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  • Lichtenberg, Georg Christoph (German philosopher and physicist)

    Georg Christoph Lichtenberg, German physicist, satirist, and writer of aphorisms, best known for his ridicule of metaphysical and romantic excesses. Lichtenberg was the 17th child of a Protestant pastor, who taught him mathematics and natural sciences. In 1763 he entered G?ttingen University, where

  • Lichtenhain tankard (decorative arts)

    metalwork: Pewter: …on what are known as Lichtenhain tankards. Most of these tankards were made in Lower Franconia and in Thüringia in the 18th and 19th centuries. They have wooden staves running down them, and their sides are inlaid with decorative motifs and figures made of thin sheets of engraved pewter. In…

  • Lichtenstein (work by Hauff)

    Wilhelm Hauff: Hauff’s Lichtenstein (1826), a historical novel of 16th-century Württemberg, was one of the first imitations of Sir Walter Scott. He is also known for a number of fairy tales that were published in his M?rchenalmanach auf das Jahr 1826 and had lasting popularity. Similar volumes followed…

  • Lichtenstein’s hartebeest (mammal)

    hartebeest: Lichtenstein’s hartebeest (A. buselaphus lichtensteinii), which inhabits the miombo woodland zone of eastern and southern Africa, has also been treated as a separate species (Alcelaphus lichtensteinii). The preferred habitat of the hartebeest is acacia savanna, though Lichtenstein’s hartebeest lives on the grassland-woodland ecotone in the…

  • Lichtenstein, Roy (American painter)

    Roy Lichtenstein, American painter who was a founder and foremost practitioner of Pop art, a movement that countered the techniques and concepts of Abstract Expressionism with images and techniques taken from popular culture. As a teenager, Lichtenstein studied briefly with the painter Reginald

  • Licinia Mucia, Lex (Roman law)

    Lucius Licinius Crassus: …in 95, Crassus sponsored the Lex Licinia Mucia, which provided for the prosecution of any person who falsely claimed Roman citizenship. The law offended Rome’s Italian allies, who were not fully incorporated into the Roman state, and thereby increased the tensions that led to the revolt of the allies in…

  • Licinius (Roman emperor)

    Licinius, Roman emperor from 308 to 324. Born of Illyrian peasant stock, Licinius advanced in the army and was suddenly elevated to the rank of augustus (November 308) by his friend Galerius, who had become emperor. Galerius hoped to have him rule the West, but since Italy, Africa, and Spain were

  • Licinius Sura, Lucius (Roman politician)

    Hadrian: Rise to power: …who had masterminded his elevation, Lucius Licinius Sura. Hadrian enjoyed Sura’s favour, and, as long as he was alive, Hadrian prospered. Trajan’s wife, Plotina, seems also to have been close to Sura and a partisan of Hadrian. For a time Servianus could do no harm. Through Plotina’s favour, Hadrian married…

  • Licitra, Salvatore (Italian singer)

    Salvatore Licitra, Italian operatic tenor (born Aug. 10, 1968, Bern, Switz.—died Sept. 5, 2011, Catania, Sicily, Italy), burst onto the world scene in May 2002 when he triumphed as a last-minute substitute for Luciano Pavarotti in a gala performance of Giacomo Puccini’s Tosca at New York City’s

  • Lick Observatory (observatory, California, United States)

    Lick Observatory, astronomical observatory located about 21 km (13 miles) east of San Jose, California, U.S., atop Mount Hamilton. It was the first major mountaintop observatory built in the United States and the world’s first permanently occupied mountaintop observatory. Building on Mount Hamilton

  • Lick, James (American philanthropist)

    James Lick, U.S. philanthropist who endowed the Lick Observatory, Mount Hamilton, near San Jose, Calif. After an incomplete elementary education and an apprenticeship as a carpenter, Lick worked for a year as a piano maker in Baltimore, a trade he resumed after spending 17 years in South America.

  • licking (animal behaviour)

    reproductive behaviour: Parental care: …is that of the mother licking the newborn. This serves at least two functions—one is general cleanliness to avoid infections or the attraction of parasites; the other would appear to be purely social. If a newborn mammal is removed from its mother and cleaned elsewhere before she can lick it,…

  • Licking River (river, Kentucky, United States)

    Licking River, river, rising in Magoffin county, east Kentucky, U.S., and flowing about 320 miles (515 km) generally northwest to enter the Ohio River at Covington, Kentucky, opposite Cincinnati, Ohio. It is joined by North Fork Licking and South Fork Licking rivers near Falmouth in Pendleton

  • Licklider, J. C. R. (American scientist)

    Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider, U.S. scientist. He studied math and physics and received a doctorate in psychology from the University of Rochester (N.Y.). He lectured at Harvard University before joining the faculty at MIT (1949–57, 1966–85). As a group leader at the Advanced Research Projects

  • Licklider, Joseph Carl Robnett (American scientist)

    Joseph Carl Robnett Licklider, U.S. scientist. He studied math and physics and received a doctorate in psychology from the University of Rochester (N.Y.). He lectured at Harvard University before joining the faculty at MIT (1949–57, 1966–85). As a group leader at the Advanced Research Projects

  • licorice (herb)

    Licorice, (Glycyrrhiza glabra), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), and the flavouring, confection, and folk medicine made from its roots. Licorice is similar to anise (Pimpinella anisum) in flavour; both plants are somewhat sweet and slightly bitter. The Greek name glykyrrhiza, of which

  • Licoris Who Feigned Madness (work by Monteverdi)

    Claudio Monteverdi: Three decades in Venice: …continued in a comic opera, Licoris Who Feigned Madness, probably intended for the celebrations of the accession of Duke Vincenzo II of Mantua in 1627. The score has been lost, but a sizable correspondence survives. At that time, Monteverdi suffered more anxiety since his elder son, Massimiliano, had been imprisoned…

  • lictor (ancient Roman official)

    Lictor, member of an ancient Roman class of magisterial attendants, probably Etruscan in origin and dating in Rome from the regal period. Lictors carried the fasces for their magistrate and were constantly in his attendance in public; they cleared his way in crowds and summoned and punished

  • Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons, The (painting by David)

    Jacques-Louis David: Rise to fame: 1780–94: …1789 another lesson in self-sacrifice, The Lictors Bringing to Brutus the Bodies of His Sons. By the time the Brutus was on view, the French Revolution had begun, and this picture of the patriotic Roman consul who condemned his traitorous sons to death had an unanticipated political significance. It also…

  • Lida (Belarus)

    Lida, city, western Belarus. Lida emerged in the 13th century as a fortified point of the Lithuanian duke Gediminas on the border between the principality of Hrodna and the grand duchy of Lithuania. The city eventually passed to Poland and then to Russia (1795). It reverted to Poland in 1919 but

  • lidar (scientific technique)

    Lidar, technique for determining the distance to an object by transmitting a laser beam, usually from an airplane, at the object and measuring the time the light takes to return to the transmitter. The word lidar is derived from light detection and ranging. The first attempts to measure distance by

  • Liddānī River (river, Israel)

    Dan River, river rising in Israel. It is the largest of the three principal tributaries of the Jordan River. The Dan River issues from Tel Dan (Tell al-Qā?ī), the site of the biblical city of Dan (Laish). The river is fed by the rains and snowmelt that pass through the rock of Mount Hermon and

  • Liddell Hart, Sir Basil Henry (British military historian)

    Sir Basil Liddell Hart, British military historian and strategist known for his advocacy of mechanized warfare. Liddell Hart left studies at Cambridge University when World War I broke out in 1914 and became an officer in the British Army. In 1920 he wrote the Army’s official Infantry Training

  • Liddell, Eric (British athlete)

    Eric Liddell, British runner who won a gold medal in the 400-metre run and a bronze in the 200 metres at the 1924 Olympic Games in Paris. The son of Scottish missionaries, Liddell was born in China. His family returned to Scotland when he was five years old. A gifted athlete, he excelled at rugby

  • Liddell, Henry George (British lexicographer)

    Henry George Liddell, British lexicographer and co-editor of the standard Greek–English Lexicon (1843; 8th ed., 1897; revised by H.S. Jones and others, 1940; abridged, 1957; intermediate, 1959). In 1834 he and a fellow student at Oxford, Robert Scott, began preparing the Lexicon, basing their work

  • Liddesdale (valley, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Liddesdale, valley of the Liddel Water, southern Scotland, extending more than 20 miles (32 km) southwest from Peel Fell to the River Esk, which flows into the head of the Solway Firth. The upper Liddesdale lies within the Scottish Borders council area (historic county of Roxburghshire), but its

  • Liddon, Henry Parry (British priest)

    Henry Parry Liddon, Anglican priest, theologian, close friend and biographer of the Oxford movement leader Edward Bouverie Pusey, and a major advocate of the movement’s principles, which included an elaborated liturgy, a recovery of 18th-century church discipline, and an emphasis on Classical

  • Liddy, Edward M. (American businessman)

    Edward M. Liddy, American businessman who held executive positions at a number of companies, including G.D. Searle; Sears, Roebuck and Co.; Allstate Corp; and AIG (American International Group). Liddy was educated in Washington, D.C., earning a B.A. (1968) from the Catholic University of America

  • Liddy, Edward Michael (American businessman)

    Edward M. Liddy, American businessman who held executive positions at a number of companies, including G.D. Searle; Sears, Roebuck and Co.; Allstate Corp; and AIG (American International Group). Liddy was educated in Washington, D.C., earning a B.A. (1968) from the Catholic University of America

  • Liddy, G. Gordon (American lawyer)

    Watergate scandal: Burglary, arrest, and limited immediate political effect: …of the White House, and G. Gordon Liddy, a former FBI agent working as a counsel for CREEP. At the time of the break-in, Liddy had been overseeing a similar, though uncompleted, attempt to break into and surveil the headquarters of George S. McGovern, soon to become the Democratic nominee…

  • Lider (poetry by Sutzkever)

    Avrom Sutzkever: His first published collection, Lider (1937; “Songs”), received critical acclaim, praised for its innovative imagery, language, and form. His collection Valdiks (1940; “Sylvan”) celebrates nature. Di festung (1945; “The Fortress”) reflects his experiences as a member of the ghetto resistance movement in Belorussia (Belarus) and his service with Jewish…

  • Lidhja Demokratike e Kosov?s (political party, Kosovo)

    Kosovo: Political process: …main Kosovar Albanian parties, the Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosov?s; LDK) and the Democratic Party of Kosovo (Partia Demokratike e Kosov?s; PDK), formed independent Kosovo’s first coalition government, with Hashim Tha?i of the PDK as prime minister and Fatmir Sejdiu of the LDK as president. The LDK…

  • Lidice (Czech Republic)

    Lidice, village, Czech Republic, just northwest of Prague. Before World War II it was a mining settlement of the Kladno coal basin and had a population of about 450. On June 10, 1942, it was “liquidated” by German armed forces as part of a massive reprisal for the assassination by Czech underground

  • Lidk?ping (Sweden)

    Lidk?ping, town, V?stra G?taland l?n (county), southwestern Sweden, at the mouth of the Lid?n River on Kinneviken Bay, Lake V?nern. It is of medieval origin and was chartered in 1446. After devastation by several fires, it was rebuilt, beginning in 1672. The manufacture of porcelain is the

  • Lidman, Sara (Swedish author)

    Sara Lidman, novelist, one of the most acclaimed and widely read of the post-World War II generation of Swedish writers. Lidman grew up in the remote West Bothnian region of northern Sweden. She began to write after her studies at the University of Uppsala were interrupted by a bout of

  • Lidman, Sara Adela (Swedish author)

    Sara Lidman, novelist, one of the most acclaimed and widely read of the post-World War II generation of Swedish writers. Lidman grew up in the remote West Bothnian region of northern Sweden. She began to write after her studies at the University of Uppsala were interrupted by a bout of

  • Lidner, Bengt (Swedish poet)

    Bengt Lidner, Swedish dramatic and epic poet of early Romanticism, noted for his choice of spectacular subjects. A courtier in the favour of Gustav III, Lidner toured the continent at royal expense. His best works were written between 1783 and 1787. Grefvinnan Spastaras D?d (1783), the text for a

  • Lido (island, Italy)

    Venice: Site: The best-known is the Lido itself, which has been a fashionable seaside resort since the 19th century.

  • lidocaine (drug)

    Lidocaine, synthetic organic compound used in medicine, usually in the form of its hydrochloride salt, as a local anesthetic. Lidocaine produces prompter, more intense, and longer lasting anesthesia than does procaine (Novocaine). It is widely used for infiltration, nerve-block, and spinal

  • Lidstrom, Nicklas (Swedish hockey player)

    Nicklas Lidstrom, Swedish ice hockey player who was considered one of the game’s best defensemen. He helped the Detroit Red Wings win four Stanley Cups (1997, 1998, 2002, and 2008). Lidstrom played in several Swedish ice hockey clubs before being selected by Detroit as the 53rd overall pick in the

  • lie (deception)

    Lying, any communicative act that aims to cause receivers of the communication to adopt, or persist in, a false belief. However, because of its generality, this definition invites questions about its key terms. There is no universally accepted definition of lying. Rather, there exists a spectrum of

  • Lie algebra

    mathematics: Mathematical physics and the theory of groups: …be called the classical complex Lie algebras. The simple Lie algebras, out of which all the others in the classification are made, were all representable as algebras of matrices, and, in a sense, Lie algebra is the abstract setting for matrix algebra. Connected to each Lie algebra there were a…

  • lie detector

    Lie detector, instrument for recording physiological phenomena such as blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiration of a human subject as he answers questions put to him by an operator; these data are then used as the basis for making a judgment as to whether or not the subject is lying. Used in

  • Lie Down in Darkness (novel by Styron)

    American literature: Southern fiction: >Lie Down in Darkness (1951), clearly revealed the influence of Faulkner. In two controversial later works, Styron fictionalized the dark side of modern history: The Confessions of Nat Turner (1967) depicted an antebellum slave revolt, and Sophie’s Choice (1979) unsuccessfully sought to capture the full…

  • Lie group (mathematics)

    mathematics: Riemann’s influence: …to be the theory of Lie groups. The Hungarian mathematician Alfréd Haar showed how to define the concept of measure so that functions defined on Lie groups could be integrated. This became a crucial part of Hermann Weyl’s way of representing a Lie group as acting linearly on the space…

  • Lie Yukou (Daoist philosopher)

    Liezi, (Chinese: “Master Lie”) one of the three primary philosophers who developed the basic tenets of Daoist philosophy and the presumed author of the Daoist work Liezi (also known as Chongxu zhide zhenjing [“True Classic of the Perfect Virtue of Simplicity and Emptiness”]). Many of the writings

  • Lie, Jonas Lauritz Idemil (Norwegian author)

    Jonas Lie, novelist whose goal was to reflect in his writings the nature, the folk life, and the social spirit of his native Norway. He is considered one of “the four great ones” of 19th-century Norwegian literature, together with Henrik Ibsen, Bj?rnstjerne Bj?rnson, and Alexander Kielland. He

  • Lie, Marius Sophus (Norwegian mathematician)

    Sophus Lie, Norwegian mathematician who founded the theory of continuous groups and their applications to the theory of differential equations. His investigations led to one of the major branches of 20th-century mathematics, the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Lie attended a broad range of

  • Lie, Sophus (Norwegian mathematician)

    Sophus Lie, Norwegian mathematician who founded the theory of continuous groups and their applications to the theory of differential equations. His investigations led to one of the major branches of 20th-century mathematics, the theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras. Lie attended a broad range of

  • Lie, The (poem by Raleigh)

    English literature: Other poetic styles: …court; his scattered lyrics—notably “The Lie,” a contemptuous dismissal of the court—often draw their resonance from the resources of the plain style. Another courtier whose writing suggests similar pressures is Greville. His Caelica (published 1633) begins as a conventional sonnet sequence but gradually abandons Neoplatonism for pessimistic reflections on…

  • Lie, Trygve (Norwegian statesman and secretary-general of the United Nations)

    Trygve Lie, Norwegian politician and diplomat, the first secretary-general of the United Nations (1946–52), who resigned largely because of the Soviet Union’s resentment of his support of UN military intervention in the Korean War. Educated at the University of Kristiania (Oslo), Lie practiced law

  • Lie, Trygve Halvdan (Norwegian statesman and secretary-general of the United Nations)

    Trygve Lie, Norwegian politician and diplomat, the first secretary-general of the United Nations (1946–52), who resigned largely because of the Soviet Union’s resentment of his support of UN military intervention in the Korean War. Educated at the University of Kristiania (Oslo), Lie practiced law

  • Liebe auf dem Lande, Die (work by Hiller)

    Johann Adam Hiller: Die Liebe auf dem Lande (1768; “Love of the Land”) and Die Jagd (1770; “The Hunt”) rank among the finest of his many works in the form. He also wrote numerous songs and church music.

  • Liebe der Jeanne Ney, Die (film by Pabst)

    G.W. Pabst: …Liebe der Jeanne Ney (1927; The Love of Jeanne Ney) incorporates documentary shots to heighten the realism of its postwar setting. These three films sealed Pabst’s international reputation.

  • Liebe, Marianne (German painter, photographer and designer)

    Marianne Brandt, German painter and Bauhaus photographer and designer who specialized in metalwork. Brandt focused on painting early in her career and began her studies at a private art school in Weimar, Germany, in 1911 at age 18. In 1912 she transferred to the Grand Ducal College of Art, also in

  • Liébeault, Ambroise-Auguste (French physician)

    hypnosis: History and early research: Ambroise-Auguste Liébeault, an obscure French country physician who used mesmeric techniques, drew the support of Hippolyte Bernheim, a professor of medicine at Strasbourg. Independently they had written that hypnosis involved no physical forces and no physiological processes but was a combination of psychologically mediated responses…

  • Liebelei (film by Murnau)

    Max Ophüls: …adaptations of an opera, and Liebelei (1932; “Love Affair”), a bittersweet love story set in Vienna. Both films included several of Ophüls’s trademark elements: lavish settings fitted with ornate and glistening decor, elaborate camera movement, a strong female protagonist, the use of musical motifs, and mise-en-scènes composed in a unique…

  • Lieben, Treaty of (Austria [1608])

    Austria: Rudolf II and Matthias: …into Bohemia, and, in the Treaty of Lieben (1608), Rudolf conceded to him the rule of Hungary, the Austrian Danube countries, and Moravia, while Matthias had to give up the Tirol and the Vorlande to the emperor. In 1609 the estates received a confirmation of the concessions that Maximilian II…

  • Lieber Code (United States government document)

    war crime: Definition and conceptual development: …of war crimes was the Instructions for the Government of Armies of the United States in the Field—also known as the “Lieber Code” after its main author, Francis Lieber—which was issued by U.S. President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War and distributed among Union military personnel in 1863. For…

  • Lieber, David Leo (Polish-born American rabbi)

    David Leo Lieber, Polish-born American rabbi, educator, and intellectual (born Feb. 20, 1925, Stryj, Pol. [now Stryy, Ukr.—died Dec. 15, 2008, Beverly Hills, Calif.), was an esteemed biblical scholar who served as the general editor of Etz Hayim (2001), a modern Torah commentary for Conservative

  • Lieber, Francis (American philosopher and jurist)

    Francis Lieber, German-born U.S. political philosopher and jurist, best known for formulating the “laws of war.” His Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (1863) subsequently served as a basis for international conventions on the conduct of warfare. Lieber was educated at the university at

  • Lieber, Franz (American philosopher and jurist)

    Francis Lieber, German-born U.S. political philosopher and jurist, best known for formulating the “laws of war.” His Code for the Government of Armies in the Field (1863) subsequently served as a basis for international conventions on the conduct of warfare. Lieber was educated at the university at

  • Lieber, Stanley Martin (American comic book writer)

    Stan Lee, American comic book writer best known for his work with Marvel Comics. Among the hundreds of characters and teams that he helped to create were the Fantastic Four, Spider-Man, the Avengers, and the X-Men. After graduating from high school at age 16, Lieber was hired as an editorial

  • Lieber, Thomas (Swiss physician and theologian)

    Thomas Erastus, Swiss physician and religious controversialist whose name is preserved in Erastianism, a doctrine of church-state relationship that he himself never taught. A student of philosophy and medicine for nine years, Erastus was invited in 1557 by the elector Otto Heinrich of the

  • Lieberkühn’s glands (anatomy)

    small intestine: Lieberkühn glands, occupying the mucous membrane, secrete digestive enzymes, provide outlet ports for Brunner glands, and produce cells that replace surface-membrane cells shed from the tips of villi.

  • Lieberman, Avigdor (Israeli politician)

    Avigdor Lieberman, Israeli politician, leader of the nationalist right-wing political party Yisrael Beiteinu, who served as Israel’s foreign minister (2009–12; 2013–15) and defense minister (2016–18). At age 20 Evet Lvovich Lieberman immigrated with his parents to Israel, where he took the name

  • Lieberman, Daniel (American paleoanthropologist)

    Daniel Lieberman, American paleoanthropologist best known for his part in developing and testing the endurance-running hypothesis and for his research into the biomechanics of barefoot running. Lieberman was raised in Connecticut and Rhode Island by his parents, Philip and Marcia Lieberman. He

  • Lieberman, Daniel Eric (American paleoanthropologist)

    Daniel Lieberman, American paleoanthropologist best known for his part in developing and testing the endurance-running hypothesis and for his research into the biomechanics of barefoot running. Lieberman was raised in Connecticut and Rhode Island by his parents, Philip and Marcia Lieberman. He

  • Lieberman, Evet Lvovich (Israeli politician)

    Avigdor Lieberman, Israeli politician, leader of the nationalist right-wing political party Yisrael Beiteinu, who served as Israel’s foreign minister (2009–12; 2013–15) and defense minister (2016–18). At age 20 Evet Lvovich Lieberman immigrated with his parents to Israel, where he took the name

  • Lieberman, Joseph (American politician)

    Joseph Lieberman, American attorney and politician who was a longtime member of the U.S. Senate (1989–2013). Elected originally as a Democrat, he won reelection in 2006 as an independent after losing the Democratic Party primary. In 2000 he was the Democratic vice presidential nominee—the first

  • Lieberman, Joseph Isadore (American politician)

    Joseph Lieberman, American attorney and politician who was a longtime member of the U.S. Senate (1989–2013). Elected originally as a Democrat, he won reelection in 2006 as an independent after losing the Democratic Party primary. In 2000 he was the Democratic vice presidential nominee—the first

  • Lieberman, Nancy (American basketball player and coach)

    Nancy Lieberman, American basketball player and coach. A pioneer in women’s basketball, Lieberman recorded several unprecedented accomplishments in a playing career that spanned three decades. Growing up, Lieberman had the toughness, court savvy, and natural ability to compete in the male-dominated

  • Lieberman, Nancy Elizabeth (American basketball player and coach)

    Nancy Lieberman, American basketball player and coach. A pioneer in women’s basketball, Lieberman recorded several unprecedented accomplishments in a playing career that spanned three decades. Growing up, Lieberman had the toughness, court savvy, and natural ability to compete in the male-dominated

  • Liebermann, Max (German artist)

    Max Liebermann, painter and printmaker who is known for his naturalistic studies of the life and labour of the poor. He was also the foremost proponent of Impressionism in Germany. After studying under the painter Carl Steffeck from 1866 to 1868, Liebermann attended the Weimar Art School from 1868

  • Liebermann, Rolf (Swiss composer and opera administrator)

    Rolf Liebermann, Swiss composer and influential opera administrator who was director of the Hamburg (Ger.) Opera from 1959 to 1972 and went on to serve from 1973 to 1980 as administrator of the Paris Opéra, to which he brought new life and vitality; he returned to Hamburg in 1985 and spent three

  • Liebesfrühling (work by Rückert)

    Friedrich Rückert: …with his lyric verse, particularly Liebesfrühling (1844; “Dawn of Love”), poems written during his courtship of Luise Wiethaus, whom he married in 1821. One of his best known works is a martial poem, Geharnischte Sonette (published in Deutsche Gedichte,1814; “Armoured Sonnets”), a stirring exhortation to Prussians to join in the…

  • Liebeslieder waltzes (work by Brahms)

    Liebeslieder waltzes, two groups of songs by Johannes Brahms intended for entertainment at casual social occasions. The first set (Op. 52), consisting of 18 songs, was published in 1869 and the second (Op. 65), called Neues Liebesliederwalzer (“New Love Song Waltzes”) and consisting of 15 songs, in

  • Liebesliederwalzer (work by Brahms)

    Liebeslieder waltzes, two groups of songs by Johannes Brahms intended for entertainment at casual social occasions. The first set (Op. 52), consisting of 18 songs, was published in 1869 and the second (Op. 65), called Neues Liebesliederwalzer (“New Love Song Waltzes”) and consisting of 15 songs, in

  • Liebesverbot, Das (opera by Wagner)

    Richard Wagner: Early life: …second opera, Das Liebesverbot (The Ban on Love), after Shakespeare’s Measure for Measure, was a disaster.

  • Liebfrauenkirche (church, Kitzbühel, Austria)

    Kitzbühel: Katharina, and the two-story Liebfrauenkirche (Church of Our Lady, with lower [1373] and upper [1490] levels; converted to Baroque style 1738; see photograph). A world-famous winter-sports centre, Kitzbühel is also a climatic health resort with a busy summer tourist trade. Adjacent is the spa of Schwarzsee (a warm mountain…

  • Liebhaberinnen, Die (book by Jelinek)

    Elfriede Jelinek: …the satiric Die Liebhaberinnen (1975; Women as Lovers, 1994), she described the entrapment and victimization of women within a dehumanizing and patriarchal society. Her semiautobiographical novel Die Klavierspielerin (1983; The Piano Teacher, 1988) addressed issues of sexual repression; it was adapted for the screen in 2001. In her writings, Jelinek…

  • Liebhafsky, Alison B. (American human rights activist and historian)

    Alison Des Forges, (Alison B. Liebhafsky), American human rights activist and historian (born Aug. 20, 1942, Schenectady, N.Y.—died Feb. 12, 2009, near Buffalo, N.Y.), detailed the horrific genocide (1994) in Rwanda, in which more than 500,000 people were slaughtered by the Hutu militia, in her

  • Liebig, Justus, Freiherr von (German chemist)

    Justus, baron von Liebig, German chemist who made significant contributions to the analysis of organic compounds, the organization of laboratory-based chemistry education, and the application of chemistry to biology (biochemistry) and agriculture. Liebig was the son of a pigment and chemical

  • Liebknecht, Karl (German socialist)

    Karl Liebknecht, German Social Democrat, who, with Rosa Luxemburg and other radicals, founded the Spartakusbund (Spartacus League), a Berlin underground group that became the Communist Party of Germany, dedicated to a socialist revolution. Liebknecht was killed in the Spartacus Revolt of January

  • Liebknecht, Wilhelm (German socialist)

    Wilhelm Liebknecht, German socialist, close associate of Karl Marx, and later cofounder of the German Social Democratic Party. Liebknecht was still a child when his father died, but he was brought up comfortably. He attended the universities of Giessen, Marburg, and Berlin and developed an interest

  • Liebler, Thomas (Swiss physician and theologian)

    Thomas Erastus, Swiss physician and religious controversialist whose name is preserved in Erastianism, a doctrine of church-state relationship that he himself never taught. A student of philosophy and medicine for nine years, Erastus was invited in 1557 by the elector Otto Heinrich of the

  • Liebling, Jerome (American photographer)

    Jerome Liebling, American photographer (born April 16, 1924, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died July 27, 2011, Northampton, Mass.), expressed the realities of working-class American life with his striking documentary photography. Although his work was often associated with such photographers as Walker Evans,

  • Liebling, Raimund (Polish film director)

    Roman Polanski, French Polish director, scriptwriter, and actor who, through a variety of film genres, explored themes of isolation, desire, and absurdity. Shortly after the young Polanski’s family settled in Kraków, Poland, his parents were interned in a Nazi concentration camp, where his mother

  • Liebmann, Otto (German philosopher)

    Kantianism: Nineteenth-century Neo-Kantianism: …work of the young epistemologist Otto Liebmann, Kant und die Epigonen (“Kant and his Followers”), which was destined to extricate their spirits from the positivistic morass and, at the same time, to divert the Germans from Romantic idealism.

  • Liebowitz, Jacob S. (American publisher)

    Jacob S. Liebowitz, (“Jack”), Ukrainian-born American comic-book publisher (born Oct. 10, 1900, Proskurov [now Khmelnytskyy], Ukraine—died Dec. 11, 2000, Great Neck, N.Y.), sowed the seeds for what would become DC Comics when, in partnership with Harry Donenfeld, he created (1937) the comic-book s

  • Liebson, Sarah Gertrude (South African writer)

    Sarah Gertrude Millin, South African writer whose novels deal with the problems of South African life. Millin’s Russian Jewish parents immigrated to South Africa when she was an infant. She spent her childhood near the diamond fields at Kimberley and the river diggings at Barkly West, whose white,

  • Liechtenstein

    Liechtenstein, western European principality located between Switzerland and Austria. It is one of the smallest countries of Europe; its capital is Vaduz. The eastern two-thirds of the country is composed of the rugged foothills of the Rh?tikon Mountains, part of the central Alps. The highest peak

  • Liechtenstein, flag of

    horizontally divided blue-red national flag with a yellow crown in the upper hoist corner. The flag has a width-to-length ratio of 3 to 5.Traditionally, flags of territories ruled by royalty in Europe have corresponded to the “livery colours” of the ruler’s coat of arms. The flag of Liechtenstein

  • Liechtenstein, Franz Josef, Fürst von (prince of Liechtenstein)

    Francis Joseph II, prince of Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein prince who built the impoverished country into one of the wealthiest in Europe during his reign (1938–89). Francis Joseph II studied forestry engineering at the Forestry and Agricultural University in Vienna. Soon after he was appointed to

  • Liechtenstein, Maria Aloys Alfred Karl Johannes Heinrich Michael Georg Ignatius Benediktus Gerhardus Majella von und zu (prince of Liechtenstein)

    Francis Joseph II, prince of Liechtenstein, Liechtenstein prince who built the impoverished country into one of the wealthiest in Europe during his reign (1938–89). Francis Joseph II studied forestry engineering at the Forestry and Agricultural University in Vienna. Soon after he was appointed to

  • lied (German song)

    Lied, any of a number of particular types of German song, as they are referred to in English and French writings. The earliest so-called lieder date from the 12th and 13th centuries and are the works of minnesingers, poets and singers of courtly love (Minne). Many surviving Minnelieder reflect s

  • Lied vom hürnen Seyfrid, Das (German literature)

    Siegfried: Das Lied vom hürnen Seyfrid, not attested before about 1500, also retains the old material in identifiable form, although the poem’s central theme is the release of a maiden from a dragon; and an Edda poem tells how Sigurd awakened a Valkyrie maiden from a…

  • Lied von Bernadette, Das (novel by Werfel)

    The Song of Bernadette, novel by Czech-born writer Franz Werfel, published in 1941 in German as Das Lied von Bernadette. The book is based on the true story of a peasant girl of Lourdes, France, who had visions of the Virgin Mary. It was written to fulfill the vow Werfel had made in Lourdes in

  • Lied von der Erde, Das (work by Mahler)

    theatre music: Music for ballet: …Kenneth (later Sir Kenneth) MacMillan’s The Song of the Earth (1965) to the song-symphony by the Austrian composer Gustav Mahler. The dancers seem required to assume the “personality,” or expressive character, of the musical instruments they parallel, as if the choreographers were moving toward a form of “ideal” dance once…

  • Liedekens (work by Coornhert)

    Dirck Volckertszoon Coornhert: His book of songs Liedekens (1575) shows his determination to choose a form for the content and not vice versa.

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