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  • Longinus, Quintus Cassius (Roman official)

    Quintus Cassius Longinus, Roman official whose tyrannical government of Spain greatly injured Julius Caesar’s cause in Spain during the civil war (49–45) between Caesar and the Optimates. He was either a brother or a cousin of the famous assassin of Caesar. As tribune in 49, he supported Caesar,

  • longitude (geography)

    latitude and longitude: longitude, coordinate system by means of which the position or location of any place on Earth’s surface can be determined and described.

  • longitude of the ascending node (astronomy)

    celestial mechanics: Perturbations of elliptical motion: …angle Ω is called the longitude of the ascending node. Angle ω (called the argument of perihelion) is the angular distance from the ascending node to the perihelion measured in the orbit plane.

  • longitude of the perihelion (astronomy)

    orbit: …and NA is called the longitude of the perihelion. It defines the direction of the major axis in the plane of the orbit.

  • longitudinal crevasse (geology)

    crevasse: Thus, there are longitudinal crevasses, which develop in areas of compressive stress; transverse crevasses, which develop in areas of tensile stress and are generally curved downstream; marginal crevasses, which develop when the central area of the glacier moves considerably faster than the outer edges; and bergschrund crevasses, which…

  • longitudinal design (psychology)

    human development: Types of growth data: …used, the study is called longitudinal; when different children at each age are used, it is called cross-sectional. In a cross-sectional study all of the children at age eight, for example, are different from those at age seven. A study may be longitudinal over any number of years; there are…

  • longitudinal fission (biology)

    binary fission: …types, such as transverse or longitudinal, depending on the axis of cell separation. Regular transverse fission in some organisms, such as tapeworms and scyphostome polyps, is called strobilation. Commonly, this results in a chain, called a strobilus, of the fission products—the proglottids of tapeworms and the ephyrae of scyphozoan

  • longitudinal fissure (anatomy)

    cerebrum: …from the cerebellum; and the longitudinal fissure, which divides the cerebrum into two hemispheres.

  • longitudinal frame (ship part)

    ship: Structural integrity: However, longitudinal frames require internal transverse support from bulkheads and web frames—the latter being, in effect, partial bulkheads that may extend only three to seven feet in from the shell. This requirement obviously reduces the weight advantage of longitudinal framing but not enough to negate the…

  • longitudinal magnification (optics)

    magnification: Longitudinal magnification denotes the factor by which an image increases in size, as measured along the optical axis. Angular magnification is equal to the ratio of the tangents of the angles subtended by an object and its image when measured from a given point in…

  • longitudinal mode (physics)

    laser: Laser beam characteristics: Each resonance is called a longitudinal mode. Except in semiconductor lasers, cavities are thousands of wavelengths long, so the wavelengths of adjacent modes are closely spaced—and usually the laser simultaneously emits light on two or more wavelengths within 0.1 percent of each other. These beams are monochromatic for most practical…

  • longitudinal muscle (anatomy)

    skeleton: Skeletomusculature of a mobile coelenterate: …by which simple sheets of longitudinal and circular muscle fibres can antagonize each other to produce contrasting movements. The fluid-filled space is the large digestive, or internal, cavity of the body. If the mouth is slightly open when both longitudinal and circular muscles of the trunk contract, fluid flows out…

  • longitudinal nerve cord (anatomy)

    nervous system: Simple bilateral systems: …Planaria consists of a brain, longitudinal nerve cords, and peripheral nerve plexuses (interlacing networks of peripheral nerves; from Latin plectere, “to braid”). The brain, located in the anterior portion of the animal, is composed of two cephalic ganglia joined by a broad connection called a commissure. Longitudinal nerve cords, usually…

  • longitudinal stream (geology)

    valley: Drainage patterns: Another term for a strike stream, which parallels the structural grain, is a longitudinal stream. In contrast, transverse streams cut across structural trends. Streams flowing down the tilted sediments of the cuesta are called dip streams because they parallel the structural dip of the strata. Streams draining the cuesta…

  • longitudinal study (psychology)

    human development: Types of growth data: …used, the study is called longitudinal; when different children at each age are used, it is called cross-sectional. In a cross-sectional study all of the children at age eight, for example, are different from those at age seven. A study may be longitudinal over any number of years; there are…

  • longitudinal wave (physics)

    Longitudinal wave, wave consisting of a periodic disturbance or vibration that takes place in the same direction as the advance of the wave. A coiled spring that is compressed at one end and then released experiences a wave of compression that travels its length, followed by a stretching; a point

  • longjaw mudsucker (fish)

    goby: Many gobies, such as the longjaw mudsucker (Gillichthys mirabilis) of the eastern Pacific, inhabit burrows in sand or mud, and some share burrows with other animals. An example of the latter is the blind goby (Typhlogobius californiensis), a small, pink fish native to California that lives intertidally in burrows dug…

  • Longjumeau, Andrew of (French diplomat)

    Andrew Of Lonjumel, French Dominican friar who, as an ambassador of Louis IX (St. Louis) of France, led a diplomatic mission destined for the court of the Mongol khan Güyük. His report of the journey across Central Asia and back (1249 to 1251/52), though a mixture of fact and fiction, contains

  • Longjumeau, Peace of (French history)

    Catherine de' Medici: Civil wars: …(September 1567–March 1568) with the Peace of Longjumeau, a renewal of Amboise. But she was unable to avert its revocation (August 1568), which heralded the third civil war. She was not primarily responsible for the more far-reaching Treaty of Saint-Germain (August 1570), but she succeeded in disgracing the Guises.

  • longleaf pine (tree)

    pine: Major North American pines: Longleaf pine (P. palustris) is the most-notable yellow pine of the southern United States; it abounds on sandy soils from the Carolinas and Florida westward to Louisiana and Texas. The most-marked features of the tree are its long tufted foliage and its tall columnar trunk,…

  • Longleat (house, Wiltshire, England, United Kingdom)

    Western architecture: England: …these was his own house, Longleat (1568–c. 1580), on which he had the assistance of the mason Robert Smythson, who was to be the leading architect of the late 16th century. Except for the symmetry of the plan, arranged around two courts, there was little new in planning at Longleat,…

  • Longley, Charles Thomas (archbishop of Canterbury)

    Lambeth Conference: …in 1867, Archbishop of Canterbury Charles Thomas Longley carefully limited the scope of deliberations to “expedient” resolutions concerning “matters of practical interest” and serving as “safe guides to future action.” He also declared that interpretation of “questions of doctrine” were not to be discussed in future Lambeth Conferences. Doubtful of…

  • longline (fishing)

    conservation: Surviving but threatened small populations: …or so, the growth of longline fishing, a commercial technique in which numerous baited hooks are trailed from a line that can be kilometres long (see commercial fishing: Drifting longlines; Bottom longlines), has caused many seabirds, including most species of albatross, to decline rapidly in numbers. Albatrosses follow longlining ships

  • Longman, Thomas (British publisher)

    history of publishing: England: was begun in 1724 by Thomas Longman when he bought the business of William Taylor, the publisher of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. At mid-century the best-known figure in the trade was Robert Dodsley, the footman-poet who was befriended by Pope. Among “his” authors were Pope himself, Oliver Goldsmith, Laurence Sterne,…

  • Longmen (China)

    Yellow River: Hydrology: …feet (10,000 cubic metres) near Longmen, and 1,270,000 cubic feet (36,000 cubic metres; recorded in 1943) in the lower parts of the river.

  • Longmen caves (cave temples, China)

    Longmen caves, series of Chinese cave temples carved into the rock of a high riverbank south of the city of Luoyang, in Henan province. The cave complex, designated a UNESCO World Heritage site in 2000, is one of China’s most popular tourist destinations. The temples were begun late in the Bei

  • Longmen style (Chinese art)

    Northern Wei sculpture: …a very different Chinese, or Longmen, style, which clothes the Buddha in the costume of the Chinese scholar. The latter style emphasizes a svelte and sinuous cascade of drapery falling over an increasingly flattened figure, as seen in the Longmen caves.

  • Longmenshan Fault (fault, Asia)

    Sichuan earthquake of 2008: …along the 155-mile- (249-km-) long Longmenshan Fault, a thrust fault in which the stresses produced by the northward-moving Indian-Australian plate shifted a portion of the Plateau of Tibet eastward. Compressional forces brought on by this shift sheared the ground in two locations along the fault, thrusting the ground upward by…

  • Longmian jushi (Chinese painter)

    Li Gonglin, one of the most lavishly praised Chinese connoisseurs and painters in a circle of scholar-officials during the Northern Song period. Li Gonglin was born into a scholarly home, received the jinshi (“advanced scholar”) degree in 1070, and followed the common career of going to the capital

  • Longmont (Colorado, United States)

    Longmont, city, Boulder and Weld counties, northern Colorado, U.S., on the St. Vrain River between the South Platte River and the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, at an elevation of 5,000 feet (1,524 metres), 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Denver. Founded in 1871 as a farming community of the

  • Longmyndian (geology)

    Longmyndian, major division of Late Precambrian rocks and time in the southern Shropshire region of England (the Precambrian began about 4.6 billion years ago when the Earth’s crust formed and ended 542 million years ago). Named for prominent exposures in the Longmynd Plateau region, Longmyndian

  • longneck clam (mollusk)

    clam: The soft-shell clam (Mya arenaria), also known as the longneck clam, or steamer, is a common ingredient of soups and chowders. Found in all seas, it buries itself in the mud to depths from 10 to 30 cm. The shell is dirty white, oval, and 7.5…

  • longneck eel (fish)

    eel: Annotated classification: Family Derichthyidae (longneck eels) Relatively long snout. 2 genera with 3 species. Bathypelagic. Family Ophichthidae (snake eels and worm eels) Many branchiostegals, caudal reduced or absent. 52 genera with about 290 species. All oceans. Family Synaphobranchidae

  • Longnon, Auguste (French scholar)

    Fran?ois Villon: Poetry: …of the 19th-century French scholar Auguste Longnon, who brought to light a number of historical documents—most of them judicial records—relating to the poet. But after Villon’s banishment by the Parlement in 1463 all trace of him vanishes. Still, it is a wonder that any of his poetry should have survived,…

  • longnose butterflyfish (fish)

    butterflyfish: …long snout, as in the longnose, or copperband, butterflyfish (Chelmon rostratus) of the Indo-Pacific and the long-snouted, or long-nosed, butterflyfish (Forcipiger flavissimus) of the Atlantic. Most species have strong, prominent spines on the front portions of their dorsal fins.

  • longnose gar (fish)

    gar: …long and forcepslike in the longnose gar, or billfish (Lepisosteus osseus), but broad and relatively short in the alligator gar (A. spatula) of the southern United States. The alligator gar, reaching a length of about 3 metres (10 feet), is one of the largest of all freshwater fishes. Gars are…

  • longnose lancet fish

    lancet fish: The longnose lancet fish (A. ferox) is found in the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. The shortnose lancet fish (A. brevirostris) inhabits the Atlantic and south Pacific oceans.

  • Longo family (Italian architectural family)

    Longhi family, a family of three generations of Italian architects who were originally from Viggiu, near Milan, but worked in Rome. Martino Longhi the Elder (died 1591) was a Mannerist architect who was commissioned by Pope Sixtus V (1585–90) to build the church of San Girolamo degli Schiavoni

  • Longo, Alessandro (Italian musician)

    Domenico Scarlatti: Influence and reputation: …prepared by the Italian pianist Alessandro Longo that virtually all the harpsichord sonatas became available. Longo published, from 1906, an almost complete edition of arrangements for piano of 545 sonatas, grouping them according to key but splitting up Scarlatti’s sonata pairs and paying scant regard to chronology and style. The…

  • Longo, Giuseppe (Italian computer scientist)

    foundations of mathematics: Impredicative constructions: …by the Italian computer scientist Giuseppe Longo (born 1929), impredicative constructions are extremely useful in computer science—namely, for producing fixpoints (entities that remain unchanged under a given process).

  • Longo, Luigi (Italian communist leader)

    Luigi Longo, Italian communist leader, who served as general secretary (1964–72) of the Italian Communist Party (PCI). A founding member of the PCI, Longo struggled against Italian fascism until Benito Mussolini’s ban on political parties forced him into exile. He gained valuable organizing

  • Longobardi (people)

    Lombard, member of a Germanic people who from 568 to 774 ruled a kingdom in Italy. The Lombards were one of the Germanic tribes that formed the Suebi, and during the 1st century ad their home was in northwestern Germany. Though they occasionally fought with the Romans and with neighbouring t

  • Longomontanus, Christian (Danish astronomer)

    Christian Longomontanus, Danish astronomer and astrologer who is best known for his association with and published support of Tycho Brahe. In 1600, when Johannes Kepler went to Prague to work with Tycho, he found Tycho and Longomontanus engaged in extensive observations and studies of Mars. This

  • Longoria, Evan (American baseball player)

    Tampa Bay Rays: stars Scott Kazmir, Matt Garza, Evan Longoria, and Carl Crawford, the Rays posted a 95–67 record—a 29-game improvement from their 2007 mark of 66–96—and qualified for the first playoff appearance in the franchise’s history as AL East Division champions. In the American League Championship Series, the Rays bested the defending…

  • Longowal, Harchand Singh (Indian politician)

    India: Sikh separatism: …moderate Sikh leaders, such as Harchand Singh Longowal, who was elected president of the Shiromani Akali Dal (Supreme Akali Party) in 1980, unsuccessfully attempted to avert civil war by seeking to negotiate a settlement of Sikh demands with New Delhi’s Congress Party leaders. Extremists like Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale won the…

  • Longqing (emperor of Ming dynasty)

    Longqing, 12th emperor (reigned 1566/67–72) of the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), in whose short reign the famous minister Zhang Juzheng first came to power and the country entered a period of stability and prosperity. During the Longqing emperor’s reign the Mongol leader Altan (died 1583), who had been

  • Longquan ware (pottery)

    Longquan ware, celadon stoneware produced in kilns in the town of Longquan (province of Zhejiang), China, from the Song to the mid-Qing dynasties (roughly from the 11th to the 18th century). Early Longquan celadons had a transparent green glaze that was superb in quality, thick, and viscous,

  • longrifle (weapon)

    shooting: The American frontier: The flintlock Kentucky rifle, produced from about 1750 by American gunsmiths from Germany and Switzerland, provided great accuracy to 180 metres (200 yards), then a long range. Virtually every village and settlement had a shooting match on weekends and holidays, often attracting a hundred or more marksmen.…

  • Longs Peak (Colorado, United States)

    Longs Peak, mountain peak in the Front Range of the Rocky Mountains, Boulder county, north-central Colorado, U.S. It is the highest peak (14,259 feet [4,346 metres]) in Rocky Mountain National Park and the northernmost “fourteener” in Colorado. It was named in honour of Major Stephen H. Long, an

  • Longshan culture (anthropology)

    Longshan culture, Neolithic culture of central China, named for the site in Shandong province where its remains were first discovered by C.T. Wu. Dating from about 2600 to 2000 bce, it is characterized by fine burnished ware in wheel-turned vessels of angular outline; abundant gray pottery;

  • Longshanks, Edward (king of England)

    Edward I, son of Henry III and king of England in 1272–1307, during a period of rising national consciousness. He strengthened the crown and Parliament against the old feudal nobility. He subdued Wales, destroying its autonomy; and he sought (unsuccessfully) the conquest of Scotland. His reign is

  • longship

    Longship, type of sail-and-oar vessel that predominated in northern European waters for more than 1,500 years and played an important role in history. Ranging from 45 to 75 feet (14 to 23 metres) in length, clinker-built (with overlapped planks), and carrying a single square sail, the longship was

  • longshore current (geology)

    mineral deposit: Beach placers: …flow of water, called a longshore drift, occurs parallel to the beach. Such a current can produce a beach placer. Beach placers are a major source of ilmenite, rutile, monazite, and zircon. They have been extensively mined in India, Australia, Alaska (U.S.), and Brazil.

  • longshore drift (geology)

    mineral deposit: Beach placers: …flow of water, called a longshore drift, occurs parallel to the beach. Such a current can produce a beach placer. Beach placers are a major source of ilmenite, rutile, monazite, and zircon. They have been extensively mined in India, Australia, Alaska (U.S.), and Brazil.

  • longsightedness (visual disorder)

    Hyperopia, refractive error or abnormality in which the cornea and lens of the eye focus the image of the visual field at an imaginary point behind the retina (the light-sensitive layer of tissue lining the back and sides of the eye). The retina thus receives an unfocused image of near objects,

  • Longstreet, James (Confederate general)

    James Longstreet, Confederate officer during the American Civil War. A graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York (1842), he resigned from the U.S. Army when his native state seceded from the Union (December 1860); he was made a brigadier general in the Confederate Army. He

  • Longsword, William (English noble)

    William Longsword, 3rd earl of Salisbury, an illegitimate son of Henry II of England who became a prominent baron, soldier, and administrator under Kings John and Henry III. His date of birth is not known, and his parentage was, for many centuries, a mystery. He was long assumed to have been the

  • longtail tuna (fish)

    tuna: atlanticus), and longtail tuna (T. tonggol). These different species range from moderate to very large in size. The giant of the group is the northern bluefin tuna, which grows to a maximum length and weight of about 4.3 metres (14 feet) and 800 kg (1,800 pounds). The…

  • Longtime Companion (film by René [1990])

    Mary-Louise Parker: …openly discuss the AIDS epidemic, Longtime Companion. She next won critical praise in the film Fried Green Tomatoes (1991) as the strong-willed cafe owner Ruth, who struggles through an abusive marriage.

  • Longton Hall porcelain

    Longton Hall porcelain, a soft-paste English porcelain produced for only about 10 years (1749–60). It is both heavy and translucent but has many faults both in potting and glazing. Its typical colours are a pale yellow-green, pink, strong red, crimson, and dark blue. The factory was established in

  • Longtou (mountains, China)

    Liupan Mountains: …southern section is called the Long Mountains (also called Guan Mountains, Longtou, or Longban).

  • Longtou River (river, China)

    Yuan River: …upstream sections are called the Longtou and Qingshui rivers. It becomes the Yuan River after its confluence with its northern tributary, the Wu River, which flows through Zhijiang. It then flows northeast along the western flank of the Xuefeng Mountains in Hunan to discharge into Dongting Lake at Changde and…

  • Longueuil (Quebec, Canada)

    Longueuil, city, Montérégie region, southern Quebec province, Canada, on the St. Lawrence River, opposite Montreal city. The city was founded in 1657 by Charles Le Moyne. Reached by railway in 1880, it grew to become an important residential and industrial suburb of Montreal; after annexing

  • Longueville, Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé, Duchesse de (French princess)

    Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé, duchess de Longueville, French princess remembered for her beauty and amours, her influence during the civil wars of the Fronde, and her final conversion to Jansenism. Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé was the only daughter of Henri II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé, and

  • Longueville, Henri II d’Orléans, duc de, duc de Coulommiers (French rebel)

    Henri II d’Orléans, duke de Longueville, noted rebel in the French civil wars of the Fronde, whose second wife was the celebrated Anne-Geneviève de Bourbon-Condé, Duchess de Longueville (q.v.). After taking part in the conspiracy against Cardinal de Richelieu in 1626, Longueville distinguished

  • Longumeau, Andrew of (French diplomat)

    Andrew Of Lonjumel, French Dominican friar who, as an ambassador of Louis IX (St. Louis) of France, led a diplomatic mission destined for the court of the Mongol khan Güyük. His report of the journey across Central Asia and back (1249 to 1251/52), though a mixture of fact and fiction, contains

  • Longus (Greek writer)

    Longus, Greek writer, author of Daphnis and Chloe, the first pastoral prose romance (see pastoral literature) and one of the most popular of the Greek erotic romances in Western culture after the Renaissance. The story concerns Daphnis and Chloe, two foundlings brought up by shepherds in Lesbos,

  • Longus, Sempronius (Roman general)

    Hannibal: The war in Italy: …successfully goaded the army of Sempronius Longus into battle on the left bank of the Trebbia River south of Placentia (December 218). The Roman force was soundly defeated, although it is likely that the wounded Claudius Scipio did not take part in the battle, and it is uncertain if any…

  • Longview (Texas, United States)

    Longview, city, seat (1871) of Gregg county and partly in Harrison county, eastern Texas, U.S. It is situated near the Sabine River, 65 miles (105 km) west of Shreveport, Louisiana, and is the centre of a metropolitan and industrial area that includes Marshall and Kilgore. The area was settled in

  • Longview (Washington, United States)

    Longview, city, Cowlitz county, southwestern Washington, U.S., at the confluence of the Cowlitz and Columbia rivers, 50 miles (80 km) north of Portland, Oregon. A planned community, it was founded in 1923 by R.A. Long of the Long-Bell Lumber Company on the site of old Monticello, where a convention

  • longwall cutter (machine)

    coal mining: Conventional mining: The longwall cutter was introduced in 1891. Originally driven by compressed air and later electrified, it could begin at one end of a long face (the vertical, exposed cross section of a seam of coal) and cut continuously to the other.

  • longwall method (coal mining)

    mining: Longwall mining: In the longwall system the ore body is divided into rectangular panels or blocks. In each panel two or more parallel drifts (for ventilation and ore transport) are driven along the opposite long sides to provide access, and at the end of the…

  • longwall shield (mining)

    coal mining: Longwall mining: …by mechanized, self-advancing supports called longwall shields, which form a protective steel canopy under which the face conveyor, workers, and shearer operate. In combination with shields and conveyors, longwall shearers or plows create a truly continuous mining system with a huge production capacity. Record productions exceeding 20,000 tons per day,…

  • Longwang (Chinese mythology)

    long: …into the Dragon Kings (Longwang), gods who lived in the four oceans, delivered rain, and protected seafarers.

  • longwave radiation (radiant energy)

    atmosphere: Radiation: …emitted from Earth is called longwave radiation; it falls within the infrared portion of the spectrum and has typical wavelengths of 4 to 30 micrometres (0.0002 to 0.001 inch). Wavelengths of radiation emitted by a body depend on the temperature of the body, as specified by Planck’s radiation law. The…

  • longways (dance formation)

    contredanse: …used only the country dance’s “longways” formations, in which each couple danced its way to the head of a double line (men on one side, women on the other). At the head of the line, the pair danced a duet before relinquishing the position to the next couple in line.…

  • Longwood Gardens (garden, Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Longwood Gardens, botanical gardens in Kennett Square, near Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, U.S. The gardens are operated by Longwood Gardens, Inc., a private foundation, which, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other public horticultural institutions, sponsors expeditions to

  • Longwood Gardens, Inc. (American organization)

    Longwood Gardens: The gardens are operated by Longwood Gardens, Inc., a private foundation, which, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Agriculture and other public horticultural institutions, sponsors expeditions to many parts of the world in search of ornamental plants for introduction into the United States.

  • Longworth, Alice Roosevelt (American politician and socialite)

    Alice Roosevelt Longworth, American socialite and daughter of U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt, who was known for her wit and her political influence. At the time of Alice Roosevelt’s birth, her father was a New York assemblyman. Her mother died two days after her birth, and during her father’s long

  • Longwu (emperor of Nan Ming dynasty)

    Zhu Yujian, ruler of Fujian province in southeastern China after the Manchu forces of Manchuria (Northeast China) captured the Ming capital at Beijing and established the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). He was also a claimant to the Ming throne. A Ming prince, Zhu was a direct descendant of the first

  • Longwy (France)

    Longwy, town, Meurthe-et-Moselle département, Grand Est région, northeastern France, on the Chiers River, near the borders of Belgium and Luxembourg. A part of the former duchy of Bar, Longwy was annexed by France in 1678. Its 17th-century fortifications in the old quarter (Longwy-Haut) were

  • Longxi (China)

    Zhangzhou, city, southeastern Fujian sheng (province), China. The city is situated on the north bank of the Xi River, some 25 mi (40 km) upstream from Xiamen (Amoy) in the small alluvial plain formed by the Xi and Jiulong rivers. Zhangzhou was first established as a county in 502–515 ce and became

  • Longxing Monastery (monastery, Zhengding, China)

    Zhengding: The Longxing Monastery, built in 581, is one of the best-preserved large-scale ancient Buddhist structures in China. The statue of Guanyin Buddha (Avalokitesvara) in the monastery, standing 72 feet (22 metres) high, is thought to be the tallest bronze Buddha statue in China. Pop. (2000) 91,299.

  • Longxugou (play by Lao She)

    Chinese literature: 1949–76: …plays, such as Longxugou (1951; Dragon Beard Ditch), which earned him the prestigious title of People’s Artist. Another very popular play, Baimaonü (1953; White-Haired Girl) by He Jingzhi, was taken from a contemporary folk legend. It was made a model that all writers were supposed to follow.

  • Longyan (China)

    Longyan, city, Fujian sheng (province), southeastern China. It is situated in the mountainous southwestern region of the province on a branch of the Jiulong River, at the centre of a fertile agricultural basin ringed by wooded hills. A highway network connects it with Zhangzhou and Xiamen (Amoy) on

  • Longyearbyen (Norway)

    Svalbard: Longyearbyen is the administrative centre. During the summer months tourists arrive by boat at Hotellneset, on Advent Fjord. An airport was opened in 1975.

  • longyi (garment)

    Amarapura: Colourful longyis (skirts worn by both sexes) are produced in a distinctive heavy silk. The town’s long-established bronze industry is famous for Buddha figures, bells, and gongs. Tile, pottery, and baskets are also manufactured. Amarapura lies along the Rangoon-Mandalay railway and also serves as the junction…

  • longyin (musical instrument)

    qin: …called the “dragon’s gums” (longyin), and the two pegs for fastening the strings are called the “goose feet” (yanzhu). Each qin is given a unique name, which is engraved on the back side of the instrument, along with poems and the owner’s (or owners’) seals.

  • Lonicera (plant)

    Honeysuckle, (genus Lonicera), genus of about 180 species of ornamental shrubs and climbers of the family Caprifoliaceae. Honeysuckles are native to temperate zones of both hemispheres, but they also grow in the Himalayas, southern Asia, and North Africa; the majority of species are found in China.

  • Lonicera (plant clade)

    Dipsacales: Lonicera clade: The Lonicera clade includes five genera and 220 species, mostly in northern temperate areas of East Asia and eastern North America. The largest genus, Lonicera has 180 species of shrubs and woody vines known as honeysuckles. Many Lonicera species, some of which are…

  • Lonicera caprifolium (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: Perfoliate, or sweet, honeysuckle (Lonicera caprifolium) is native to Eurasia but has become established in North America. Its clustered night-blooming purple-white flowers are pollinated mostly by night-feeding hawk moths, because the flower tubes are too long for most other insects to reach the nectar. The fruit is…

  • Lonicera ciliosa (plant)

    honeysuckle: Physical description: The fruit is a red, orange, or black berry that is attractive to wildlife.

  • Lonicera hildebrandiana (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: …climbing species is the giant Burmese honeysuckle (L. hildebrandiana), with 15-cm (6-inch) deep green leaves, 17-cm (7-inch) yellow flowers, and green berries. The Japanese honeysuckle (L. japonica) of eastern Asia has become an invasive species in many areas by growing over other plants and shutting out light. It has fragrant…

  • Lonicera japonica (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: The Japanese honeysuckle (L. japonica) of eastern Asia has become an invasive species in many areas by growing over other plants and shutting out light. It has fragrant yellowish white flowers and black berries. Trumpet honeysuckle (L. sempervirens) has oval, sometimes joined leaves and climbs high…

  • Lonicera periclymenum (plant)

    sweetbrier: …denote, it is thought, the woodbine honeysuckle (Lonicera periclymenum), which is still called eglantine in northeastern Yorkshire.

  • Lonicera sempervirens (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: Trumpet honeysuckle (L. sempervirens) has oval, sometimes joined leaves and climbs high in forest trees. Its orange-scarlet spikes of 5-cm (2-inch) tubular five-lobed flowers and red berries are common throughout eastern North America.

  • Lonicera tatarica (plant)

    honeysuckle: Major species: …more widespread shrub honeysuckles are Tartarian honeysuckle (L. tartarica), from southeastern Europe and Siberia, and four Chinese species—winter honeysuckle (L. fragrantissima), privet honeysuckle (L. pileata), box honeysuckle (L. nitida), and lilac-flowered honeysuckle (L. syringantha).

  • Lonigan, Studs (fictional character)

    Studs Lonigan, fictional character, the protagonist of James T. Farrell’s trilogy Studs Lonigan (1932, 1934,

  • Lonjumel, Andrew of (French diplomat)

    Andrew Of Lonjumel, French Dominican friar who, as an ambassador of Louis IX (St. Louis) of France, led a diplomatic mission destined for the court of the Mongol khan Güyük. His report of the journey across Central Asia and back (1249 to 1251/52), though a mixture of fact and fiction, contains

  • Lonka (Jain sect)

    Jainism: Late medieval–early modern developments (1100–1800): …practice of image worship, the Lumpaka, or Lonka Gaccha, did not. Founded by the mid-15th-century layman Lonka Shah, the Lonka Gaccha denied the scriptural warranty of image worship and in the 17th century emerged as the non-image-worshipping Sthanakavasi sect. At the end of the 18th century, the Sthanakavasi underwent a…

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