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  • Kyle (Germany)

    Kiel, city, capital (1945) of Schleswig-Holstein Land (state), northern Germany. Kiel is a port on both sides of the Kiel Fjord, an inlet of the western Baltic Sea, and lies at the eastern end of the Kiel Canal. The name Kyle (meaning “fjord,” or “spring,” possibly derived from the Anglo-Saxon

  • Kyle, Betty (American songwriter)

    Betty Comden, (Elizabeth Cohen), American lyricist (born May 3, 1919, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Nov. 23, 2006, New York, N.Y.), collaborated with Adolph Green, and the two made up the musical-comedy team that wrote scripts—and often the lyrics—for many Broadway shows and Hollywood film musicals. They w

  • Kylián, Ji?í (choreographer)

    ballet: Choreographers: Ji?í Kylián studied in his native Prague (1956–67) and in London (1967), worked in Stuttgart with Cranko and after Cranko’s death in 1973 with Glen Tetley (1968–76), and became artistic director of the Nederlands Dans Theater in 1976. This company, like most newly founded companies,…

  • kylix (pottery)

    Kylix, in ancient Greek pottery, wide-bowled drinking cup with horizontal handles, one of the most popular pottery forms from Mycenaean times through the classical Athenian period. There was usually a painted frieze around the outer surface, depicting a subject from mythology or everyday life, and

  • Kyllo v. United States (law case)

    Antonin Scalia: Judicial philosophy: …penetrate a home’s walls (Kyllo v. United States [2001]), attaching a GPS device to a car to track a suspect’s movements (United States v. Jones [2012]), and allowing a drug-detection dog to sniff at a suspect’s front door (Florida v. Jardines [2013]). Another of Scalia’s opinions that upset many…

  • Kylver Stone (runic stone, Sweden)

    Kylver Stone, limestone slab that bears a 5th-century runic inscription, providing the oldest extant record of the Germanic runic series; it was found in a tomb in the province of Gotland in Sweden. The runes faced the inside of a coffin and probably were intended either to protect the grave or to

  • kymograph (medical instrument)

    Carl F.W. Ludwig: …a device known as a kymograph to record changes in arterial blood pressure; a simple stromuhr (1867), or flowmeter, to measure the rate of blood flow through arteries and veins; and a mercurial blood-gas pump for the separation of gases from the blood, which led to an understanding of the…

  • Kynaston, Edward (English actor)

    Edward Kynaston, probably the last and the best of English boy actors playing female roles. His last female role was in Beaumont and Fletcher’s Maid ’s Tragedy with Killigrew’s Company (1661). Earlier in that year the English diarist Samuel Pepys reports—having seen Kynaston play several parts in

  • Kynaston, Ned (English actor)

    Edward Kynaston, probably the last and the best of English boy actors playing female roles. His last female role was in Beaumont and Fletcher’s Maid ’s Tragedy with Killigrew’s Company (1661). Earlier in that year the English diarist Samuel Pepys reports—having seen Kynaston play several parts in

  • Kynēgetikos (work by Xenophon)

    Xenophon: Other writings: Cynegeticus (“On Hunting”) offers technical advice on hunting (on foot, with dogs and nets, the usual prey being a hare); Xenophon sees the pursuit as a pleasurable and divinely ordained means of promoting military, intellectual, and moral excellence (something neither sophists nor politicians can match). De…

  • Kyneton (Victoria, Australia)

    Kyneton, town, central Victoria, Australia, on the Campaspe River, about 50 miles (85 km) northwest of Melbourne. Squatters settled in the region in 1836–41; the town was surveyed in 1849 and named after Kineton (now known as Kington) in Hertfordshire, England. Kyneton is the service centre for an

  • Kynewulf (English poet)

    Cynewulf, author of four Old English poems preserved in late 10th-century manuscripts. Elene and The Fates of the Apostles are in the Vercelli Book, and The Ascension (which forms the second part of a trilogy, Christ, and is also called Christ II) and Juliana are in the Exeter Book. An epilogue to

  • Kynge Johan (work by Bale)

    John Bale: …Protestant controversialist, and dramatist whose Kynge Johan is asserted to have been the first English history play. He is notable for his part in the religious strife of the 16th century and for his antiquarian studies, including the first rudimentary history of English literature.

  • kynigito (game)

    Tag, children’s game in which, in its simplest form, the player who is “it” chases the other players, trying to touch one of them, thereby making that person “it.” The game is known by many names, such as leapsa in Romania and kynigito in parts of modern Greece. In some variants the children

  • Kynsa Khyoung (river, Bangladesh)

    Karnaphuli River, major watercourse of the Chittagong region, Bangladesh. Rising in the Mizo Hills of Mizoram state, northeastern India, it flows about 170 miles (270 km) south and southwest through the southeastern arm of Bangladesh to empty into the Bay of Bengal, 12 miles (19 km) below the city

  • Kyō-yaki (Japanese ceramics)

    Kyō-yaki, decorated Japanese ceramics produced in Kyōto from about the middle of the 17th century. The development of this ware was stimulated by the appearance of enamelled porcelains in Kyushu, and it was not long after Sakaida Kakiemon successfully perfected overglaze enamels in Arita that

  • Kyōdō Tsūshinsha (Japanese news agency)

    Kyōdō Tsūshinsha, (Japanese: “Cooperative News Agency”) national nonprofit news agency founded in November 1945 to replace the pre-World War II Dōmei Tsūshinsha (“Federated News Agency”), which had served as the official news service of the Japanese government since 1936. Despite competition from

  • Kyoga Lake (lake, Uganda)

    Kyoga Lake, lake located north of Lake Victoria in central Uganda, formed by the Victoria Nile in its middle course. The many-armed lake is shallow, with swampy, papyrus-reeded shores; masses of papyrus are broken loose by strong winds and at times have completely blocked the river. Navigation for

  • Kyogaku Seishi (Japanese history)

    education: The conservative reaction: …the Kyōgaku Seishi, or the Imperial Will on the Great Principles of Education, was drafted by Motoda Nagazane, a lecturer attached to the Imperial House in 1870. It stressed the strengthening of traditional morality and virtue to provide a firm base for the emperor. Thereafter, the government began to base…

  • kyōgen (dramatic arts)

    Kyōgen, brief farce or comic interlude played during a Japanese Noh (lyric drama) cycle, expressed in the vernacular of the second half of the 16th century. Its effect is to relieve the tension of the drama. It is performed in ordinary dress and without masks (unless these are used in parody).

  • Kyōgyōshinshō (work by Shinran)

    Shinran: Life: In addition to completing the Kyōgyōshinshō, he composed doctrinal treatises, commentaries, religious tracts, hymns of praise (wasan), and other works, both to confirm his own understanding of Pure Land Buddhism and to convey his views to others.

  • Kyōha Shintō (Japanese religion)

    Kyōha Shintō, group of folk religious sects in Japan that were separated by a government decree in 1882 from the suprareligious national cult, State Shintō. They were denied public support, and their denominations were called kyōkai (“church”), or kyōha (“sect”), to distinguish them from the

  • Kyōhō reforms (Japanese history)

    Japan: Political reform in the bakufu and the han: Such reforms began with the Kyōhō Reforms instituted by the eighth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune (ruled 1716–45). Yoshimune proved adept at personnel matters. He swept out officials favoured by his two predecessors and appointed new officials to posts in finance and rural administration in order to increase government efficiency. In general,…

  • Kyōiku Chokugo (1890, Japan)

    education: Establishment of nationalistic education systems: Together with these reforms, the Imperial Rescript on Education (Kyōiku Chokugo) of 1890 played a major role in providing a structure for national morality. By reemphasizing the traditional Confucian and Shintō values and redefining the courses in shūshin, it was to place morality and education on a foundation of imperial…

  • Kyōikurei (Japanese education)

    education: The conservative reaction: …and put into force the Kyōikurei, or Education Order, which made for rather less centralization. Not only did the new law abolish the district system that had divided the country into districts, it also reduced central control over school administration, including the power to establish schools and regulate attendance. The…

  • kyōjo mono (Japanese theatre)

    Noh theatre: …legendary and supernatural, and the kyōjo mono (“madwoman play”), in which the protagonist becomes insane through the loss of a lover or child; and the fifth type, the kiri or kichiku (“final” or “demon”) play, features devils, strange beasts, and supernatural beings. A typical Noh play is relatively short. Its…

  • Kyoku-jitsu-sho (Japanese honour)

    Order of the Rising Sun, Japanese order founded in 1875 by Emperor Meiji and awarded for exceptional civil or military merit. The order, which has a women’s counterpart called the Order of the Sacred Crown, was originally the Order of Merit. It consists of eight classes, and the badge awarded

  • Kyokujitsu-shō (Japanese honour)

    Order of the Rising Sun, Japanese order founded in 1875 by Emperor Meiji and awarded for exceptional civil or military merit. The order, which has a women’s counterpart called the Order of the Sacred Crown, was originally the Order of Merit. It consists of eight classes, and the badge awarded

  • Kyōkunshō (work by Koma Chikazane)

    Japanese music: Music notation: …Chikazane, produced another 10 volumes—the Kyōkunshō, describing Japanese gagaku matters. Of equal value is the Taigenshō, written by a gagaku musician, Toyohara Sumiaki, in 1512, when court music seemed on the verge of extinction.

  • Ky?mipo (North Korea)

    Songnim, city, North Hwanghae do (province), southwestern North Korea. It is North Korea’s largest iron and steel centre, as well as a river port on the banks of the Taedong River. During the Japanese occupation (1910–45) it was named Ky?mip’o. Formerly, it was a poor riverside village, but after

  • Ky?mja (Korean painter)

    Ch?ng S?n, noted painter who was the first Korean artist to depart from the Chinese academic models. He frequently left his studio to paint from direct observation of the world around him. Other Korean artists were soon inspired to follow his example. Born into a humble family, Ch?ng impressed an

  • Ky?ngbok Palace (palace, Seoul, South Korea)

    Korean architecture: Kory? period (918–1392): …in Kaes?ng (now in the Ky?ngbok Palace, Seoul). The pagoda stands on a cross-shaped, three-tiered platform. Every architectural detail from roof tiles to the bracket system is painstakingly reproduced, and numerous Buddhist figures in relief cover the entire surface of the pagoda. This type of highly decorated pagoda with its…

  • Ky?nggi (province, South Korea)

    Ky?nggi, do (province), northwestern South Korea. It is bounded by the truce line (demilitarized zone) with North Korea (north), by the provinces of Kangw?n (Gangwon; east) and North Ky?ngsang (North Gyeongsang) and South Ch’ungch’?ng (South Chungcheong; south), and by the Yellow Sea (west). The

  • ky?nggi-style poem (Korean literature)

    Korean literature: Later Kory?: 12th century to 1392: …of leadership in literature, the ky?nggi-style poem first emerged in the form of songs boasting of the elegance of these men. “Hallim py?lgok” (“Song of the Confucian Academicians”), a joint composition of literati during the reign of Kojong (1213–59), was the first ky?nggi-style poem. An Ch’uk wrote two others, “Chukkye…

  • Ky?ngju (South Korea)

    Ky?ngju, city, North Ky?ngsang (Gyeongsang) do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is 17 miles (28 km) inland from the coast of the East Sea (Sea of Japan) and 34 miles (55 km) east of the provincial capital, Taegu (Daegu). It was the capital of the Silla kingdom (57 bce–935 ce), and its

  • Ky?ngpodae (South Korea)

    Kangn?ng: Ky?ngpodae (Gyeongpodae), a scenic site 4 miles (6 km) north of the city, has a good bathing beach, pine forests, and a pavilion built during the Chos?n (Yi) dynasty (built 1326; moved to its present location 1508). Silk-weaving is a traditional industry of the city,…

  • Ky?ngsangnam-do (province, South Korea)

    South Ky?ngsang, do (province), southeastern South Korea. It is bordered to the south by the Korea Strait, to the west by South and North Ch?lla (Jeolla) provinces, and to the north by North Ky?ngsang province. Pusan (Busan) and Ulsan—administratively designated metropolitan cities with

  • Ky?ngsangpuk-do (province, South Korea)

    North Ky?ngsang, do (province), eastern South Korea. It is bounded to the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan), to the south by South Ky?ngsang province, to the west by the provinces of North Ch?lla (North Jeolla) and North Ch’ungch’?ng (North Chungcheong), and to the north by Kangw?n (Gangwon)

  • Ky?ngs?ng (national capital, South Korea)

    Seoul, city and capital of South Korea (the Republic of Korea). It is located on the Han River (Han-gang) in the northwestern part of the country, with the city centre some 37 miles (60 km) inland from the Yellow Sea (west). Seoul is the cultural, economic, and political centre of South Korea.

  • Kyōōgokoku Temple (temple, Kyōto, Japan)

    Japanese art: Esoteric Buddhism: …take over the leadership of Tō Temple (also known as Kyōōgokoku Temple), at Heian-kyō’s southern entrance. Images developed under his instruction probably included forerunners of the particular ryōkai mandara known as the Tō Temple mandala. Stylistically, these paintings reveal a shift from Tang painting style to a flatter, more decorative…

  • Kyōto (prefecture, Japan)

    Kyōto, fu (urban prefecture), west-central Honshu, Japan. It is bounded by the prefectures of Fukui and Shiga (east), Nara (south), and Hyōgo (northwest); the urban prefecture of ōsaka (southwest); and the Sea of Japan (East Sea; north). The prefectural headquarters are located in the former

  • Kyōto (Japan)

    Kyōto, city, seat of Kyōto fu (urban prefecture), west-central Honshu island, Japan. It is located some 30 miles (50 km) northeast of the industrial city of ōsaka and about the same distance from Nara, another ancient centre of Japanese culture. Gently sloping downward from north to south, the city

  • Kyōto Daigaku (university, Kyōto, Japan)

    Kyōto University, coeducational state institution of higher education in Kyōto, Japan. It was founded in 1897 under the provisions of an 1872 Japanese law that established a system of imperial universities admitting small numbers of carefully selected students to be trained as scholars and i

  • Kyoto Protocol (international treaty, 1997)

    Kyoto Protocol, international treaty, named for the Japanese city in which it was adopted in December 1997, that aimed to reduce the emission of gases that contribute to global warming. In force since 2005, the protocol called for reducing the emission of six greenhouse gases in 41 countries plus

  • Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (international treaty, 1997)

    Kyoto Protocol, international treaty, named for the Japanese city in which it was adopted in December 1997, that aimed to reduce the emission of gases that contribute to global warming. In force since 2005, the protocol called for reducing the emission of six greenhouse gases in 41 countries plus

  • Kyoto Protocol: What Next?, The

    The Kyoto Protocol to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty named after the Japanese city in which it was proposed in December 1997, came into effect in February 2005 following its ratification by Russia. Despite the ratification of the treaty, its future

  • Kyōto school (Japanese philosophy)

    Japanese philosophy: Modern and contemporary Japanese philosophy: …was the inspiration for the Kyōto school, 20th-century Japan’s most influential philosophical movement. The Kyōto school set the stage for a distinctly Japanese philosophical discourse by exploring affinities and differences between Western philosophical traditions and the East Asian philosophies and religions that had been foundational to Japanese life since the…

  • Kyōto University (university, Kyōto, Japan)

    Kyōto University, coeducational state institution of higher education in Kyōto, Japan. It was founded in 1897 under the provisions of an 1872 Japanese law that established a system of imperial universities admitting small numbers of carefully selected students to be trained as scholars and i

  • Kyōto-ōsaka-Kōbe Region (industrial area, Japan)

    Keihanshin Industrial Zone, industrial region, south central Japan, centring on the ōsaka-Kōbe metropolitan area. Bordered by ōsaka Bay to the southwest and bisected by the Yodo River, the area consists of a floodplain interspersed with hills. Other rivers draining the area include the Muko, Y

  • kyōtsū-go (Japanese language)

    Japanese language: Dialects: …by the spread of the kyōtsū-go “common language,” which is based on the Tokyo dialect. A standardized written language has been a feature of compulsory education, which started in 1886. Modern mobility and mass media also have helped to level dialectal differences and have had a strong effect on the…

  • Kyparissovouno (mountain, Cyprus)

    Kyrenia Mountains: …feet (1,024 m) at Mount Kyparissovouno, in the western region, ending in low hills at the tip of Cape Andreas in the east. West of Melounda, the range is known as the Pentadaktylos (“Five Fingers”), from the fingered peak that is one of its main features. The first area extensively…

  • Kyphosidae (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Families Kyphosidae (sea chubs) All similar families recognized by combination of ovate body, small mouth, strong caudal fin that is usually weakly forked; and, especially, a spinous dorsal fin with low spines followed by a higher evenly curved or falcate soft dorsal fin; about 45 species, many…

  • kyphosis (pathology)

    curvature of the spine: Kyphosis, commonly called roundback, humpback, or hunchback, is an increased curvature of the thoracic (upper) vertebral column; it may be caused by congenital malformation of the vertebral column, by the development of wedge-shaped vertebrae during adolescence (Scheuermann disease), or by other conditions such as osteoporosis…

  • Kyprianou, Spyros (president of Cyprus)

    Spyros Kyprianou, Greek Cypriot nationalist leader and politician (born Oct. 28, 1932, Limassol, Cyprus—died March 12, 2002, Nicosia, Cyprus), succeeded independent Cyprus’s founder, Archbishop Makarios, as president in 1977. Having served as the country’s first foreign minister (1960–72), he was a

  • Kyrenia (Cyprus)

    Kyrenia, city, situated along the northern coast of Cyprus, in the Turkish Cypriot-administered area. Founded by the Achaeans, ancient Greek colonists, and fortified by the Byzantines, Franks, and Venetians, the city was the administrative headquarters of the Kyrenia district of the Republic of

  • Kyrenia Mountains (mountains, Cyprus)

    Kyrenia Mountains, mountain range in northern Cyprus extending east to west for about 100 miles (160 km) from Cape Andreas, on the Karpas Peninsula, to Cape Kormakiti. Rising from the coast a short distance inland, the range flanks a narrow coastal plain and reaches a maximum height of 3,360 feet

  • Kyrgyz (people)

    Kyrgyz, Turkic-speaking people of Central Asia, most of whom live in Kyrgyzstan. Small numbers reside in Afghanistan, in western China, and in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Turkey. The Kyrgyz language belongs to the Northwestern, or Kipchak, group of the Turkic languages, a subfamily of

  • Kyrgyz Ala Range (mountains, Asia)

    Kyrgyz Ala Range, mountain range in Central Asia. A western spur of the Tien Shan (“Heavenly Mountains”) system, the range extends westward for approximately 230 miles (370 km) from the Chu River to the Talas River, just east of the city of Taraz, Kazakh. It rises to a height of 15,994 feet (4,875

  • Kyrgyz Ala Too (mountains, Asia)

    Kyrgyz Ala Range, mountain range in Central Asia. A western spur of the Tien Shan (“Heavenly Mountains”) system, the range extends westward for approximately 230 miles (370 km) from the Chu River to the Talas River, just east of the city of Taraz, Kazakh. It rises to a height of 15,994 feet (4,875

  • Kyrgyz language

    Kyrgyz language, member of the Turkic subfamily of Altaic languages. It is spoken in Kyrgyzstan and in the Pamir Mountains on the border between Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and China. The language belongs to the northwestern, or Kipchak, division of the Turkic languages and is closely related to

  • Kyrgyz literature

    Kyrgyz literature, the written works of the Kyrgyz people of Central Asia, most of whom live in Kyrgyzstan. A smaller population of Kyrgyz in China also produces works of literary significance. The literary history of the modern-day Kyrgyz begins in the early 19th century, notwithstanding disputed

  • Kyrgyz Republic

    Kyrgyzstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded by Kazakhstan on the northwest and north, by China on the east and south, and by Tajikistan and Uzbekistan on the south and west. Most of Kyrgyzstan’s borders run along mountain crests. The capital is Bishkek (known from 1862 to 1926 as Pishpek and

  • Kyrgyz Respublikasy

    Kyrgyzstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded by Kazakhstan on the northwest and north, by China on the east and south, and by Tajikistan and Uzbekistan on the south and west. Most of Kyrgyzstan’s borders run along mountain crests. The capital is Bishkek (known from 1862 to 1926 as Pishpek and

  • Kyrgyzstan

    Kyrgyzstan, country of Central Asia. It is bounded by Kazakhstan on the northwest and north, by China on the east and south, and by Tajikistan and Uzbekistan on the south and west. Most of Kyrgyzstan’s borders run along mountain crests. The capital is Bishkek (known from 1862 to 1926 as Pishpek and

  • Kyrgyzstan, flag of

    national flag consisting of a red field with a stylized yellow sun-disk in the centre. The flag’s width-to-length ratio is approximately 3 to 5.When the Soviets came to power in West Turkestan, promising equality and development for all ethnic groups, the Kyrgyz people obtained their own autonomous

  • Kyrgyzstan, history of

    Kyrgyzstan: History: Kyrgyz history can be traced at least to the 1st century bce. The probable abodes of the early Kyrgyz were in the upper Yenisey River valley of central Siberia, and the Tashtyk culture (1st century bce–5th century ce), an amalgam of Asiatic and European…

  • Kyriai doxai (work by Epicurus)

    Epicurus: Writings and assessment: …of his letters and the Kyriai doxiai (“Principal Doctrines”). The three letters are (1) To Herodotus, dealing with physics; (2) To Pythocles (probably a disciple’s abridgement), on meteorology; and (3) To Menoeceus, on ethics and theology. The Kyriai consists of 40 short aphoristic statements. Another major source is the papyri…

  • Kyrie (religion)

    Kyrie, the vocative case of the Greek word kyrios (“lord”). The word Kyrie is used in the Septuagint, the earliest Greek translation of the Old Testament, to translate the Hebrew word Yahweh. In the New Testament, Kyrie is the title given to Christ, as in Philippians 2:11. As part of the Greek

  • kyrielle (prosody)

    Kyrielle, (French: “repeated series of words or phrases”) a French verse form in short, usually octosyllabic, rhyming couplets. The couplets are often paired in quatrains and are characterized by a refrain that is sometimes a single word and sometimes the full second line of the couplet or the full

  • Kyrios (Christianity)

    Jesus: The Lord: …way the name “Lord” (Kyrios) was employed during the 1st century, it is possible to see several implications in the Christian use of it for Christ. The Christians meant that there were not many divine and lordly beings in the universe but only one Kyrios (1 Corinthians 8:5–6). They…

  • Kyriotes, John (Byzantine poet, official, and monk)

    John Geometres, Byzantine poet, official, and monk, known for his short poems in classical metre. Geometres held the post of protospatharios (commander of the guards) at the Byzantine court and later was ordained priest. His poems, on both contemporary politics and religious subjects, are

  • Kyrychenko, Oleksy (Soviet government official)

    Ukraine: The period of Khrushchev: His replacement was Oleksy Kyrychenko, only the second Ukrainian to fill the post. This and accompanying changes in personnel in the party and government boosted morale and confidence, especially as their sphere of competence was also steadily increased. Unionwide celebrations in 1954 of the 300th anniversary of the…

  • Kyshtym disaster (nuclear accident, Soviet Union [1957])

    Kyshtym disaster, explosion of buried nuclear waste from a plutonium-processing plant near Kyshtym, Chelyabinsk oblast, Russia (then in U.S.S.R.), on September 29, 1957. Until 1989 the Soviet government refused to acknowlege that the event had occurred, even though about 9,000 square miles (23,000

  • Kytson, Sir Thomas (British aristocrat)

    John Wilbye: Sir Thomas Kytson of nearby Hengrave Hall, Bury St. Edmunds, was especially interested, and he invited Wilbye to become resident musician there about 1595. The Kytsons treated him handsomely, leasing him a prosperous sheep farm in 1613; in time he came to own lands in…

  • kyubang kasa (Korean poetry)

    Korean literature: Later Chos?n: 1598–1894: Kyubang kasa also appeared; this genre, written by anonymous women, treats a variety of matters, such as family etiquette, the instruction of children, and the loves and sorrows of family life.

  • kyūdō (Japanese archery)

    Kyūdō, (Japanese: “way of the bow”, ) (“the technique of the bow”), traditional Japanese form of archery, closely associated with Zen Buddhism. When firearms supplanted the bow and arrow in warfare, the art of archery was retained by Zen monks and some members of the Japanese upper class as a

  • kyūjutsu (Japanese archery)

    Kyūdō, (Japanese: “way of the bow”, ) (“the technique of the bow”), traditional Japanese form of archery, closely associated with Zen Buddhism. When firearms supplanted the bow and arrow in warfare, the art of archery was retained by Zen monks and some members of the Japanese upper class as a

  • Kyumyurkyoy, Mount (mountain, Azerbaijan)

    Azerbaijan: Relief, drainage, and soils: …of three longitudinal ranges, with Mount Kyumyurkyoy as the highest peak (8,176 feet), and the L?nk?ran Lowland, along the Caspian coast. This lowland, an extension of the Kura-Aras Lowland, reaches the Iranian border near Astara.

  • Kyūshū (island, Japan)

    Kyushu, southernmost and third largest of the four main islands of Japan. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. Its name refers to the nine ancient provinces (kuni) into which the island was once divided. Kyushu is also the country’s southernmost chihō

  • Kyushu (Japanese dialect)

    Japan: Languages: …major subdialects: Eastern, Western, and Kyushu. The Eastern subdialects were established in the 7th and 8th centuries and became known as the Azuma (“Eastern”) language. After the 17th century there was a vigorous influx of the Kamigata (Kinai) subdialect, which was the foundation of standard Japanese. Among the Western subdialects,…

  • Kyushu (island, Japan)

    Kyushu, southernmost and third largest of the four main islands of Japan. It is bordered by the East China Sea to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east. Its name refers to the nine ancient provinces (kuni) into which the island was once divided. Kyushu is also the country’s southernmost chihō

  • Kyustendil (Bulgaria)

    Kyustendil, town, southwestern Bulgaria. It lies on the margin of a small alluvial basin in the Struma River valley at the foot of the Osogov Mountains. It was known in Roman times as Pautalia, or Ulpia Pautalia. Located on the site of a Thracian fortified settlement, it became an important town

  • Kyyiv (national capital, Ukraine)

    Kyiv, chief city and capital of Ukraine. A port on the Dnieper (Dnipro) River and a large railroad junction, it is a city with an ancient and proud history. As the centre of Kyivan (Kievan) Rus, the first eastern Slavic state, 1,000 years ago, it acquired the title “Mother of Rus Cities.” It was

  • Kyzyl (people)

    Khakass: …the Kacha, Sagay (Sagai), Beltir, Kyzyl, and Koybal. Before the Russian Revolution of 1917 the Kacha were seminomadic pastoralists raising cattle, sheep, and horses. The Kyzyl had permanent villages and engaged in both pastoralism and farming. The Sagay, of heterogeneous ethnic composition and origin, changed from hunting and fishing to…

  • Kyzyl (Russia)

    Kyzyl, city and capital of Tyva (Tuva) republic, central Russia. It lies at the confluence of the Great Yenisey and Little Yenisey rivers where they form the upper Yenisey. Kyzyl’s industries include tanning, timber working, brickworking, and food processing. The city has an agricultural college

  • Kyzyl-Kiia (Kyrgyzstan)

    Kyzyl-Kyya, city, southwestern Kyrgyzstan. It lies on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley. Coal mining began there at the end of the 19th century, and the city is now one of the oldest mining centres in Kyrgyzstan. It became a city in 1938. The food industry and the production of firebricks

  • Kyzyl-Kija (Kyrgyzstan)

    Kyzyl-Kyya, city, southwestern Kyrgyzstan. It lies on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley. Coal mining began there at the end of the 19th century, and the city is now one of the oldest mining centres in Kyrgyzstan. It became a city in 1938. The food industry and the production of firebricks

  • Kyzyl-Kiya (Kyrgyzstan)

    Kyzyl-Kyya, city, southwestern Kyrgyzstan. It lies on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley. Coal mining began there at the end of the 19th century, and the city is now one of the oldest mining centres in Kyrgyzstan. It became a city in 1938. The food industry and the production of firebricks

  • Kyzyl-Kyya (Kyrgyzstan)

    Kyzyl-Kyya, city, southwestern Kyrgyzstan. It lies on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley. Coal mining began there at the end of the 19th century, and the city is now one of the oldest mining centres in Kyrgyzstan. It became a city in 1938. The food industry and the production of firebricks

  • Kyzylkum Desert (desert, Central Asia)

    Kyzylkum Desert, desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. It has an area of about 115,000 square miles (about 300,000 square km) and lies between two rivers—the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya—southeast of the Aral Sea. It consists of a plain sloping down toward the northwest, with a number of isolated

  • Kyzylorda (Kazakhstan)

    Qyzylorda, city, south-central Kazakhstan, on the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River). Originally founded in the early 19th century as the Kokand fort of Ak-Mechet, it was renamed Perovsk after its capture by the Russians in 1853. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the name of Ak-Mechet was

  • Kzyl-Orda (oblast, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakhstan: Health and welfare: …Aral Sea, and especially in Qyzylorda (Kzyl-Orda) and Aqt?be provinces, Kazakhs suffer from the pollution and salinization of the sea. Its waters are contaminated with pesticides, especially DDT, and with chemical fertilizer fed into it by various rivers. The contraction of the Aral Sea has left a toxic dust in…

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