You are using an outdated browser. Please upgrade your browser to improve your experience and security.
  • Lewis, Dio (American educator)

    physical culture: Women and athletics: Later reformers, such as Dio Lewis, a Boston educator, sought to liberate women from corsets and other restrictive garments. Lewis introduced a system of stretching exercises that utilized rubber balls, beanbags, hoops, and rings to develop eye-hand coordination. His “New Gymnastics” also employed poles to loosen stiff joints, wooden…

  • Lewis, Edmonia (American sculptor)

    Edmonia Lewis, American sculptor whose Neoclassical works exploring religious and classical themes won contemporary praise and received renewed interest in the late 20th century. Lewis was the daughter of an African American man and a woman of African and Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent. She was orphaned

  • Lewis, Edna (American author and chef)

    Edna Lewis, African American author and chef, renowned for her traditional Southern cooking that emphasized fresh and locally grown foods and later in life for her recipes. Having encountered racial prejudices after moving to New York City in the 1940s, Lewis worked in a laundry and as a seamstress

  • Lewis, Edna Regina (American author and chef)

    Edna Lewis, African American author and chef, renowned for her traditional Southern cooking that emphasized fresh and locally grown foods and later in life for her recipes. Having encountered racial prejudices after moving to New York City in the 1940s, Lewis worked in a laundry and as a seamstress

  • Lewis, Edrice (Caribbean designer)

    flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis: Designed by Edrice Lewis, the flag has a green triangle for the fertility of the islands and a red triangle for the years of struggle against slavery and colonialism. Running diagonally through the centre is a black stripe reflecting the African heritage of the people. Narrow yellow…

  • Lewis, Edward B. (American biologist)

    Edward B. Lewis, American developmental geneticist who, along with geneticists Christiane Nüsslein-Volhard and Eric F. Wieschaus, was awarded the 1995 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine for discovering the functions that control early embryonic development. Lewis’s interest in genetics was

  • Lewis, Flora (American journalist)

    Flora Lewis, American journalist (born July 29, 1922, Los Angeles, Calif.—died June 2, 2002, Paris, France), was a top-notch reporter and columnist who specialized in international affairs. From 1945 she lived mostly in Europe, and she became known for her lucid analyses of developments on the C

  • Lewis, Floyd John (American surgeon)

    history of medicine: Heart surgery: …began to come true when Floyd Lewis of Minnesota reduced the temperature of the body so as to lessen its need for oxygen while he closed a hole between the two upper heart chambers, the atria. The next year John Gibbon, Jr., of Philadelphia brought to fulfillment the research he…

  • Lewis, Frederick Carlton (American athlete)

    Carl Lewis, American track-and-field athlete, who won nine Olympic gold medals during the 1980s and ’90s. Lewis qualified for the U.S. Olympic team in 1980 but did not compete, because of the U.S. boycott of the Moscow Games. At the 1984 Games in Los Angeles, Lewis won gold medals in the 100-metre

  • Lewis, Gilbert N. (American chemist)

    Gilbert N. Lewis, American physical chemist best known for his contributions to chemical thermodynamics, the electron-pair model of the covalent bond, the electronic theory of acids and bases, the separation and study of deuterium and its compounds, and his work on phosphorescence and the triplet

  • Lewis, Gilbert Newton (American chemist)

    Gilbert N. Lewis, American physical chemist best known for his contributions to chemical thermodynamics, the electron-pair model of the covalent bond, the electronic theory of acids and bases, the separation and study of deuterium and its compounds, and his work on phosphorescence and the triplet

  • Lewis, H. Spencer (American religious leader)

    Rosicrucian: …York City in 1915 by H. Spencer Lewis (1883–1939). Claiming that he had learned the teachings of the order from European Rosicrucians, Lewis attracted new members from around the world by distributing his teachings in mail-order lessons. Regarding Egypt as the cradle of Rosicrucian wisdom, he subsidized the creation of…

  • Lewis, Harry Sinclair (American writer)

    Sinclair Lewis, American novelist and social critic who punctured American complacency with his broadly drawn, widely popular satirical novels. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1930, the first given to an American. Lewis graduated from Yale University (1907) and was for a time a reporter

  • Lewis, Henry (American artist)

    Hudson River school: John Banvard and Henry Lewis painted huge panoramas of empty stretches of the Mississippi River. Among the first artists to explore the Far West were the enormously successful Thomas Moran and Albert Bierstadt, who painted grandiose scenes of the Rocky Mountains, the Grand Canyon, and Yosemite Valley. The…

  • Lewis, Henry Jay (American conductor)

    Henry Jay Lewis, U.S. orchestra conductor who was the first African-American conductor and music director of a major American orchestra and the first black to conduct at the Metropolitan Opera in New York City (b. Oct. 16, 1932--d. Jan. 26,

  • Lewis, Hywel David (British philosopher)

    religious experience: Mediation through analysis and critical interpretation: Others, such as H.D. Lewis and Charles Hartshorne, found the divine ingredient in the experience of the transcendent and supremely worshipful reality but demand that this experience be coherently articulated and, in the case of Hartshorne, supplemented by rational argument for the reality of the divine. Dewey envisaged…

  • Lewis, Isaac Newton (United States Army officer and inventor)

    Isaac Newton Lewis, U.S. Army officer and inventor best known for the Lewis machine gun, widely used in World War I and later. Lewis graduated from the U.S. Military Academy, West Point, N.Y., in 1884. In 1891 he patented an artillery ranging device, the first of a succession of military

  • Lewis, Isle of (island, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Lewis and Harris, largest and most northerly of Scotland’s Outer Hebrides islands, lying 24 miles (39 km) from the west coast of the Scottish mainland and separated from it by the Minch channel. Although the island forms one continuous unit, it is usually referred to as two separate islands. The

  • Lewis, Janet (American writer)

    Janet Lewis, American writer and poet who produced short stories, children’s books, such novels as The Wife of Martin Guerre (1941) and the libretto of the opera based on it (1956), and the librettos of four other operas in addition to hundreds of poems, her final collection of which, The Dear Past

  • Lewis, Jerry (American comedian)

    Jerry Lewis, American comedian, actor, and director whose unrestrained comic style made him one of the most popular performers of the 1950s and ’60s. Lewis was born into a vaudeville family, and at age 12 he developed a comedy act in which he mimed to records. He dropped out of high school in order

  • Lewis, Jerry Lee (American musician)

    Jerry Lee Lewis, American singer and pianist whose virtuosity, ecstatic performances, and colourful personality made him a legendary rock music pioneer. Born into poverty, Lewis began playing the piano at age nine at the home of an aunt. His father, a carpenter and bootlegger, saw his passion and

  • Lewis, John (American civil rights leader and politician)

    John Lewis, American civil rights leader and politician best known for his chairmanship of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and for leading the march that was halted by police violence on the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, a landmark event in the history of the

  • Lewis, John (American musician)

    John Lewis, American jazz pianist and composer-arranger who was an influential member of the Modern Jazz Quartet, one of the longest-lived and best-received groups in jazz history. Reared in New Mexico by academically oriented parents, Lewis studied piano from childhood and, until 1942,

  • Lewis, John Aaron (American musician)

    John Lewis, American jazz pianist and composer-arranger who was an influential member of the Modern Jazz Quartet, one of the longest-lived and best-received groups in jazz history. Reared in New Mexico by academically oriented parents, Lewis studied piano from childhood and, until 1942,

  • Lewis, John L. (American labour leader)

    John L. Lewis, American labour leader who was president of the United Mine Workers of America (1920–60) and chief founder and first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO; 1936–40). The son of immigrants from Welsh mining towns, Lewis left school in the seventh grade and went to

  • Lewis, John Llewellyn (American labour leader)

    John L. Lewis, American labour leader who was president of the United Mine Workers of America (1920–60) and chief founder and first president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO; 1936–40). The son of immigrants from Welsh mining towns, Lewis left school in the seventh grade and went to

  • Lewis, John Robert (American civil rights leader and politician)

    John Lewis, American civil rights leader and politician best known for his chairmanship of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and for leading the march that was halted by police violence on the Edmund Pettus Bridge in Selma, Alabama, in 1965, a landmark event in the history of the

  • Lewis, Joseph Anthony (American journalist)

    (Joseph) Anthony Lewis, American journalist (born March 27, 1927, New York, N.Y.—died March 25, 2013, Cambridge, Mass.), transformed legal journalism as he composed engaging articles and commentaries on complex legal matters for the general reader. Lewis’s in-depth knowledge of the law and

  • Lewis, Joseph H. (American director)

    Joseph H. Lewis, American film and television director who developed a cult following for his B-westerns and film noirs, which were especially known for their visual style. Lewis broke into the film industry as a camera assistant and later worked as a film editor. He was a second-unit director on a

  • Lewis, Lennox (British boxer)

    Lennox Lewis, first British boxer to hold the undisputed heavyweight world championship since Bob Fitzsimmons held the title in 1899. Lewis was born to Jamaican parents, spent his early childhood in England, and then moved with his mother to Canada. An all-around athlete in high school, he excelled

  • Lewis, Lennox Claudius (British boxer)

    Lennox Lewis, first British boxer to hold the undisputed heavyweight world championship since Bob Fitzsimmons held the title in 1899. Lewis was born to Jamaican parents, spent his early childhood in England, and then moved with his mother to Canada. An all-around athlete in high school, he excelled

  • Lewis, Lux (American musician)

    Meade Lewis, American musician, one of the leading exponents of boogie-woogie. Lewis’s first instrument was the violin, but by the late 1920s he was playing piano in Chicago nightclubs. His most famous recording, “Honky Tonk Train Blues,” was one of the most vibrant and exhilarating of all

  • Lewis, Mary Edmonia (American sculptor)

    Edmonia Lewis, American sculptor whose Neoclassical works exploring religious and classical themes won contemporary praise and received renewed interest in the late 20th century. Lewis was the daughter of an African American man and a woman of African and Ojibwa (Chippewa) descent. She was orphaned

  • Lewis, Matthew Gregory (English writer)

    Matthew Gregory Lewis, English novelist and dramatist who became famous overnight after the sensational success of his Gothic novel The Monk (1796). Thereafter he was known as “Monk” Lewis. Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, Lewis served as attaché to the British embassy at

  • Lewis, Meade (American musician)

    Meade Lewis, American musician, one of the leading exponents of boogie-woogie. Lewis’s first instrument was the violin, but by the late 1920s he was playing piano in Chicago nightclubs. His most famous recording, “Honky Tonk Train Blues,” was one of the most vibrant and exhilarating of all

  • Lewis, Meriwether (American explorer)

    Meriwether Lewis, American explorer, who with William Clark led the Lewis and Clark Expedition through the uncharted American interior to the Pacific Northwest in 1804–06. He later served as governor of Upper Louisiana Territory. Born to William Lewis and Lucy Meriwether, Meriwether Lewis grew up

  • Lewis, Michael (American author)

    sabermetrics: The rise of advanced statistics: In 2003 Michael Lewis’s book Moneyball—an inside look at the Oakland Athletics and their general manager Billy Beane—was published. Beane had earlier served as an understudy to Athletics general manager Sandy Alderson, who had read James’s Baseball Abstract while constructing a roster that won three straight

  • Lewis, Monk (English writer)

    Matthew Gregory Lewis, English novelist and dramatist who became famous overnight after the sensational success of his Gothic novel The Monk (1796). Thereafter he was known as “Monk” Lewis. Educated at Westminster School and Christ Church, Oxford, Lewis served as attaché to the British embassy at

  • Lewis, Norman (American painter)

    Norman Lewis, Abstract Expressionist painter and teacher who diverged from his native Harlem community of artists in choosing abstraction over representation as his mode of expression. Lewis was born in the Harlem neighbourhood of New York City to immigrants from Bermuda. He showed interest in art

  • Lewis, Norman Wilfred (American painter)

    Norman Lewis, Abstract Expressionist painter and teacher who diverged from his native Harlem community of artists in choosing abstraction over representation as his mode of expression. Lewis was born in the Harlem neighbourhood of New York City to immigrants from Bermuda. He showed interest in art

  • Lewis, Oliver (American jockey)

    African Americans and Horse Racing: …was an African American jockey, Oliver Lewis.

  • Lewis, Percy Wyndham (British artist and writer)

    Wyndham Lewis, English artist and writer who founded the Vorticist movement, which sought to relate art and literature to the industrial process. About 1893 Lewis moved to London with his mother after his parents separated. At age 16 he won a scholarship to London’s Slade School of Fine Art, but he

  • Lewis, R. W. B. (American literary critic)

    R.W.B. Lewis, American literary critic (born Nov. 1, 1917, Chicago, Ill.—died June 13, 2002, Bethany, Conn.), helped originate the field of American studies and over his nearly half-century-long career as a scholar made significant contributions to the knowledge of American culture. His Edith W

  • Lewis, Rashard (American basketball player)

    Oklahoma City Thunder: …shooting of Ray Allen and Rashard Lewis, the Sonics won a surprising division championship in 2004–05 and advanced to the conference semifinals.

  • Lewis, Ray (American football player)

    Ray Lewis, American professional gridiron football player who is considered to be one of the greatest linebackers in National Football League (NFL) history. After starring in several sports in high school, Lewis enrolled at the University of Miami, where he became a middle linebacker and was named

  • Lewis, Ray Anthony (American football player)

    Ray Lewis, American professional gridiron football player who is considered to be one of the greatest linebackers in National Football League (NFL) history. After starring in several sports in high school, Lewis enrolled at the University of Miami, where he became a middle linebacker and was named

  • Lewis, Reginald F. (American lawyer)

    Reginald F. Lewis, U.S. lawyer and financier (born Dec. 7, 1942, Baltimore, Md.—died Jan. 19, 1993, New York, N.Y.), was a partner (1970-73) in Murphy, Thorpe & Lewis, the first black law firm on Wall Street. After his $1 billion takeover in 1987 of the Beatrice Companies, a food concern, he b

  • Lewis, Richard (American actor and comedian)

    stand-up comedy: Countercultural comedy: …New York City-based comedians—among them Richard Lewis, Freddie Prinze, Elayne Boosler (one of the few women in a largely male-dominated crowd), and later Jerry Seinfeld—developed an intimate “observational” style, less interested in sociopolitical commentary than in chronicling the trials of everyday urban life, dealing with relationships, and surviving in the…

  • Lewis, Richard Warrington Baldwin (American literary critic)

    R.W.B. Lewis, American literary critic (born Nov. 1, 1917, Chicago, Ill.—died June 13, 2002, Bethany, Conn.), helped originate the field of American studies and over his nearly half-century-long career as a scholar made significant contributions to the knowledge of American culture. His Edith W

  • Lewis, Robert (American actor and director)

    Robert Lewis, American actor, drama teacher, and theatre director who cofounded, directed, and performed in the 1930s with the Group Theatre in such plays as Waiting for Lefty and Golden Boy before helping to found (1947) the Actors Studio, where for one year he tutored such future stars as Marlon

  • Lewis, Rudy (American singer)

    the Drifters: …Jersey), Charlie Thomas, Elsbeary Hobbs, Rudy Lewis, and Moore.

  • Lewis, Samuel (American dancer)

    folk dance: Dancing for enlightenment: …Universal Peace were developed by Samuel Lewis from California, who was a Sufi and Zen master. He had been a student of modern dance pioneer Ruth St. Denis, who inspired him with her understanding of dance as a means to attain wisdom. In the late 1960s, he and some followers…

  • Lewis, Shari (American puppeteer and author)

    Shari Lewis, American puppeteer and author (born Jan. 17, 1933, New York, N.Y—died Aug. 2, 1998, Los Angeles, Calif.), entertained children for some 40 years as the creator and voice of a series of sock puppets, most notably a woolly character named Lamb Chop. Lewis studied acting, dance, and s

  • Lewis, Sinclair (American writer)

    Sinclair Lewis, American novelist and social critic who punctured American complacency with his broadly drawn, widely popular satirical novels. He won the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1930, the first given to an American. Lewis graduated from Yale University (1907) and was for a time a reporter

  • Lewis, Sir Arthur (Saint Lucian economist)

    Sir Arthur Lewis, Saint Lucian economist who shared (with Theodore W. Schultz, an American) the 1979 Nobel Prize for Economics for his studies of economic development and his construction of an innovative model relating the terms of trade between less developed and more developed nations to their

  • Lewis, Sir William Arthur (Saint Lucian economist)

    Sir Arthur Lewis, Saint Lucian economist who shared (with Theodore W. Schultz, an American) the 1979 Nobel Prize for Economics for his studies of economic development and his construction of an innovative model relating the terms of trade between less developed and more developed nations to their

  • Lewis, Ted Kid (British boxer)

    fascism: Acceptance of racism: …trained by the British boxer Ted (“Kid”) Lewis, who was Jewish—it became so by 1936.

  • Lewis, Terry (American musician)
  • Lewis, Victoria Ann (American theatre artist and scholar)

    disability art: American theatre artist and scholar Victoria Ann Lewis suggested that such work exhibits “disability cool,” a term the disability community uses to describe a revaluation and resignification of the very markers of disability and impairment that traditionally connote shame.

  • Lewis, Walter (British printer)

    typography: Mechanical composition: …Cambridge University Press, whose printer, Walter Lewis, had begun a complete reform of its typographic resources. Cambridge stocked most of the types Morison commissioned for Monotype and demonstrated by their intelligent use that mechanical composition could be used to produce books at once handsome and functional. Among these types were…

  • Lewis, Wyndham (British artist and writer)

    Wyndham Lewis, English artist and writer who founded the Vorticist movement, which sought to relate art and literature to the industrial process. About 1893 Lewis moved to London with his mother after his parents separated. At age 16 he won a scholarship to London’s Slade School of Fine Art, but he

  • Lewisburg (West Virginia, United States)

    Lewisburg, city, seat (1778) of Greenbrier county, southeastern West Virginia, U.S. It is located near the Greenbrier River and the Greenbrier State Forest, west of White Sulphur Springs (home of the renowned resort, the Greenbrier). Strategically situated at the junction of the Midland and Kanawha

  • Lewisburg, University of (university, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Bucknell University, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, U.S. Bachelor’s and master’s degree programs are available in sciences, arts, business, engineering, and education. Students can study abroad through the university’s programs in Africa, Asia,

  • Lewisham (borough, London, United Kingdom)

    Lewisham, inner borough of London, England. Most of Lewisham belongs to the historic county of Kent, although a small area in the northwest belongs historically to Surrey. It adjoins the boroughs of Southwark (west), Greenwich (east), and Bromley (south) and has a section of River Thames riverfront

  • Lewisham, Viscount, Baron Dartmouth of Dartmouth (British statesman)

    William Legge, 2nd earl of Dartmouth, British statesman who played a significant role in the events leading to the American Revolution. Legge was educated at Westminster School and Trinity College, Oxford. In 1750 he succeeded his grandfather as earl of Dartmouth and later entered on a political

  • Lewisia (plant genus)

    Caryophyllales: Portulacaceae: family, Portulacaceae, bitterroot (Lewisia rediviva) is a native of North America; it develops a thick starchy edible root and is often grown as an ornamental in rock gardens. The genus was named in honour of Capt. Meriwether Lewis, a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition (1804–06) that…

  • Lewisia rediviva (plant)

    Bitterroot, (Lewisia rediviva), ornamental succulent plant of the purslane family (Portulacaceae), native to western North America and cultivated in rock gardens. The main stem and root merge into a tuberous structure. The leaves are barely 2.5 cm (1 inch) long, and the flowering stalk with pink or

  • Lewisian Complex (geology)

    Lewisian Complex, major division of Precambrian rocks in northwestern Scotland (the Precambrian began about 4.6 billion years ago and ended 542 million years ago). In the region where they occur, Lewisian rocks form the basement, or lowermost, rocks; they form all of the Outer Hebrides, as well as

  • Lewisian Gneiss (geology)

    Lewisian Complex, major division of Precambrian rocks in northwestern Scotland (the Precambrian began about 4.6 billion years ago and ended 542 million years ago). In the region where they occur, Lewisian rocks form the basement, or lowermost, rocks; they form all of the Outer Hebrides, as well as

  • lewisite (chemical compound)

    Lewisite, in chemical warfare, poison blister gas developed by the United States for use during World War I. Chemically, the substance is dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine, a liquid whose vapour is highly toxic when inhaled or when in direct contact with the skin. It blisters the skin and irritates

  • Lewiston (Idaho, United States)

    Lewiston, city, seat (1861) of Nez Perce county, northwestern Idaho, U.S., just south of Moscow and adjacent to Clarkston, Washington, at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater rivers. Established as a gold-mining town on a site where the explorers Meriwether Lewis (for whom it was named) and

  • Lewiston (Maine, United States)

    Lewiston, city, Androscoggin county, southwestern Maine, U.S., on the Androscoggin River opposite Auburn, 34 miles (55 km) north-northeast of Portland. In 1770 Paul Hildreth of Dracut, Massachusetts, settled the site of Lewiston Falls (supposedly named for a drunken Indian called Lewis who drowned

  • Lewiston corn salad (plant)

    Lamb’s lettuce, (Valerianella locusta), weedy plant of the family Caprifoliaceae, native to southern Europe but widespread in grainfields in Europe and North America. It has been used locally as a salad green and as an herb with a nutty tangy flavour. Italian corn salad, Valerianella eriocarpa,

  • Lewiston Falls (Maine, United States)

    Lewiston, city, Androscoggin county, southwestern Maine, U.S., on the Androscoggin River opposite Auburn, 34 miles (55 km) north-northeast of Portland. In 1770 Paul Hildreth of Dracut, Massachusetts, settled the site of Lewiston Falls (supposedly named for a drunken Indian called Lewis who drowned

  • Lewiston-Auburn College (college, Maine, United States)

    University of Maine: …and Portland and includes the Lewiston-Auburn College. It offers associate, bachelor’s, and graduate and professional degree programs. Facilities in Gorham include a centre for teaching; the Edmund S. Muskie School of Public Service is located in Portland. Total enrollment at Southern Maine is approximately 10,000.

  • Lewistown (Montana, United States)

    Lewistown, city, seat (1899) of Fergus county, central Montana, U.S. Situated on Big Spring Creek in the dead centre of the state, Lewistown began in 1873 as a trading post on the Carroll Trail. Initially named Reed’s Fort for Major A.S. Reed (who opened a post office there in 1881), the town was

  • Lewistown (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Lewistown, borough (town), seat (1789) of Mifflin county, south-central Pennsylvania, U.S., on the Juniata River, 45 miles (72 km) northwest of Harrisburg. Opened for settlement (1754) by a treaty with the Iroquois, it was laid out in 1790 on the site of the Shawnee Indian village, Ohesson. It was

  • LeWitt, Sol (American artist)

    Sol LeWitt, American artist whose work provides a link between Minimalism and conceptual art. LeWitt was the son of Russian immigrants. He attended Syracuse University (B.F.A., 1949) and, following military service in Japan and Korea, moved in 1953 to New York City. There he worked as a graphic

  • LeWitt, Solomon (American artist)

    Sol LeWitt, American artist whose work provides a link between Minimalism and conceptual art. LeWitt was the son of Russian immigrants. He attended Syracuse University (B.F.A., 1949) and, following military service in Japan and Korea, moved in 1953 to New York City. There he worked as a graphic

  • Lewitzky, Bella (American dancer and choreographer)

    Bella Lewitzky, American dancer and choreographer (born Jan. 13, 1916, Los Angeles, Calif.—died July 16, 2004, Pasadena, Calif.), began her performing career with Lester Horton’s company before forming (1966) the Bella Lewitzky Dance Company in Los Angeles, which she danced with until 1978 and d

  • Lewontin, Richard (American biologist and geneticist)

    biology, philosophy of: Form and function: In a celebrated article with Richard Lewontin, Gould argued that structural constraints on the adaptation of certain features inevitably result in functionally insignificant by-products, which he compared to the spandrels in medieval churches—the roughly triangular areas above and on either side of an arch. Biological spandrels, such as the pseudo-penis…

  • Lewton, Val (American film producer and screenwriter)

    Cat People: The movie was produced by Val Lewton, who made a number of influential horror films for RKO Radio Pictures. Cat People avoided standard horror film devices—Irena is never shown in cat form—and instead relied on suggestion and the moviegoer’s imagination.

  • lex (law history)

    Roman law: Written and unwritten law: …which consisted of leges (singular lex), or enactments of one of the assemblies of the whole Roman people. Although the wealthier classes, or patricians, dominated these assemblies, the common people, or plebeians, had their own council in which they enacted resolutions called plebiscita. Only after the passage of the Lex…

  • Lex Acilia Repetundarum (Roman law)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …bce; pieces of the laws Lex Acilia Repetundarum (123 bce) and Lex Agraria (111 bce) were found in the 16th century on opposite sides of what was once a large bronze tablet; the local laws of the town of Bantia (on the borderlands of Lucania and Apulia in southern Italy)…

  • Lex Agraria (Roman law)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …Acilia Repetundarum (123 bce) and Lex Agraria (111 bce) were found in the 16th century on opposite sides of what was once a large bronze tablet; the local laws of the town of Bantia (on the borderlands of Lucania and Apulia in southern Italy) are inscribed on a fragmentary bronze…

  • Lex Alemannorum (law code)

    Swabia: The Lex Alemannorum, a code based on Alemannic customary law, first emerged in the 7th century. By the 7th century Irish missionaries began to introduce Christianity. Centres of Christian activity included the abbeys of St. Gall and of Reichenau and the bishoprics of Basel, Constance, and…

  • Lex Aquila (Roman law)

    delict: …they were superseded by the Lex Aquila in the early 3rd century bc. This law covered slaves and animals as well as buildings. If a slave or a grazing animal was unlawfully killed, the damages were equal to the highest value of the slave or animal in the preceding year;…

  • Lex Burgundionum (Germanic law)

    Gundobad: …two codes of law, the Lex Gundobada, applying to all his subjects, and, somewhat later, the Lex Romana Burgundionum, applying to his Roman subjects.

  • Lex Canuleia (Roman law)

    plebeian: …the law known as the Lex Canuleia (445 bce), they were also forbidden to marry patricians. Until 287 bce the plebeians waged a campaign (Conflict of the Orders) to have their civil disabilities abolished. They organized themselves into a separate corporation and withdrew from the state on perhaps as many…

  • Lex Claudia (Roman law)

    Gaius Flaminius: …only senator to support the Lex Claudia of Quintus Claudius (218), which forbade senators to engage in commerce.

  • Lex Cornelia de Majestates (Roman law)

    Sulla: Life: …trials; a new treason law, Lex Cornelia Majestatis, designed to prevent insurrection by provincial governors and army commanders; the requirement that the tribunes had to submit their legislative proposals to the Senate for approval; and various laws protecting citizens against excesses of judicial and executive organs.

  • Lex Cornelia de Viginti Quaestoribus (Roman law)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …century bce; parts of the Lex Cornelia de Viginti Quaestoribus (81 bce) are preserved on a large bronze tablet found at Rome; Julius Caesar’s Lex Julia Municipalis of 45 bce was found near Heraclea in Lucania. On the whole, however, the transmission of Roman law, from the earliest fragments to…

  • Lex de Imperio Vespasiani (Roman law)

    ancient Rome: The Flavian emperors: …en bloc with the famous Lex de Imperio Vespasiani (“Law Regulating Vespasian’s authority”), and the Assembly ratified the Senate’s action. This apparently was the first time that such a law was passed; a fragmentary copy of it is preserved on the Capitol in Rome.

  • lex fori (law)

    conflict of laws: Choice of law: …(known in Latin as the lex fori). Indeed, some modern methodologies, particularly in the United States, favour the lex fori approach.

  • Lex Hortensia (Roman law)

    Roman law: Written and unwritten law: …after the passage of the Lex Hortensia in 287 bce, however, did plebiscita become binding on all classes of citizens; thereafter, plebiscita were generally termed leges along with other enactments. In general, legislation was a source of law only during the republic. When Augustus Caesar established the empire in 31…

  • Lex Julia Municipalis (Roman law)

    epigraphy: Ancient Rome: …found at Rome; Julius Caesar’s Lex Julia Municipalis of 45 bce was found near Heraclea in Lucania. On the whole, however, the transmission of Roman law, from the earliest fragments to the mature codifications, is nonepigraphic. In later times the flood of administrative decrees increases with the growth of centralized…

  • Lex Krupp (German law)

    Krupp AG: …und Halbach, who, by the Lex Krupp (Krupp Law) of 1943, assumed the name Krupp and became the sole owner of his mother’s vast holdings. Even before 1939, the extent of these holdings had become staggering. Within Germany, the Krupp concern had wholly owned 87 industrial complexes, held a controlling…

  • Lex Licinia Mucia (Roman law)

    Lucius Licinius Crassus: …in 95, Crassus sponsored the Lex Licinia Mucia, which provided for the prosecution of any person who falsely claimed Roman citizenship. The law offended Rome’s Italian allies, who were not fully incorporated into the Roman state, and thereby increased the tensions that led to the revolt of the allies in…

  • Lex Luthor (fictional character)

    Lex Luthor, cartoon character, an evil genius of the fictional city of Metropolis, who is a scientist and business mogul and the archnemesis of Superman. Since his first appearance in DC Comics’ Action Comics, no. 23 (1940), Luthor has been singularly obsessed with Superman, and his quest to

  • lex naturalis

    Natural law, in philosophy, a system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law. There have been several disagreements over the meaning of natural law and its relation to positive law. Aristotle (384–322 bce)

Check out Britannica's new site for parents!
Subscribe Today!
色色影院-色色影院app下载