctic coast of Russia DEATH TOLL: 118 Russian sailors SUMMARY: Over the weekend of August 12–13, 2000, while on a naval exercise inside the Arctic Circle, the Russian

  • Kursk, Battle of (World War II)

    Battle of Kursk, (July 5–August 23, 1943), unsuccessful German assault on the Soviet salient around the city of Kursk, in western Russia, during World War II. The salient was a bulge in the Soviet lines that stretched 150 miles (240 km) from north to south and protruded 100 miles (160 km) westward

  • Kurskaya Kosa (spit, Baltic Sea)

    Curonian Lagoon: …a narrow, dune-covered sandspit, the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kur?iu Nerija; Russian: Kurskaya Kosa), 60 miles (100 km) long and 1–2 miles (1.5–3 km) wide. A road along the spit connects resort and fishing villages. At its north end, the lagoon is connected to the Baltic Sea by a navigable strait,…

  • Kursky Zaliv (gulf, Baltic Sea)

    Curonian Lagoon, gulf of the Baltic Sea at the mouth of the Neman River, in Lithuania and Russia. The lagoon, with an area of 625 square miles (1,619 square km), is separated from the Baltic Sea by a narrow, dune-covered sandspit, the Curonian Spit (Lithuanian: Kur?iu Nerija; Russian: Kurskaya

  • Kur?unlu Mosque (mosque, Kayseri, Turkey)

    Kayseri: …are the Great Mosque, the Kur?unlu Mosque (16th century; attributed to the noted architect Sinan), and the Sahibiye Medrese, which serves as a bazaar. The 13th-century Huand Medrese now houses an ethnographic museum. Kayseri is the site of one of the earliest Turkish schools of medicine, the Giyasiye ?ifahiye (early…

  • Kurszán (Magyar leader)

    Budapest: Early settlement and the emergence of medieval Buda: Kurszán, the Magyar tribal chieftain, probably took up residence in the palace of the former Roman governor at the end of the 9th century. The settlement shifted south to Castle Hill some time after Stephen I of Hungary had established a Christian kingdom in the…

  • Kurt (Bulgar khan)

    Bulgaria: Arrival of the Bulgars: …century, but in 635 Khan Kubrat led a successful revolt and organized an independent tribal confederation known as Great Bulgaria. After Kubrat’s death in 642, the Bulgars were attacked by the Khazars and dispersed. According to Byzantine sources, the Bulgars split into five groups, each under one of Kubrat’s sons.…

  • Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library (cultural centre, Indianapolis, Indiana, United States)

    Kurt Vonnegut: In 2010 the Kurt Vonnegut Memorial Library opened in Indianapolis. In addition to promoting the work of Vonnegut, the nonprofit organization served as a cultural and educational resource centre, including a museum, an art gallery, and a reading room.

  • Kürten, Peter (German serial killer)

    Peter Kürten, German serial killer whose widely analyzed career influenced European society’s understanding of serial murder, sexual violence, and sadism in the first half of the 20th century. Kürten, the third of 13 children, experienced a violent childhood. His father, an abusive alcoholic, was

  • Kurti, Nicholas (Hungarian-born physicist)

    molecular gastronomy: …This, a physical chemist, and Nicholas Kurti, a former professor of physics at the University of Oxford, who were interested in the science behind the phenomena that occur during culinary processes. Although food science had existed for some centuries, its focus had historically been on the chemical composition of ingredients…

  • Kurtidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Kurtoidei Family Kurtidae (nurseryfishes) Peculiar, small, percoidlike; males carry eggs, stuck under an anteriorly pointing hornlike process on top of back of head. 2 species; brackish water and lower parts of streams; Indo-Malaysia, New Guinea, and northern Australia. Suborder Gobioidei Almost all with pelvic fins located beneath pectorals…

  • kurtosis (statistics)

    Kurtosis, in statistics, a measure of how much of a variable distribution can be found in the tails. The term kurtosis is derived from kurtos (Greek for “convex” or “humpbacked”). A prevalent misconception is that kurtosis measures the “peakedness” of a distribution; however, the contribution of a

  • kurtosis (geology)

    sedimentary rock: Grain size: …median, and mode, and (6) kurtosis (peakedness) of a grain-size distribution, which compares sorting in the central portion of the population with that in the tails.

  • Kurtz, Mr. (fictional character)

    Mr. Kurtz, fictional character, the manager of a trading station in the interior of the Belgian Congo, in Joseph Conrad’s “Heart of Darkness”

  • Kurtz, Thomas (American engineer)

    BASIC: Kemeny and Thomas E. Kurtz (b. 1928) at Dartmouth College in the mid 1960s. One of the simplest high-level languages, with commands similar to English, it can be learned with relative ease even by schoolchildren and novice programmers. Since c. 1980, BASIC has been popular for use…

  • Kurtzberg, Jacob (American comic book artist)

    Jack Kirby, American comic book artist who helped create hundreds of original characters, including Captain America, the Incredible Hulk, and the Fantastic Four. Kirby left high school at age 16 and worked in Max Fleischer’s animation studio on Betty Boop and Popeye cartoons before teaming up with

  • Kurtzman, Harvey (American cartoonist)

    Harvey Kurtzman, U.S. cartoonist and editor (born Oct. 3, 1924, New York, N.Y.—died Feb. 21, 1993, Mount Vernon, N.Y.), cleverly lampooned the sacred institutions of American life as the comic genius who conceived of Mad magazine and its gap-toothed, freckle-faced mascot, Alfred E. Neuman. K

  • kuru (pathology)

    Kuru, infectious fatal degenerative disorder of the central nervous system found primarily among the Fore people of Papua New Guinea. Initial symptoms of kuru (a Fore word for “trembling,” or “shivering”) include joint pain and headaches, which typically are followed by loss of coordination,

  • Kuru-Pancala (people)

    India: Later Vedic period (c. 800–c. 500 bce): …the greatest respect, was the Kuru-Pancala, which incorporated the two families of Kuru and Puru (and the earlier Bharatas) and of which the Pancala was a confederation of lesser-known tribes. They occupied the upper Ganges–Yamuna Doab and the Kurukshetra region. In the north the Kamboja, Gandhara, and Madra groups predominated.…

  • Kuruba (people)

    Kurumba: The Kuruba, an ethnologically similar people who live on the plains as small landowners and herders of sheep, are now considered distinct from the hill Kurumba.

  • Kuruc rising (Hungarian history)

    Kuruc song: …the adventurous life of the Kurucs, Hungarian partisans who fought against the Habsburgs in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Largely anonymous, the poems give gripping descriptions of the Kurucs’ poverty and misery and also of their joys. Some recount the deeds of the great figures of the insurrection,…

  • Kuruc song (Hungarian literature)

    Kuruc song, any of the poems celebrating the adventurous life of the Kurucs, Hungarian partisans who fought against the Habsburgs in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Largely anonymous, the poems give gripping descriptions of the Kurucs’ poverty and misery and also of their joys. Some recount

  • Kuru?ay River (river, Asia)

    Kura River, river in Turkey, Georgia, and Azerbaijan. The Kura is the largest river in Transcaucasia. It rises on the slopes of Mount K?s?r?nda?? in extreme eastern Turkey and cuts northward through the Lesser Caucasus range in a series of gorges with many rapids. Some distance after entering

  • Kurucok rising (Hungarian history)

    Kuruc song: …the adventurous life of the Kurucs, Hungarian partisans who fought against the Habsburgs in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. Largely anonymous, the poems give gripping descriptions of the Kurucs’ poverty and misery and also of their joys. Some recount the deeds of the great figures of the insurrection,…

  • Kurukh (people)

    Oraon, aboriginal people of the Cho?a Nāgpur region in the state of Bihār, India. They call themselves Kurukh and speak a Dravidian language akin to Gondi and other tribal languages of central India. They once lived farther to the southwest on the Rohtās Plateau, but they were dislodged by other

  • Kurukh language

    Kurukh language, member of the North Dravidian subfamily of Dravidian languages. In the early 21st century, Kurukh was spoken by some 1.75 million people, predominantly in the Oraon tribes of the Chota Nagpur plateau of east-central India. Kurukh is also spoken in parts of Bangladesh. Lacking a

  • Kuruksetra (India)

    Kurukshetra, city, northeastern Haryana state, northwestern India. It is connected by road and rail with Delhi (south) and Amritsar (north). Kurukshetra’s urban area merges with Thanesar, an important Hindu pilgrimage centre. The city’s large reservoir is said to have been built by Raja Kuru, the

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