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  • Luz Foundation (American organization)

    Gisele Bündchen: Bündchen also founded the Luz Foundation, which strives to empower young women both mentally and physically through its sponsorship of various self-esteem-building programs. In 2018 she published Lessons: My Path to a Meaningful Life.

  • Luzán Claramunt, Ignacio de (Spanish writer)

    Spanish literature: New critical approaches: Leaders included Ignacio de Luzán Claramunt, whose work on poetics launched the great Neoclassical polemic in Spain, and Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro, a Benedictine monk who assailed error, prejudice, and superstition wherever he found them, contributing significantly to Spain’s intellectual emancipation. Fray Martín Sarmiento (Benedictine name…

  • Luzancy Bridge (bridge, France)

    bridge: Eugène Freyssinet: The Luzancy Bridge (1946), with a span of 54 metres (180 feet), demonstrates the lightness and beauty that can be achieved using prestressed concrete for a single-span beam bridge.

  • Luzbona (national capital, Portugal)

    Lisbon, city, port, capital of Portugal, and the centre of the Lisbon metropolitan area. Located in western Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus (Tejo) River, it is the westernmost capital city in continental Europe and serves as the country’s chief port, largest city, and commercial, political,

  • Luzel, Fran?ois-Marie (French writer)

    Celtic literature: The revival of Breton literature: …about 1870 of Catholicon, and Fran?ois-Marie Luzel, in a paper delivered in 1872, showed that Barzaz Breiz was not authentic (though scholars during the period often edited such collected material). Barzaz Breiz led to a renaissance of Breton writing and stimulated Luzel to collect authentic folk songs and publish Gwerziou…

  • Luzern (Switzerland)

    Lucerne, city, capital of Lucerne canton, central Switzerland, lying on the Reuss River where it issues from the northwestern branch of Lake Lucerne (German: Vierwaldst?tter See; French: Lac des Quatre Cantons), southwest of Zürich. The city’s name was derived from the Benedictine monastery of St.

  • Luzern (canton, Switzerland)

    Lucerne, canton, central Switzerland. Lucerne is drained by the Reuss and Kleine Emme rivers and occupies the northern foothills of the Alps, which rise to 7,710 feet (2,350 metres) at the Brienzer Rothorn. Comprising the territories acquired by its capital, the city of Lucerne, it was part of the

  • Luzerne (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Luzerne, county, east-central Pennsylvania, U.S., bounded by the Lehigh River to the southeast. It mainly consists of ridge-and-valley topography drained by the Susquehanna River, which bisects the county northeast-southwest. Some other waterways are Harveys and Crystal lakes and Huntsville and

  • Luzhkov, Yury (Russian politician)

    Yury Luzhkov, Russian politician who served as mayor of Moscow (1992–2010). As mayor, he transformed Moscow into the engine of post-Soviet state capitalism. Luzhkov studied mechanical engineering at the Gubkin Academy of Oil and Gas in Moscow. After graduating in 1958, he was a junior scientist at

  • Luzhkov, Yury Mikhaylovich (Russian politician)

    Yury Luzhkov, Russian politician who served as mayor of Moscow (1992–2010). As mayor, he transformed Moscow into the engine of post-Soviet state capitalism. Luzhkov studied mechanical engineering at the Gubkin Academy of Oil and Gas in Moscow. After graduating in 1958, he was a junior scientist at

  • Luzhniki Park (sports facility, Moscow, Russia)

    Moscow: Cultural life: The Luzhniki Park complex is the leading Moscow facility for sports and was one of the main arenas for the 1980 Olympic Games. The Luzhniki Stadium is flanked by a smaller arena, a natatorium, and the indoor Sports Palace. There are many stadiums and swimming pools…

  • Luzhou (China)

    Changzhi, city in southeastern Shanxi sheng (province), China. It is situated in the Lu’an plain—a basin surrounded by the western highlands of the Taihang Mountains, watered by the upper streams of the Zhuozhang River. It is a communication centre; to the northeast a route and a railway via

  • Luzhou (Sichuan province, China)

    Luzhou, city, southern Sichuan sheng (province), China. Luzhou is a river port at the junction of the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) and the Tuo River. Its communications were further improved during World War II, when a highway was built south across the mountains to Kunming in Yunnan province to

  • Luzhou (China)

    Hefei, city and capital of Anhui sheng (province), China. It has been the provincial capital since 1952. Hefei, in central Anhui, is a natural hub of communications, being situated to the north of Chao Lake and standing on a low saddle crossing the northeastern extension of the Dabie Mountains,

  • Luzi (Chinese religious figure)

    Lu Dongbin, in Chinese religion, one of the Baxian, the Eight Immortals of Daoism, who discoursed in his Stork Peak refuge on the three categories of merit and the five grades of genies (spirits). He is depicted in art as a man of letters carrying a magic sword and a fly switch. One of numerous

  • Luzi, Mario (Italian poet and literary critic)

    Mario Luzi, Italian poet and literary critic who emerged from the Hermetic movement to become one of the most notable poets of the 20th century. His complex, meditative verse deals with turbulence and change. Luzi published his first book of verse, La barca (1935; “The Boat”), before graduating

  • Luzia (region, Germany)

    Lusatia, central European territory of the Sorbs (Lusatians, or Wends), called Sorben (or Wenden) by the Germans. Historic Lusatia was centred on the Neisse and upper Spree rivers, in what is now eastern Germany, between the present-day cities of Cottbus (north) and Dresden (south). In the 9th

  • Lu?ická Nisa (river, Europe)

    Neisse River, either of two rivers now in southwestern Poland (until 1945, in Germany). The better-known Nysa ?u?ycka, or Lusatian Neisse, is the longer (157 miles [252 km]) and more westerly; it forms part of the German-Polish frontier (see Oder–Neisse Line). The Nysa K?odzka (Glatzer Neisse), or

  • Lu?ické Hory (mountains, Czech Republic)

    Lusatian Mountains, mountain group, situated in extreme northern Bohemia, Czech Republic; it is part of the Sudeten mountains (Czech: Sudety). The group extends from the Je?těd ridge in the east (3,320 feet [1,012 m]) to the gorge of the Elbe (Labe) River at Dě?ín in the west and also into Poland

  • Lu?nice River (river, Europe)

    Lu?nice River, river in Nieder?sterreich Bundesland (“federal state”), Austria, and Jiho?esky kraj (region), Czech Republic. The Lu?nice rises in the Freiwald forest of Austria as the Lainsitz River. It flows northward, soon crossing into the Czech Republic and passing through the T?eboň lake

  • Luzon (island, Philippines)

    Luzon, largest and most important island of the Philippines. It is the site of Manila, the nation’s capital and major metropolis, and of Quezon City. Located on the northern part of the Philippine archipelago, it is bounded by the Philippine Sea (east), Sibuyan Sea (south), and the South China Sea

  • Luzon bushy-tailed cloud rat (rodent)

    cloud rat: Bushy-tailed cloud rats: The Luzon bushy-tailed cloud rat (C. schadenbergi) is fairly common in the mountain forests of northern Luzon, but this is the only island on which it is found. It is the largest of the genus, with a body length of 35 to 39 cm, and is…

  • Luzon shrew rat (rodent)

    shrew rat: Natural history: … (genus Chrotomys) and the blazed Luzon shrew rat (Celaenomys silaceus) have a stripe running down the back. Fur is generally short, dense, and soft. Its texture is either velvety or woolly, although the prickly coat of the Sulawesi spiny rat (Echiothrix leucura) is a striking exception. The Sulawesi spiny rat…

  • Luzon Strait (strait, Pacific Ocean)

    Luzon Strait, strait extending for more than 200 miles (320 km) between the islands of Taiwan (north) and Luzon, Philippines (south). It connects the South China Sea (west) with the Philippine Sea (east). The strait is a series of channels, dotted with islands in its southern reaches—i.e., the

  • Luzon tree rat (rodent)

    cloud rat: Bushy-tailed cloud rats: They are closely related to Luzon tree rats (Carpomys) and hairy-tailed rats (Batomys), both of which are also endemic to the Philippines.

  • Luzzatto, Moshe ?ayyim (Italian-Jewish writer)

    Moshe ?ayyim Luzzatto, Jewish cabalist and writer, one of the founders of modern Hebrew poetry. Luzzatto wrote lyrics and about 1727 the drama Migdal ?oz (“Tower of Victory”), but he early turned to cabalist studies, eventually becoming convinced that he was receiving divine revelation and,

  • Luzzatto, Samuel David (Italian-Jewish scholar)

    Samuel David Luzzatto, Jewish writer and scholar. In his writings, which are in Hebrew and Italian, Luzzatto presents an emotional and antiphilosophical concept of Judaism, and his Hebrew poetry is also pervaded by national spirit. His chief merit as a scholar lies in biblical exegesis, Hebrew

  • Lv (chemical element)

    Livermorium (Lv), artificially produced transuranium element of atomic number 116. In 2000 scientists at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research in Dubna, Russia, and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, announced the production of atoms of livermorium when

  • Lviv (Ukraine)

    Lviv, city, western Ukraine, on the Roztochchya Upland. Founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, Lviv has historically been the chief centre of Galicia, a region now divided between Ukraine and Poland. Its position controlling east-west routes and passes across the

  • LVMH Mo?t Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA (French company)

    Bernard Arnault: …CEO of the French conglomerate LVMH Mo?t Hennessy Louis Vuitton SA, the largest luxury-products company in the world.

  • Lvov (Ukraine)

    Lviv, city, western Ukraine, on the Roztochchya Upland. Founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, Lviv has historically been the chief centre of Galicia, a region now divided between Ukraine and Poland. Its position controlling east-west routes and passes across the

  • Lvov, Georgy Yevgenyevich, Prince (Russian statesman)

    Georgy Yevgenyevich, Prince Lvov, Russian social reformer and statesman who was the first head of the Russian provisional government established during the February Revolution (1917). An aristocrat who held a degree in law from the University of Moscow, Lvov worked in the civil service until 1893,

  • LVT

    amphibious vehicle: The LVT resembled a tank, whereas the DUKW moved on rubber tires ashore and was propeller-driven when afloat. Each began its operational life as little more than a floating truck. The rigours of combat demonstrated the need for armour plating, however, and the LVT, with the…

  • lwa (Vodou)

    Lwa, the primary spirits of Vodou. They are akin to the orishas of Yoruba religion and of similar Afro-Caribbean new religious movements, but, unlike the orishas, the lwa are not deities but are spirits, whether of human or divine origin, that were created by Bondye (God) to assist the living in

  • Lwanga, Saint Charles (Ugandan saint)

    Martyrs of Uganda: Charles Lwanga, Mukasa’s successor, then secretly baptized those boys who had only been catechumens. The following day they were herded away to the village of Namugongo. Three of them—Pontian Ngondwe, a soldier, and the royal servants Athanasius Bazzekuketta and Gonzaga Gonza—were murdered en route. All…

  • Lwena (people)

    Luvale, Bantu-speaking people of northwestern Zambia and southeastern Angola. In terms of history, language, material culture, and religion, the Luvale are closely related to the Lunda and Ndembu to the northeast, who extend northward into southern Congo (Kinshasa). They are also culturally similar

  • Lwoff, André (French biologist)

    André Lwoff, French biologist who contributed to the understanding of lysogeny, in which a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, infects bacteria and is transmitted to subsequent bacterial generations solely through the cell division of its host. Lwoff’s discoveries brought him (with Fran?ois Jacob

  • Lwoff, André Michel (French biologist)

    André Lwoff, French biologist who contributed to the understanding of lysogeny, in which a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, infects bacteria and is transmitted to subsequent bacterial generations solely through the cell division of its host. Lwoff’s discoveries brought him (with Fran?ois Jacob

  • Lwoff, André-Michael (French biologist)

    André Lwoff, French biologist who contributed to the understanding of lysogeny, in which a bacterial virus, or bacteriophage, infects bacteria and is transmitted to subsequent bacterial generations solely through the cell division of its host. Lwoff’s discoveries brought him (with Fran?ois Jacob

  • Lwoo (people)

    Luo, people living among several Bantu-speaking peoples in the flat country near Lake Victoria in western Kenya and northern Tanzania. More than four million strong, the Luo constitute the fourth largest ethnic group in Kenya (about one-tenth of the population) after the Kikuyu (with whom they

  • Lwów (Ukraine)

    Lviv, city, western Ukraine, on the Roztochchya Upland. Founded in the mid-13th century by Prince Daniel Romanovich of Galicia, Lviv has historically been the chief centre of Galicia, a region now divided between Ukraine and Poland. Its position controlling east-west routes and passes across the

  • LWR

    nuclear reactor: Light-water reactors: Light-water reactors (LWRs) are power reactors that are cooled and moderated with ordinary water. There are two basic types: the pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and the boiling-water reactor (BWR). In the PWR, water at high pressure and temperature removes heat from…

  • LWT (British company)

    John Birt, Baron Birt: …appointed director of programs of London Weekend Television (LWT), one of the most profitable companies in British independent television, not least because of its knack of producing light entertainment programs with mass appeal. Despite being more familiar with the more austere end of television output, Birt found little difficulty in…

  • lx (unit of energy measurement)

    Lux, unit of illumination (see luminous intensity) in the International System of Units (SI). One lux (Latin for “light”) is the amount of illumination provided when one lumen is evenly distributed over an area of one square metre. This is also equivalent to the illumination that would exist on a

  • LXX (biblical literature)

    Septuagint, the earliest extant Greek translation of the Old Testament from the original Hebrew. The Septuagint was presumably made for the Jewish community in Egypt when Greek was the common language throughout the region. Analysis of the language has established that the Torah, or Pentateuch (the

  • LXX settimane di Daniele e le date Messianiche, Le (work by Borgongini-Duca)

    Francesco Borgongini-Duca: His Le LXX settimane di Daniele e le date Messianiche (1951; “The Seventy Weeks of Daniel and the Messianic Date”) fixed the date of Jesus Christ’s crucifixion as April 7, ad 30.

  • Ly Ban (Vietnamese leader)

    Ly Nam De, founder of the first Vietnamese dynasty mentioned in extant historical records and Vietnam’s first great champion of independence. Ly Nam De led a successful revolt against the Chinese governor of Giao-chao province in 542 and captured the capital at Long Bien. Two years later he

  • Ly Bi (Vietnamese leader)

    Ly Nam De, founder of the first Vietnamese dynasty mentioned in extant historical records and Vietnam’s first great champion of independence. Ly Nam De led a successful revolt against the Chinese governor of Giao-chao province in 542 and captured the capital at Long Bien. Two years later he

  • Ly Bon (Vietnamese leader)

    Ly Nam De, founder of the first Vietnamese dynasty mentioned in extant historical records and Vietnam’s first great champion of independence. Ly Nam De led a successful revolt against the Chinese governor of Giao-chao province in 542 and captured the capital at Long Bien. Two years later he

  • Ly dynasty (Vietnamese history)

    Later Ly dynasty, (1009–1225), first of the three great dynasties of Vietnam. The kingdom, known later as Dai Viet, was established by Ly Thai To in the Red River Delta area of present northern Vietnam. Its capital was Thang Long (Hanoi). (It is “later” with respect to the Earlier Ly dynasty,

  • Ly Nam De (Vietnamese leader)

    Ly Nam De, founder of the first Vietnamese dynasty mentioned in extant historical records and Vietnam’s first great champion of independence. Ly Nam De led a successful revolt against the Chinese governor of Giao-chao province in 542 and captured the capital at Long Bien. Two years later he

  • Ly Thai To (Vietnamese emperor)

    Hanoi: History: In 1010 Ly Thai To, the first ruler of the Ly dynasty (1009–1225) of Vietnam, chose the site of Hanoi—then called Thang Long (“Rising Dragon”)—for his capital. Thang Long remained the main capital of Vietnam until 1802, when the last Vietnamese dynasty, the Nguyen (1802–1945), transferred the…

  • Ly Thuy (president of North Vietnam)

    Ho Chi Minh, founder of the Indochina Communist Party (1930) and its successor, the Viet-Minh (1941), and president from 1945 to 1969 of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). As the leader of the Vietnamese nationalist movement for nearly three decades, Ho was one of the prime movers

  • Lyadov, Anatoly (Russian composer)

    Anatoly Lyadov, Russian composer whose orchestral works and poetic, beautifully polished piano miniatures earned him a position of stature in Russian Romantic music. The son of the conductor of the imperial opera, Lyadov entered the conservatory in 1870, studying composition with Nikolay

  • Lyadov, Anatoly Konstantinovich (Russian composer)

    Anatoly Lyadov, Russian composer whose orchestral works and poetic, beautifully polished piano miniatures earned him a position of stature in Russian Romantic music. The son of the conductor of the imperial opera, Lyadov entered the conservatory in 1870, studying composition with Nikolay

  • Lyakhov, Vladimir A. (Soviet cosmonaut)

    Abdul Ahad Mohmand: …with two Soviet cosmonauts, commander Vladimir Lyakhov and research doctor Valery Polyakov. At the Mir space station, Mohmand conducted joint research experiments with Lyakhov and Polyakov and made observations of Afghanistan from space. Mohmand and Lyakhov left Mir on September 6 aboard Soyuz TM-5. The initial landing attempt failed owing…

  • Lyakhovsky Islands (islands, Russia)

    New Siberian Islands: …groups: to the south the Lyakhovskye Islands, separated by Sannikova Strait from the New Siberian Islands proper, and to the northeast the small De Long Islands. The New Siberian Islands proper consist of the large islands of Novaya Sibir, Belkovsky, Kotelny, and Faddeyevsky. Between the last two lies Bunge Island,…

  • Lyakhovskye Islands (islands, Russia)

    New Siberian Islands: …groups: to the south the Lyakhovskye Islands, separated by Sannikova Strait from the New Siberian Islands proper, and to the northeast the small De Long Islands. The New Siberian Islands proper consist of the large islands of Novaya Sibir, Belkovsky, Kotelny, and Faddeyevsky. Between the last two lies Bunge Island,…

  • Lyallpur (Pakistan)

    Faisalabad, city, east-central Punjab province, Pakistan, in the Rechna Doab upland. The city, the district headquarters, is a distributing centre centrally located in the Punjab plain and connected by road, rail, and air with Multan and Lahore and by air with Lahore and Karachi. When founded in

  • Lyamin River (river, Russia)

    Ob River: Physiography: …Great (Bolshoy) Yugan (left), the Lyamin (right), the Great Salym (left), the Nazym (right), and finally, at Khanty-Mansiysk, the Irtysh (left). In its course through the taiga, the middle Ob has a minimal gradient, a valley broadening to 18 to 30 miles (29 to 48 km) wide, and a correspondingly…

  • Lyangalile (African state)

    Fipa: …two states at Nkansi and Lyangalile replaced Milansi as the foci of political organization; led by the Twa lineage, new methods of production and exchange allowed these two states to grow in complexity. Although shaken by the Ngoni occupation in the mid-19th century, the people of Nkansi in particular found…

  • lyase

    Lyase, in physiology, any member of a class of enzymes that catalyze the addition or removal of the elements of water (hydrogen, oxygen), ammonia (nitrogen, hydrogen), or carbon dioxide (carbon, oxygen) at double bonds. For example, decarboxylases remove carbon dioxide from amino acids and

  • lyate ion (chemistry)

    acid–base reaction: Alternative definitions: The terms lyonium and lyate ions are occasionally used in this way. In water, the lyonium and lyate ions are H3O+ and OH?; in ethanol, C2H5OH2+ and C2H5O?; and in liquid ammonia, NH4+ and NH2?. For a given solvent, an acid can then be defined as a substance that…

  • Lyautey, Louis-Hubert-Gonzalve (French statesman)

    Louis-Hubert-Gonzalve Lyautey, French statesman, soldier, marshal of France, and devoted believer in the civilizing virtues of colonialism, who built the French protectorate over Morocco. Despite a childhood spinal injury, Lyautey was an outstanding student and entered the Saint-Cyr Military

  • Lyavirdyr, Mount (mountain, Central Asia)

    Sarykol Range: …reaches its highest point at Mount Lyavirdyr at 20,837 ft. The Sarykol Range forms the main watershed of the Amu Darya and Tarim River basins. It is composed of schists together with granites in the north and gneisses in the south. The sparse vegetation is of the high mountain-desert variety,…

  • Lybian Sybil (American evangelist and social reformer)

    Sojourner Truth, African American evangelist and reformer who applied her religious fervour to the abolitionist and women’s rights movements. Isabella was the daughter of slaves and spent her childhood as an abused chattel of several masters. Her first language was Dutch. Between 1810 and 1827 she

  • Lycaea (Greek festival)

    Lycaon: …explain an extraordinary ceremony, the Lycaea, held in honour of Zeus Lycaeus at Mount Lycaeus. According to Plato (Republic, Book VIII), this ceremony was believed to involve human sacrifice and lycanthropy (assuming the form of a wolf). The Greek traveler Pausanias implies that the rite was still practiced in the…

  • Lycaeides melissa samuelis (insect)

    blue butterfly: The Karner blue butterfly (Lycaeides melissa samuelis), once found throughout the savanna and barrens habitats of North America, is listed as endangered in the United States. Its numbers have declined as a result of habitat fragmentation and a lack of natural disturbances such as wildfire, which…

  • Lycaena hyllus (insect)

    copper butterfly: The bronze copper butterfly (L. hyllus) is found in southern Canada and throughout most of the United States. Adults typically have a wingspan of about 3.2 to 4.8 cm (1.3 to 1.9 inches). Male and female bronze coppers are distinguished from other coppers by the gray-white…

  • Lycaena phleas (insect)

    copper butterfly: The American copper (Lycaena phleas) is the most common species in North America. Its larvae feed on clover, dock, or sorrel. Adults are delicate, with an 18- to 38-mm (0.75- to 1.5-inch) wingspan. They are rapid fliers and are usually distinguished by iridescent wings. The male’s…

  • Lycaenidae (insect)

    Gossamer-winged butterfly, (family Lycaenidae), any of a group of small, often brightly coloured butterflies (order Lepidoptera) that includes several hundred species commonly called coppers, blues, hairstreaks, harvesters, and metal marks. All are small to medium-sized butterflies (wingspan 1–3

  • Lycaeninae (insect)

    Copper butterfly, (subfamily Lycaeninae), any member of a group of butterflies in the gossamer-winged butterfly family, Lycaenidae (order Lepidoptera). The copper’s typical coloration ranges from orange-red to brown, usually with a copper tinge and dark markings. The American copper (Lycaena

  • lycanthropy

    Lycanthropy, (from Greek lykos, “wolf ”; anthropos, “man”), mental disorder in which the patient believes that he is a wolf or some other nonhuman animal. Undoubtedly stimulated by the once widespread superstition that lycanthropy is a supernatural condition in which men actually assume the

  • Lycaon (Greek mythology)

    Lycaon, in Greek mythology, a legendary king of Arcadia. Traditionally, he was an impious and cruel king who tried to trick Zeus, the king of the gods, into eating human flesh. The god was not deceived and in wrath devastated the earth with Deucalian’s flood, according to Ovid’s Metamorphoses, Book

  • Lycaon pictus (mammal)

    African wild dog, (Lycaon pictus), wild African carnivore that differs from the rest of the members of the dog family (Canidae) in having only four toes on each foot. Its coat is short, sparse, and irregularly blotched with yellow, black, and white. The African wild dog is about 76–102 cm (30–41

  • Lycaonia (ancient region, Turkey)

    Lycaonia, ancient region in the interior of Anatolia north of the Taurus Mountains, inhabited by a wild and warlike aboriginal people who pastured sheep and wild asses on the bleak central highlands. Little is known about the early Lycaonians. They seem to have escaped Persian domination but

  • Lycaste (plant genus)

    Lycaste, genus of about 30 species of tropical American orchids (family Orchidaceae). Lycaste species are perennial and can be epiphytic or terrestrial. Several species and hybrids are cultivated. The plants have a thick egg-shaped pseudobulb (swollen stem) with one to three large folded leaves

  • lycée (education)

    Lycée, in France, an upper-level secondary school preparing pupils for the baccalauréat (the degree required for university admission). The first lycée was established in 1801, under the educational reforms of Napoleon Bonaparte. Lycées formerly enrolled the nation’s most talented students in a

  • lycée d’enseignement général et technologique (French education)

    lycée: …and technological upper-secondary school (LEGT; lycée d’enseignement général et technologique); this is the successor to the traditional academic upper-secondary school. Students entering the LEGT choose one of three basic streams (humanities, science, or technology) their first year and then concentrate on somewhat more specialized fields of learning (e.g., literary-philosophical, or…

  • lycée d’enseignement professionnel (French education)

    lycée: …the vocational upper-secondary school (LEP; lycée d’enseignement professionel), which offers a range of technical-vocational studies that give access to corresponding studies in higher education. Students entering the LEP choose courses of study leading to one of 30 or so technical baccalauréats.

  • Lycée Louis-le-Grand (school, Paris, France)

    Molière: Early life and beginnings in theatre: …a good education at the Collège de Clermont (the school that, as the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, was to train so many brilliant Frenchmen, including Voltaire). Although his father clearly intended him to take over his royal appointment, the young man renounced it in 1643, apparently determined to break with tradition and…

  • Lyceum (Greek philosophical school)

    Lyceum, Athenian school founded by Aristotle in 335 bc in a grove sacred to Apollo Lyceius. Owing to his habit of walking about the grove while lecturing his students, the school and its students acquired the label of Peripatetics (Greek peri, “around,” and patein, “to walk”). The peripatos was

  • lyceum movement (American education)

    Lyceum movement, early form of organized adult education, of widespread popular appeal in the northeastern and midwestern United States. The first lyceum was founded in 1826 in Millbury, Massachusetts, by Josiah Holbrook, a teacher and lecturer. The lyceum movement, named for the place where

  • Lyceum Theatre (theatre, Westminster, London, United Kingdom)

    Lyceum Theatre, playhouse on Wellington Street, just north of the Strand, in the Greater London borough of Westminster. A hall called the Lyceum was built near the site in 1771. A new building, called the Royal Lyceum and English Opera House, was built by Samuel Beazley to the west of the original

  • lych-gate (architecture)

    Lych-gate, (from Middle English lyche, “body”; yate, “gate”) roofed-in gateway to a churchyard in which a bier might stand while the introductory part of the burial service was read. The most common form of lych-gate was a simple shed composed of a roof with two gabled ends, covered with tiles or

  • lychee (fruit)

    Lychee, (Litchi chinensis), evergreen tree of the soapberry family (Sapindaceae), grown for its edible fruit. Lychee is native to Southeast Asia and has been a favourite fruit of the Cantonese since ancient times. The fruit is usually eaten fresh but can also be canned or dried. The flavour of the

  • Lychnidos (North Macedonia)

    Ohrid, town, southwestern North Macedonia, on the northeastern shore of Lake Ohrid (Ohridsko Jezero). The chief resort of North Macedonia, Ohrid is linked by road and air to Skopje. Agriculture, fishing, and tourism provide a livelihood for the population. In Classical antiquity Ohrid was a Greek

  • Lycia (ancient district, Turkey)

    Lycia, ancient maritime district of southwestern Anatolia (now Turkey). Lycia lay along the Mediterranean coast between Caria and Pamphylia, and extended inland to the ridge of the Taurus Mountains. In Egyptian, Hittite, and Ugaritic records of the 14th and 13th centuries bc, the Lycians are

  • Lycian (people)

    Anatolia: Greek colonies on the Anatolian coasts, c. 1180–547 bce: Of the Lycians, to the east of Caria, nothing definite is known before the 6th century, though archaeological evidence shows that the Greeks had commercial contacts with Lycia as early as about 700. Curiously, it was under the aegis of Persian rule that Greek civilization penetrated into…

  • Lycian alphabet (writing system)

    Lycian alphabet, writing system of the Lycian people of southwest Asia Minor, dating from the 5th–4th centuries bc. The Lycian alphabet is clearly related to the Greek, but the exact nature of the relationship is uncertain. Several letters appear to be related to symbols of the Cretan and Cyprian

  • Lycian language

    Lycian language, one of the ancient Anatolian languages. Evidence for Lycian consists of more than 150 inscriptions on stone, some 200 on coins, and a handful on other objects. While a few of the coins may be earlier, the texts on stone all date from the 5th and 4th centuries bce. All but a few of

  • Lycian League (Lycian history)

    Lycia: …cities that made up the Lycian League. Neither Phrygia nor Lydia were able to bring Lycia under its control, but the country eventually fell to Cyrus’ general Harpagus after a heroic resistance. Under Achaemenian Persia and later under the rule of the Romans, Lycia enjoyed relative freedom and was able…

  • Lycianthe (plant genus)

    Solanales: Family characteristics: Lycianthe has about 200 species, mainly in Neotropical forests but with some species in tropical Asia. Another large but poorly known genus from Neotropical forests is Cestrum, with about 175 species. Better known, because of its ornamental and drug plants, is Nicotiana (tobacco), which has…

  • Lycidae (insect)

    Net-winged beetle, (family Lycidae), any of some 2,800 species of soft-bodied, brightly coloured, predominately tropical beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose wing covers, or elytra, are broader at the tip than at the base and are characterized by a raised network of lines, or veins. The adults

  • Lycidas (work by Milton)

    Lycidas, poem by John Milton, written in 1637 for inclusion in a volume of elegies published in 1638 to commemorate the death of Edward King, Milton’s contemporary at the University of Cambridge who had drowned in a shipwreck in August 1637. The poem mourns the loss of a virtuous and promising

  • Lycksalighetens ? (work by Atterbom)

    Per Daniel Amadeus Atterbom: …work is the fairy-tale play Lycksalighetens ?, 2 vol. (1824–27; “The Isle of the Blessed”), which, on the literal level, deals with King Astolf, who deserts his northern kingdom for the temptations of sensual beauty, and, on the symbolic level, with the beguiling power of imagination in the history of…

  • Lycodon aulicus (snake)

    wolf snake: The common wolf snake (Lycodon aulicus) is a small, brown, nocturnal serpent of southeastern Asia that eats frogs, geckos, and lizards.

  • Lycoming (county, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Lycoming, county, north-central Pennsylvania, U.S., constituting a mountainous upland region largely on the Allegheny Plateau. Notable features include Bald Eagle Mountain in the southwest and Pine Creek Gorge in the west. The county is drained by the West Branch Susquehanna River and Pine, Little

  • Lycoming College (college, Williamsport, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Lycoming College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Williamsport, Pennsylvania, U.S. It is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. Emphasizing a curriculum in the liberal arts, the college offers bachelor’s degrees in more than 30 fields and several preprofessional

  • Lycon (Greek artist)

    Western painting: Pagan Roman paintings: …of the 2nd century; and Lycon, an Asiatic Greek, in the Temple of Juno at Ardea in the late 3rd or early 2nd century. Nothing is known about the work of these artists.

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