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  • Logical Structure of the World: Pseudoproblems in Philosophy, The (work by Carnap)

    constitution theory: …Logische Aufbau der Welt (1928; The Logical Structure of the World: Pseudoproblems in Philosophy, 1967). A scientific concept, such as “atom” or “gene,” is said to be “reduced” when every sentence containing the concept can be transformed into sentences containing concepts that refer only to experiences—which thus constitute the scientific…

  • Logical Syntax of Language, The (work by Carnap)

    Rudolf Carnap: Career in the United States: …Logische Syntax der Sprache (1934; The Logical Syntax of Language) and Meaning and Necessity (1947). Carnap’s interest in artificial languages included advocacy of international auxiliary languages such as Esperanto and Interlingua to facilitate scholarly communication and to further international understanding.

  • logical system (logic)

    logic: Logical systems: Logic is often studied by constructing what are commonly called logical systems. A logical system is essentially a way of mechanically listing all the logical truths of some part of logic by means of the application of recursive rules—i.e., rules that can be…

  • logical truth

    epistemology: Logical and factual propositions: …to a proposition expressing a logical truth—e.g., to a proposition such as “If p and q, then p.” The proposition “All husbands are married,” for example, is logically equivalent to the proposition “If something is married and it is male, then it is married.” In contrast, the semantic and syntactic…

  • Logician (Chinese philosophy)

    Logician, any member of a school of Chinese philosophers of the Warring States period (475–221 bce). In Chinese the school is called Mingjia (Wade-Giles romanization Ming-chia), the “School of Names,” because one of the problems addressed by the Logicians was the correspondence between name and

  • logicism

    Logicism, school of mathematical thought introduced by the 19th–20th-century German mathematician Gottlob Frege and the British mathematician Bertrand Russell, which holds that mathematics is actually logic. Logicists contend that all of mathematics can be deduced from pure logic, without the use

  • Logicon, Inc. (American company)

    Northrop Grumman Corporation: Its wholly owned subsidiary Logicon, Inc., provides information-technology services to U.S. government agencies and commercial customers and management support for U.S. military weapons systems. Its Litton Sector (formerly Litton Industries) is the largest maker of nonnuclear ships for the U.S. Navy and designs, builds, and overhauls surface ships for…

  • Logik der Forschung (work by Popper)

    positivism: The verifiability criterion of meaning and its offshoots: …his Logik der Forschung (1935; The Logic of Scientific Discovery), insisted that the meaning criterion should be abandoned and replaced by a criterion of demarcation between empirical (scientific) and transempirical (nonscientific, metaphysical) questions and answers—a criterion that, according to Popper, is to be testability, or, in his own version, falsifiability—i.e.,…

  • Logique, La (work by Condillac)

    étienne Bonnot de Condillac: In his works La Logique (1780) and La Langue des calculs (1798; “The Language of Calculation”), Condillac emphasized the importance of language in logical reasoning, stressing the need for a scientifically designed language and for mathematical calculation as its basis. His economic views, which were presented in Le…

  • Logique: Ou l’art de penser, La (treatise by Arnauld and Nicole)

    Pierre Nicole: Nicole was an influential spokesman from 1655 to 1668 through his writing or editing of most of the Jansenist pamphlets. He was probably the source of the celebrated distinction between the two “questions of fact,” an adroit device allowing him to separate into two parts…

  • Logisch-philosophische Abhandlung (work by Wittgenstein)

    philosophy of language: Wittgenstein’s Tractatus: In the Tractatus, sentences are treated as “pictures” of states of affairs. As in Frege’s system, the basic elements consist of referring expressions, or “logically proper” names, which pick out the simplest parts of states of affairs. The simplest propositions, called “elementary” or “atomic,”…

  • logische Aufbau der Welt, Der (work by Carnap)

    constitution theory: …Logische Aufbau der Welt (1928; The Logical Structure of the World: Pseudoproblems in Philosophy, 1967). A scientific concept, such as “atom” or “gene,” is said to be “reduced” when every sentence containing the concept can be transformed into sentences containing concepts that refer only to experiences—which thus constitute the scientific…

  • Logische Syntax der Sprache (work by Carnap)

    Rudolf Carnap: Career in the United States: …Logische Syntax der Sprache (1934; The Logical Syntax of Language) and Meaning and Necessity (1947). Carnap’s interest in artificial languages included advocacy of international auxiliary languages such as Esperanto and Interlingua to facilitate scholarly communication and to further international understanding.

  • Logische Untersuchungen (work by Husserl)

    Edmund Husserl: Lecturer at Halle.: …interaction were presented in the Logische Untersuchungen (1900–01; “Logical Investigations”), which employed a method of analysis that Husserl now designated as “phenomenological.” The revolutionary significance of this work was only gradually recognized, for its method could not be subsumed under any of the philosophical orientations well known at that time.…

  • Logische Untersuchungen (work by Trendelenburg)

    Hegelianism: Anti-Hegelian criticism: … in his Logische Untersuchungen (1840; Logical Investigations). In Hegel’s view, the passage from Being to Nothing and to Becoming can be posited as a pure beginning “without presuppositions” of logic. In Trendelenburg’s view, however, this passage is vitiated by its spurious dependence upon the surreptitious presupposition of the empirical movement,…

  • logistic curve (statistics)

    population ecology: Logistic population growth: …population growth known as the logistic curve. It is determined by the equation

  • Logistic Neo-Kantianism (philosophy)

    Kantianism: Epistemological Neo-Kantianism: Logistic Neo-Kantianism, as represented in the most well-known and flourishing school of Kantianism, that at Marburg, originated with Hermann Cohen, successor of Lange, who, in Kants Theorie der Erfahrung (1871; “Kant’s Theory of Experience”), argued that the transcendental subject is not to be regarded as…

  • logistic specialization (military)

    logistics: Logistic specialization: For many centuries the soldier was a fighting man and nothing else; he depended on civilians to provide the services that enabled him to live, move, and fight. Even the more technical combat and combat-related skills, such as fortification, siegecraft, and service of…

  • logistic spiral (mathematics)

    spiral: The equiangular, or logarithmic, spiral (see figure) was discovered by the French scientist René Descartes in 1638. In 1692 the Swiss mathematician Jakob Bernoulli named it spira mirabilis (“miracle spiral”) for its mathematical properties; it is carved on his tomb. The general equation of the logarithmic spiral is…

  • logistic system (logic)

    Formal system, in logic and mathematics, abstract, theoretical organization of terms and implicit relationships that is used as a tool for the analysis of the concept of deduction. Models—structures that interpret the symbols of a formal system—are often used in conjunction with formal systems.

  • logistics (business)

    Logistics, in business, the organized movement of materials and, sometimes, people. The term was first associated with the military but gradually spread to cover business activities. Logistics implies that a number of separate activities are coordinated. In 1991 the Council of Logistics Management,

  • logistics (military)

    Logistics, in military science, all the activities of armed-force units in roles supporting combat units, including transport, supply, signal communication, medical aid, and the like. In the conduct of war, war-making activity behind the cutting edge of combat has always defied simple definition.

  • Logistics in the National Defense (work by Eccles)

    logistics: Fundamentals: Eccles, whose Logistics in the National Defense appeared in 1959. Expanding Thorpe’s trinity to five (strategy, tactics, logistics, intelligence, communications), Eccles developed a conceptual framework that envisaged logistics as the military element in the nation’s economy and the economic element in its military operations—that is, as a…

  • Logistics Management, Council of (trade organization)

    logistics: In 1991 the Council of Logistics Management, a trade organization based in the United States, defined logistics as: “the process of planning, implementing, and controlling the efficient, effective flow and storage of goods, services, and related information from point of origin to point of consumption for the purpose…

  • LOGLAN (language)

    history of logic: Leibniz: …development of the logical language LOGLAN and the computer language PROLOG.

  • logo (advertising)

    Trademark, any visible sign or device used by a business enterprise to identify its goods and distinguish them from those made or carried by others. Trademarks may be words or groups of words, letters, numerals, devices, names, the shape or other presentation of products or their packages, colour

  • Logo (computer language)

    Logo, a computer programming language that originated in the late 1960s as a simplified LISP dialect for use in education; Seymour Papert and others used it at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) to teach mathematical thinking to schoolchildren. It had a more conventional syntax than

  • logocentrism (literary criticism)

    deconstruction: Deconstruction in philosophy: …a manifestation of the “logocentrism” of Western culture—i.e., the general assumption that there is a realm of “truth” existing prior to and independent of its representation by linguistic signs. Logocentrism encourages us to treat linguistic signs as distinct from and inessential to the phenomena they represent, rather than as…

  • logogram (writing)

    Logogram, written or pictorial symbol intended to represent a whole word. Writing systems that make use of logograms include Chinese, Egyptian hieroglyphic writing, and early cuneiform writing systems. No known writing system is totally logographic; all such systems have both logograms and symbols

  • logogram (art)

    Christian Dotremont: …led to his invention of “logograms,” in which he sought to create a new “visual grammar,” a “poem-landscape.” Binary oppositions abound in his work: mystical-scientific, primal-futuristic, inner-outer, silent-sonic, intellectual-emotional. COBRA also furthered Dotremont’s friendship with the Danish painter Asger Jorn and cemented his links with Scandinavia. In 1951 Dotremont became…

  • logographer (writing)

    Antiphon: He was a logographos; i.e., a writer of speeches for other men to deliver in their defense in court, a function that was particularly useful in the climate of accusation and counter-accusation that prevailed in Athens at the conclusion of the Peloponnesian War, between Athens and Sparta.

  • logographic writing (linguistics)

    Chinese languages: Pre-Classical characters: Logographic (i.e., marked by a letter, symbol, or sign used to represent an entire word) is the term that best describes the nature of the Chinese writing system.

  • logography (linguistics)

    Chinese languages: Pre-Classical characters: Logographic (i.e., marked by a letter, symbol, or sign used to represent an entire word) is the term that best describes the nature of the Chinese writing system.

  • logoi (philosophy and theology)

    Logos, (Greek: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) in Greek philosophy and theology, the divine reason implicit in the cosmos, ordering it and giving it form and meaning. Though the concept defined by the term logos is found in Greek, Indian, Egyptian, and Persian philosophical and theological systems, it

  • Logone River (river, Africa)

    Logone River, principal tributary of the Chari (Shari) River of the Lake Chad Basin, draining northeastern Cameroon and Chad. It is formed by the Mbéré River and its tributary the Vina (Wina, Mba, Bini) of northern Cameroon and by the Pendé of northwestern Central African Republic. The two

  • logopedics (speech pathology)

    speech disorder: Development of speech correction: …speech and voice pathology as logopedics and phoniatrics with its medical orientation subsequently reached many other civilized nations, notably in Japan and on the South American continent. The national organizations in most of these areas are now represented in the International Association of Logopedics and Phoniatrics, which was founded in…

  • logorrhea (speech disorder)

    speech disorder: Dysphasia and aphasia: …sometimes excessively and incessantly (logorrhea), although with numerous errors and meaningless clichés, but no longer comprehends what is said to him or her or what he or she tries to read. Those who recover from receptive forms of the disorder are likely to explain that during their aphasia spoken…

  • logos (philosophy and theology)

    Logos, (Greek: “word,” “reason,” or “plan”) in Greek philosophy and theology, the divine reason implicit in the cosmos, ordering it and giving it form and meaning. Though the concept defined by the term logos is found in Greek, Indian, Egyptian, and Persian philosophical and theological systems, it

  • logotherapy (psychology)

    Viktor Frankl: …the psychological approach known as logotherapy, widely recognized as the “third school” of Viennese psychotherapy, after the “first school” of Sigmund Freud and the “second school” of Alfred Adler. The basis of Frankl’s theory was that the primary motivation of an individual is the search for meaning in life and…

  • logothete (Byzantine official)

    Logothete, in Byzantine government from the 6th to the 14th century, any of several officials who shared a variety of responsibilities ranging from the assessment and collection of taxes to the direction of foreign policy. The logothete of the drome, who was charged with presenting gifts to foreign

  • LogoVaz (Russian company)

    Boris Berezovsky: …those contacts to set up LogoVaz, the U.S.S.R.’s first capitalist car dealership. LogoVaz bought cars at the state-set price for cars intended for export and sold them at the much higher price such cars could fetch inside Russia. The profits enabled Berezovsky to expand his interests into oil and banking.…

  • Logozo (album by Kidjo)

    Angélique Kidjo: …Kidjo left Pili-Pili and recorded Logozo (1991), which featured the American jazz musician Branford Marsalis and the African artists Manu Dibango and Ray Lema. With songs addressing issues of global concern—such as homelessness, the environment, freedom, and integration—Logozo was an international success. Kidjo increased her international appeal through her later

  • logrolling (sport)

    Birling, outdoor sport of the North American lumberjack. Its origin can be traced to the spring log drives of eastern Canada and the New England states, particularly the state of Maine, during the early lumbering era in the 19th century, from which it moved westward to the Great Lakes region and

  • Logro?o (region, Spain)

    La Rioja, comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) and historical region of Spain coextensive with the north-central Spanish provincia (province) of La Rioja (until 1980 called Logro?o). La Rioja is bordered by the autonomous communities of the Basque Country to the north, Navarra to the

  • Logro?o (Spain)

    Logro?o, city, capital of La Rioja provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), north-central Spain, lying on the Ebro River. Originated in Roman times, it owed its growth during the Middle Ages to its position on the pilgrim route to Santiago de Compostela as much as to its

  • Logstown (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Aliquippa, city, Beaver county, western Pennsylvania, U.S. It lies along the Ohio River just northwest of Pittsburgh. Settled about 1750 as a post for trade with Delaware, Iroquois, and Shawnee Indians, it was first known as Logstown and was later renamed for “Queen” Aliquippa, probably a Seneca.

  • Logtak, Lake (lake, India)

    Manipur: Relief and drainage: Its main physical feature is Logtak Lake, which covers about 40 square miles (100 square km) and is the source of the Manipur River. The river flows southward through the valley into Myanmar, where it joins the Myittha River, a tributary of the Chindwin.

  • Logudorese (dialect)

    Sardinian language: Not surprisingly, Logudorese (Logudorian) is the most conservative dialect. The northern form of Logudorese provides the basis for a sardo illustre (a conventionalized literary language that has been used mainly for folk-based verse). Campidanese (Campidanian), centred on Cagliari in the south, was heavily influenced by Catalan and…

  • Logudorian (dialect)

    Sardinian language: Not surprisingly, Logudorese (Logudorian) is the most conservative dialect. The northern form of Logudorese provides the basis for a sardo illustre (a conventionalized literary language that has been used mainly for folk-based verse). Campidanese (Campidanian), centred on Cagliari in the south, was heavily influenced by Catalan and…

  • Logue, Christopher (British poet)

    Christopher Logue, English poet, playwright, journalist, and actor, who was one of the leaders in the movement to bring poetry closer to the popular experience. His own pungent verse has been read to jazz accompaniment, sung, and printed on posters. It is engaged politically and owes much to the

  • logwood (tree, Haematoxylon species)

    Logwood, (Haematoxylum campechianum), tree of the pea family (Fabaceae), native to Central America and the West Indies. The wood is heavy and extremely hard. Logwood was once an important source of black dye, which is obtained from the red heartwood and is still used as a source of the histological

  • logwood (dye)

    logwood: Logwood was once an important source of black dye, which is obtained from the red heartwood and is still used as a source of the histological stain hematoxylin. The plant is also used in certain traditional systems of medicine.

  • Lohame Herat Yisra?el (Zionist extremist organization)

    Stern Gang, Zionist extremist organization in Palestine, founded in 1940 by Avraham Stern (1907–42) after a split in the right-wing underground movement Irgun Zvai Leumi. Extremely anti-British, the group repeatedly attacked British personnel in Palestine and even invited aid from the Axis powers.

  • lohan (Chinese saint)

    Guanxiu: …known for his paintings of lohans (arhats). The best known of the lohan paintings that are attributed to him are a series of 16 in the Tokyo National Museum.

  • Lōhāwar (Pakistan)

    Lahore, second largest city of Pakistan and the capital of Punjab province. It lies 811 miles (1,305 km) northeast of Karāchi in the upper Indus plain on the Rāvi River, a tributary of the Indus. Little is known of the history of the settlement prior to the Muslim period. Hindu legend attributes

  • Loheiya, Al- (Yemen)

    Al-Lu?ayyah, town, western Yemen, on the Red Sea coast. Situated on the coastal plain known as the Tihāmah, it is one of the country’s minor ports. It was founded in the mid-15th century, and tradition connects its origin with a local holy man, Sheikh Salei, around whose dwelling and tomb the town

  • Lohengrin (opera by Wagner)

    Richard Wagner: Early life: …attend the first performance of Lohengrin at Weimar, given by his friend Franz Liszt on August 28, 1850.

  • Lohengrin (German poem)

    Lohengrin: …anonymous Middle High German poem, Lohengrin (c. 1275–90), set the story in the historical context of the reign of the German king Henry I the Fowler (876?–936), and its author elaborated the realistic elements of the story at the expense of much romantic material. A contemporary poem known as the…

  • Lohengrin (German legendary figure)

    Lohengrin, the knight of the swan, hero of German versions of a legend widely known in variant forms from the European Middle Ages onward. It seems to bear some relation to the northern European folktale of “The Seven Swans,” but its actual origin is uncertain. The basic story tells of a

  • Lohia, Ram Manohar (Indian politician and activist)

    Ram Manohar Lohia, Indian politician and activist who was a prominent figure in socialist politics and in the movement toward Indian independence. Much of his career was devoted to combating injustice through the development of a distinctly Indian version of socialism. Lohia was born to a family of

  • Lohit (stream, India)

    Brahmaputra River: Physiography: …by two mountain streams, the Lohit and the Dibang. Below that confluence, about 900 miles (1,450 km) from the Bay of Bengal, the river becomes known conventionally as the Brahmaputra (“Son of Brahma”). In Assam the river is mighty, even in the dry season, and during the rains its banks…

  • Lohse-W?chtler, Elfriede (German artist)

    Elfriede Lohse-W?chtler, German Expressionist artist associated with the Dresden Sezession artist group and known for her paintings of the city’s disenfranchised population. She suffered from mental illness and fell into obscurity after she was murdered by the Nazis during World War II. W?chtler

  • loi cadre (French law)

    Léopold Senghor: …French parliament passed (1956) the loi cadre, which gave a large measure of self-government to the African territories, Senghor was one of the first to oppose the act, because he felt its emphasis on territorial rather than federal government would result in the proliferation of small, unviable states. To counter…

  • loi Falloux (French history [1850])

    Falloux Law, (1850) act granting legal status to independent secondary schools in France. It was sponsored by Count Frédéric-Alfred-Pierre de Falloux (1811–86), minister of education in the Second Republic, and one of its main architects was a Roman Catholic bishop, Félix-Antoine-Philibert

  • Loi-kaw (Myanmar)

    Loi-kaw, town, east-central Myanmar (Burma), on the Pilu River, a tributary of the Salween River. Situated in hilly forested country, Loi-kaw has timber and silk-processing industries and is the site of an important hydroelectric power plant. The Loi-kaw Area Irrigation Project is an important

  • loiasis (disease)

    filariasis: Loiasis, prevalent in West and Central Africa, especially along the Congo River, is caused by Loa loa and transmitted by flies of the genus Chrysops. It is characterized by transient areas of allergic inflammation in the tissues beneath the skin, called calabar swellings; adult worms…

  • Loiewski, Oleg Cassini (American fashion designer)

    Oleg Cassini, (Oleg Cassini Loiewski), French-born American fashion designer (born April 11, 1913, Paris, France—died March 17, 2006, Long Island, N.Y., U.S.), achieved fame as a celebrity couturier. Cassini’s 70-year career was the longest of any American designer, but he was best known for

  • loin (anatomy)

    Loin, that part of an animal lying between the upper part of the hipbone and the last of the false ribs on either side of the backbone—hence, the butcher’s term for a piece of meat cut from that part of the body. The upper part of a loin of beef is known as the “surloin,” commonly corrupted into

  • loin (food)

    loin: …the butcher’s term for a piece of meat cut from that part of the body. The upper part of a loin of beef is known as the “surloin,” commonly corrupted into “sirloin.” In the plural the word is a term for the lower part of the human body at the…

  • loincloth (clothing)

    Loincloth, usually, a rectangular piece of cloth draped around the hips and groin. One of the earliest forms of clothing, it is derived, perhaps, from a narrow band around the waist from which amuletic and decorative pendants were hung. From about 3000 bce Egyptians wore a loincloth (schenti) of

  • Loir River (river, France)

    Loir River, river of northwest-central France, an affluent of the Sarthe River, that rises north of Illiers in Eure-et-Loir département. The Loir flows generally west-southwest, passing through the western extreme of the Little Beauce in its upper course and by Chateaudun. Beyond Vend?me it enters

  • Loir-et-Cher (department, France)

    Centre: Indre, Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher, Loiret, and Eure-et-Loir. Centre is bounded by the régions of Normandy and ?le-de-France to the north, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the east, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes to the southeast, Nouvelle-Aquitaine to the south, and Pays de la Loire

  • Loire (department, France)

    Rh?ne-Alpes: …encompassed the southeastern départements of Loire, Rh?ne, Ain, Haute-Savoie, Savoie, Isère, Dr?me, and Ardèche. In 2016 the Rh?ne-Alpes région was joined with the région of Auvergne to form the new administrative entity of

  • Loire Basin (region, France)

    France: The Loire plains: …of plains that follow the Loire valley. The hills of this area, such as the limestone plateaus of the Touraine region and the crystalline plateaus of the Anjou and Vendée areas, are cut by the broad valleys of the Loire and its tributaries. The middle Loire valley, which varies in…

  • Loire River (river, France)

    Loire River, longest river in France, rising in the southern Massif Central and flowing north and west for 634 miles (1,020 km) to the Atlantic Ocean, which it enters south of the Bretagne (Brittany) peninsula. Its major tributary is the Allier, which joins the Loire at Le Bec d’Allier. Its drains

  • Loire Valley (region, France)

    France: The Loire plains: …of plains that follow the Loire valley. The hills of this area, such as the limestone plateaus of the Touraine region and the crystalline plateaus of the Anjou and Vendée areas, are cut by the broad valleys of the Loire and its tributaries. The middle Loire valley, which varies in…

  • Loire-Atlantique (department, France)

    Pays de la Loire: Maine-et-Loire, Vendée, and Loire-Atlantique. Pays de la Loire is bounded by the régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the northwest, Normandy to the north, Centre to the east, and Nouvelle-Aquitaine to the south. The Bay of Biscay in the Atlantic Ocean lies to the west. The capital is Nantes.

  • Loire-Inférieure (department, France)

    Pays de la Loire: Maine-et-Loire, Vendée, and Loire-Atlantique. Pays de la Loire is bounded by the régions of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the northwest, Normandy to the north, Centre to the east, and Nouvelle-Aquitaine to the south. The Bay of Biscay in the Atlantic Ocean lies to the west. The capital is Nantes.

  • Loiret (department, France)

    Centre: Indre-et-Loire, Loir-et-Cher, Loiret, and Eure-et-Loir. Centre is bounded by the régions of Normandy and ?le-de-France to the north, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté to the east, Auvergne-Rh?ne-Alpes to the southeast, Nouvelle-Aquitaine to the south, and Pays de la Loire to the west. The capital is

  • Lois & Richard Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art (art centre, Cincinnati, Ohio, United States)

    Zaha Hadid: First built projects: …her design for a new Lois & Richard Rosenthal Center for Contemporary Art in Cincinnati, Ohio. The 85,000-square-foot (7,900-square-metre) centre, which opened in 2003, was the first American museum designed by a woman. Essentially a vertical series of cubes and voids, the museum is located in the middle of Cincinnati’s…

  • Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples, Les (work by Le Bon)

    Gustave Le Bon: In Les Lois psychologiques de l’évolution des peuples (1894; The Psychology of Peoples) he developed a view that history is the product of racial or national character, with emotion, not intelligence, the dominant force in social evolution. He attributed true progress to the work of an…

  • Lois, George (American graphic designer)

    graphic design: Postwar graphic design in the United States: …at Doyle Dane Bernbach was George Lois, whose works were engagingly simple and direct. Lois went on to design over 90 covers for Esquire magazine in the 1960s. He used powerful photographs and photomontages, usually by Carl Fischer, to make succinct editorial statements about the United States. These designs acted…

  • Loiseau, Bernard Daniel Jacques (French chef)

    Bernard Daniel Jacques Loiseau, French master chef (born Jan. 13, 1951, Chamalières, France—died Feb. 24, 2003, Saulieu, France), created a light, flavourful cuisine that was regarded as among the best in Europe; he was only the second chef ever to be admitted to the Legion of Honour (1995) and t

  • Loisy, Alfred Firmin (French theologian)

    Alfred Firmin Loisy, French biblical scholar, linguist, and philosopher of religion, generally credited as the founder of Modernism, a movement within the Roman Catholic church aimed at revising its dogma to reflect advances in science and philosophy. Loisy trained at the Institut Catholique in

  • Loíza (Puerto Rico)

    Latin American dance: Puerto Rico: The Loíza style of bomba has more African-based movements; the dancers employ isolations of the hip and shoulders (i.e., movement of those parts alone), flexible torsos, and greater use of improvised steps and body shifts. Bomba dancing is the main attraction during Loíza’s festival of Santiago…

  • Loíza River (river, Puerto Rico)

    Loíza River, river in eastern Puerto Rico, rising in the Sierra de Cayey south of San Lorenzo. Flowing about 40 miles (65 km) between the humid foothills of the Cayey and the Sierra de Luquillo, it emerges through swamps to empty into the Atlantic Ocean near Loíza Aldea. In its floodplain and on

  • Loja (Ecuador)

    Loja, principal city of far southern Ecuador, on a small plain at the northwestern foot of the Cordillera de Zamora of the Andes Mountains, near the junction of the Zamora and Malacatos rivers. Founded in the mid-16th century by the Spanish captain Alonso de Mercadillo, the town was destroyed by an

  • Loja Knot (mountains, Ecuador)

    Andes Mountains: Physiography of the Northern Andes: …mass of mountains called the Loja Knot (4° S) in southern Ecuador marks the transition between the Peruvian cordilleras and the Ecuadorian Andes. The Ecuadorian system consists of a long, narrow plateau running from south to north bordered by two mountain chains containing numerous high volcanoes. To the west, in…

  • Lojsta (ruins, Sweden)

    Western architecture: Prelude to Romanesque in the north: …“long hall” or palace at Lojsta (built c. 1000) on the island of Gotland. Judging from the remains of the building, the superstructure must have consisted of tall, triangular frames stiffened by timbers that mark out a supporting square in the lower half of the triangle. There was a smoke…

  • Lojsta ruins (ruins, Sweden)

    Western architecture: Prelude to Romanesque in the north: Judging from the remains of the building, the superstructure must have consisted of tall, triangular frames stiffened by timbers that mark out a supporting square in the lower half of the triangle. There was a smoke hole above the hearth. This type of construction, originating on the Continent,…

  • Lojsta Slott (ruins, Sweden)

    Western architecture: Prelude to Romanesque in the north: Judging from the remains of the building, the superstructure must have consisted of tall, triangular frames stiffened by timbers that mark out a supporting square in the lower half of the triangle. There was a smoke hole above the hearth. This type of construction, originating on the Continent,…

  • Lok Jan Shakti Party (political party, India)

    Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), regional political party in Bihar state, eastern India. It also has had a small presence on the national political scene in New Delhi. The LJP was formed in November 2000, following a split in the Janata Dal (United), or JD(U), party. The LJP has focused mainly on

  • Lok Janshakti Party (political party, India)

    Lok Janshakti Party (LJP), regional political party in Bihar state, eastern India. It also has had a small presence on the national political scene in New Delhi. The LJP was formed in November 2000, following a split in the Janata Dal (United), or JD(U), party. The LJP has focused mainly on

  • Lok nangsu’ (Thai literary journal)

    Thai literature: …up the groundbreaking literary journal Lok nangsu’ (1977–83; “Book World”), which, with its eclectic combination of articles, interviews, reviews, short stories, and poems, covering both the Thai and international literary world, provided a real and challenging focus for all who aspired to be a part of the literary community. After…

  • Lok Sabha (Indian parliament)

    Lok Sabha, (Hindi: “House of the People”) the lower chamber of India’s bicameral parliament. Under the constitution of 1950, its members are directly elected for a term of five years by territorial constituencies in the states. In the early 21st century the Lok Sabha had 543 elected members; 13 of

  • loka (Hinduism)

    Loka, (Sanskrit: “world”) in the cosmography of Hinduism, the universe or any particular division of it. The most common division of the universe is the tri-loka, or three worlds (heaven, earth, atmosphere; later, heaven, world, netherworld), each of which is divided into seven regions. Sometimes

  • Lokacharya (Indian philosopher)

    Indian philosophy: Ramanuja: …and the Dakshina-kalarya, led by Lokacharya. One of the points at issue is whether or not emancipation is destructible; another is whether there is a difference between liberation attained by mere self-knowledge and that attained by knowledge of God. There also were differences in interpreting the exact nature of self-surrender…

  • lokadharmi (Indian drama)

    South Asian arts: Classical theatre: …types of Hindu productions: the lokadharmi, or realistic theatre, with natural presentation of human behaviour and properties catering to the popular taste, and the natyadharmi, or stylized drama, which, using gesture language and symbols, was considered more artistic. In Shakuntala the king enters riding an imaginary chariot, and Shakuntala plucks…

  • Lokamanya (Indian political leader)

    Bal Gangadhar Tilak, scholar, mathematician, philosopher, and ardent nationalist who helped lay the foundation for India’s independence by building his own defiance of British rule into a national movement. He founded (1914) and served as president of the Indian Home Rule League. In 1916 he

  • lokapāla (Hindu and Buddhist mythology)

    Lokapāla, in Hindu and Buddhist mythology, any of the guardians of the four cardinal directions. They are known in Tibetan as ’jig-rtenskyong, in Chinese as t’ien-wang, and in Japanese as shi-tennō. The Hindu protectors, who ride on elephants, are Indra, who governs the east, Yama the south, Varu?a

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