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  • Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary, The (work by Brentano)

    Blessed Anna Katharina Emmerick: Brentano’s posthumously published The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary discusses Emmerick’s visions of a house near the ancient Greek city of Ephesus (now in western Turkey) in which Mary, according to one tradition, spent her last years. In 1881 ruins of a house answering Emmerick’s description were…

  • Life of the Party (film by Falcone [2018])

    Christina Aguilera: …Pitch Perfect 2 (2015) and Life of the Party (2018) and voiced the character of Akiko Glitter in The Emoji Movie (2017).

  • Life of the Right Reverend Ronald Knox, The (work by Waugh)
  • Life of the Thrice Noble Prince William Cavendishe, Duke Marquess and Earl of Newcastle, The (work by Cavendish)

    biography: 17th and 18th centuries: …duke, an amiable mediocrity (The Life of the Thrice Noble Prince William Cavendishe, Duke Marquess, and Earl of Newcastle, 1667). This age likewise witnessed the first approach to a professional biographer, the noted lover of angling, Izaak Walton, whose five lives (of the poets John Donne [1640] and George…

  • Life of the Virgin (frescoes by Ghirlandajo)
  • Life of the Virgin, The (woodcut by Dürer)

    Albrecht Dürer: First journey to Italy: …prints from the woodcut series The Life of the Virgin (c. 1500–10) have a distinct Italian flavour. Many of Dürer’s copper engravings are in the same Italian mode. Some examples of them that may be cited are Fortune (c. 1496), The Four Witches (1497), The Sea Monster (c. 1498), Adam…

  • Life on a String (film by Chen Kaige [1991])

    Chen Kaige: …fourth film, Bienzou bienchang (1991; Life on a String), chronicles the deeds of a blind storyteller and his blind apprentice as they roam the countryside.

  • Life on Mars (poetry by Smith)

    Tracy K. Smith: …Question (2003), Duende (2007), and Life on Mars (2011)—were all well received. Her work languidly and skillfully shifts from expansive issues to everyday occurrences, imbuing the ordinary with significance and providing a place for the incomprehensible in everyday life. Smith received the 2012 Pulitzer Prize for poetry for Life on…

  • Life on the Mississippi (work by Twain)

    Life on the Mississippi, memoir of the steamboat era on the Mississippi River before the American Civil War by Mark Twain, published in 1883. The book begins with a brief history of the river from its discovery by Hernando de Soto in 1541. Chapters 4–22 describe Twain’s career as a Mississippi

  • life pool (British billiards)

    Pool, British billiards game in which each player uses a cue ball of a different colour and tries to pocket the ball of a particular opponent, thus taking a “life.” Players have three lives and pay into a betting pool at the start of the game. The last player with a life wins the pool. During play,

  • Life Portrait (work by H?ch)

    Hannah H?ch: …construct a retrospective work: in Life Portrait (1972–73; Lebensbild), she assembled her own past, using photos of herself juxtaposed with images of past collages that she had cut from exhibition catalogues. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, her work began to receive renewed attention, thanks to a concerted effort…

  • life sciences

    space exploration: Microgravity research: Life-sciences experiments were carried out on the Skylab, Salyut, and Mir space stations and constitute a significant portion of work aboard the ISS. Such research also was conducted on space shuttle missions, particularly within the Spacelab facility. In addition, the Soviet Union and the United…

  • life space (psychology)

    field theory: …a psychological field, or “life space,” as the locus of a person’s experiences and needs. The life space becomes increasingly differentiated as experiences accrue. Lewin adapted a branch of geometry known as topology to map the spatial relationships of goals and solutions contained in regions within a life space.…

  • life span

    Life span, the period of time between the birth and death of an organism. It is a commonplace that all organisms die. Some die after only a brief existence, like that of the mayfly, whose adult life burns out in a day, and others like that of the gnarled bristlecone pines, which have lived

  • Life Studies (work by Lowell)

    Life Studies, a collection of poetry and prose by Robert Lowell, published in 1959. The book marked a major turning point in Lowell’s writing and also helped to initiate the 1960s trend to confessional poetry; it won the National Book Award for poetry in 1960. The book is in four sections,

  • life table (statistics)

    population ecology: Life tables and the rate of population growth: Differences in life history strategies, which include an organism’s allocation of its time and resources to reproduction and care of offspring, greatly affect population dynamics. As stated above, populations in which individuals reproduce at an early age…

  • Life Together (work by Bonhoeffer)

    Dietrich Bonhoeffer: Opponent of the Nazis: …his book Gemeinsames Leben (1939; Life Together). From this period also dates Nachfolge (1937; The Cost of Discipleship), a study of the Sermon on the Mount and the Pauline epistles in which he attacked the “cheap grace” being marketed in Protestant (especially Lutheran) churches—i.e., an unlimited offer of forgiveness, which…

  • Life Will Be the Death of Me:…and You Too! (work by Handler)

    Chelsea Handler: Her later works included Life Will Be the Death of Me:…and You Too! (2019), which chronicles her “year of self-discovery,” and Hello, Privilege. It’s Me, Chelsea (2019), a documentary exploring the impact of white privilege on culture.

  • Life with Elizabeth (American television program)

    Betty White: …that year the television sitcom Life with Elizabeth premiered. White played the title role—a married woman whose various predicaments test the patience of her husband—in addition to cocreating and producing the show, which ran until 1955. Two years later she starred in the series Date with the Angels, a comedic…

  • Life with Father (film by Curtiz [1947])

    Life with Father, American comedy film, released in 1947, that was based on Clarence Day, Jr.’s best-selling autobiography (1935) of the same name. The film chronicles Day’s childhood growing up in Victorian-era New York under the ironclad rule of his stern but loving father (played by William

  • Life with Father (work by Day)

    Clarence Day: …God and My Father (1932), Life with Father (1935), and Life with Mother (1936). Drawn from his own family experiences, these were pleasant and gently satirical portraits of a late Victorian household dominated by a gruff, opinionated father and a warm, charming mother. Day was a frequent contributor to The…

  • Life’s a Riot with Spy vs. Spy (album by Bragg)

    Billy Bragg: His debut album, Life’s a Riot with Spy vs. Spy, brought critical acclaim, reached the British Top 30, and yielded the hit “A New England” in 1984. A committed socialist, Bragg played a number of benefit performances during the British miners’ strike of 1984–85. (He later helped form…

  • Life’s Too Good (album by the Sugar Cubes)

    Bj?rk: …Kingdom with their first album, Life’s Too Good (1986). After recording two more albums over the next five years, Here Today, Tomorrow, Next Week! and Stick Around for Joy, the band broke up, and Bj?rk embarked on a solo career.

  • Life’s Too Short (cable series by Gervais and Merchant)

    Ricky Gervais: …themselves in the TV series Life’s Too Short, which, like Extras, lampooned the entertainment industry. The show debuted in 2011 and concluded with a special two years later. In Gervais’s next series, Derek (2012–14), he portrayed a simpleminded caretaker at a nursing home. He then took a dark turn as…

  • Life, A (work by Svevo)

    Italo Svevo: …first novel, Una vita (1892; A Life), was revolutionary in its analytic, introspective treatment of the agonies of an ineffectual hero (a pattern Svevo repeated in subsequent works). A powerful but rambling work, the book was ignored upon its publication. So was its successor, Senilità (1898; As a Man Grows…

  • Life, Adventures and Pyracies, of the Famous Captain Singleton (work by Defoe)

    John Avery: …for Daniel Defoe’s hero in Life, Adventures, and Pyracies, of the Famous Captain Singleton (1720).

  • Life, An (river, Ireland)

    River Liffey, river in Counties Wicklow, Kildare, and Dublin, Ireland, rising in the Wicklow Mountains about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Dublin. Following a tortuous course laid out in preglacial times, it flows in a generally northwesterly direction from its source to the Lackan Reservoir, the

  • life, elixir of (alchemy)

    Elixir, in alchemy, substance thought to be capable of changing base metals into gold. The same term, more fully elixir vitae, “elixir of life,” was given to the substance that would indefinitely prolong life—a liquid that was believed to be allied with the philosopher’s stone. Chinese Taoists not

  • life, origin of

    life: The origin of life: Perhaps the most fundamental and at the same time the least understood biological problem is the origin of life. It is central to many scientific and philosophical problems and to any consideration of extraterrestrial life. Most of the hypotheses of the…

  • life, quality of

    Quality of life, the degree to which an individual is healthy, comfortable, and able to participate in or enjoy life events. The term quality of life is inherently ambiguous, as it can refer both to the experience an individual has of his or her own life and to the living conditions in which

  • life, tree of (plant)

    Arborvitae, (genus Thuja), (Latin: “tree of life”), any of the five species of the genus Thuja, resinous, evergreen ornamental and timber conifers of the cypress family (Cupressaceae), native to North America and eastern Asia. A closely related genus is false arborvitae. Arborvitae are trees or

  • life, tree of (plant)

    carnauba wax: The carnauba tree is a fan palm of the northeastern Brazilian savannas, where it is called the “tree of life” for its many useful products. After 50 years, the tree can attain a height of over 14 metres (45 feet). It has a dense, large crown…

  • life, water of (alcoholic beverage)

    Distilled spirit, alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from wine or other fermented fruit or plant juice or from a starchy material (such as various grains) that has first been brewed. The alcoholic content of distilled liquor is higher than

  • Life, Wheel of (Buddhism)

    Bhava-cakra, (from Sanskrit: “wheel [cakra] of becoming [bhava]”, ) in Buddhism, a representation of the endless cycle of rebirths governed by the law of dependent origination (pratītya-samutpāda), shown as a wheel clutched by a monster, symbolizing impermanence. In the centre of the wheel are

  • life-cycle ceremony (sociology)

    rite of passage: Life-cycle ceremonies: Life-cycle ceremonies are found in all societies, although their relative importance varies. The ritual counterparts of the biological crises of the life cycle include numerous kinds of rites celebrating childbirth, ranging from “baby showers” and rites of pregnancy to rites observed at the…

  • life-cycle theory (economics)

    Franco Modigliani: …of personal savings, termed the life-cycle theory. The theory posits that individuals build up a store of wealth during their younger working lives not to pass on these savings to their descendents but to consume during their own old age. The theory helped explain the varying rates of savings in…

  • Life-Line (story by Heinlein)

    Robert A. Heinlein: His first story, “Life-Line,” was published in the action-adventure pulp magazine Astounding Science Fiction. He continued to write for that publication—along with other notable science-fiction writers—until 1942, when he began war work as an engineer. Heinlein returned to writing in 1947, with an eye toward a more sophisticated…

  • life-of-man (plant, Aralia species)

    spikenard: American spikenard (A. racemosa) is a North American member of the ginseng family (Araliaceae). The plant is characterized by large spicy-smelling roots and is cultivated as an ornamental. It grows 3.5 metres (11 feet) tall and has leaves divided into three heart-shaped parts. The flowers…

  • life-safety system (building design)

    Life-safety system, Any interior building element designed to protect and evacuate the building population in emergencies, including fires and earthquakes, and less critical events, such as power failures. Fire-detection systems include electronic heat and smoke detectors that can activate audible

  • life-span psychology

    Developmental psychology, the branch of psychology concerned with the changes in cognitive, motivational, psychophysiological, and social functioning that occur throughout the human life span. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, developmental psychologists were concerned primarily with c

  • life-support system (environmental system)

    Life-support system, any mechanical device that enables a person to live and usually work in an environment such as outer space or underwater in which he could not otherwise function or survive for any appreciable amount of time. Life-support systems provide all or some of the elements essential

  • life-world (philosophy)

    Life-world, in Phenomenology, the world as immediately or directly experienced in the subjectivity of everyday life, as sharply distinguished from the objective “worlds” of the sciences, which employ the methods of the mathematical sciences of nature; although these sciences originate in the l

  • Life: A User’s Manual (work by Perec)

    Georges Perec: …La Vie: mode d’emploi (1978; Life: A User’s Manual), which describes each unit in a large Parisian apartment building and relates the stories of its inhabitants.

  • Lifeboat (film by Hitchcock [1944])

    Alfred Hitchcock: The Hollywood years: Rebecca to Dial M for Murder: The claustrophobic Lifeboat (1944) was a heavily allegorical tale about eight survivors of a ship torpedoed by a German U-boat. The challenge of a film set entirely in a lifeboat attracted Hitchcock. The film alternates between suspense and philosophical debate; the story was written for the screen…

  • lifeboat (boat)

    Lifeboat, watercraft especially built for rescue missions. There are two types, the relatively simple versions carried on board ships and the larger, more complex craft based on shore. Modern shore-based lifeboats are generally about 40–50 feet (12–15 metres) long and are designed to stay afloat

  • lifela (song-poem)

    South Africa: Music: …new circumstances, such as the lifela song-poems composed by Sotho migrant workers to express and comment upon the life of miners. Because miners were frequently so far away from home, traditional rituals had to be performed during the weekends or on holidays. Mining companies often sponsored dances as an outlet…

  • lifesaving

    Lifesaving, any activity related to the saving of life in cases of drowning, shipwreck, and other accidents on or in the water and to the prevention of drowning in general. Drowning involves suffocation by immersion in a liquid, usually water. Water closing over the victim’s mouth and nose cuts

  • lifespace (psychology)

    Kurt Lewin: …whole psychological field, or “lifespace,” within which the person acted had to be viewed; the totality of events in this lifespace determined behaviour at any one time. Lewin attempted to reinforce his theories by using topological systems (maplike representations) to graphically depict psychological forces. He devoted the last years…

  • lifespace (psychology)

    field theory: …a psychological field, or “life space,” as the locus of a person’s experiences and needs. The life space becomes increasingly differentiated as experiences accrue. Lewin adapted a branch of geometry known as topology to map the spatial relationships of goals and solutions contained in regions within a life space.…

  • lifestyle

    Alfred Adler: …a style of life, or lifestyle. The individual’s lifestyle forms in early childhood and is partly determined by what particular inferiority affected him most deeply during his formative years. The striving for superiority coexists with another innate urge: to cooperate and work with other people for the common good, a…

  • Lifestyle Heart Trial (medical research study)

    Dean Ornish: He began the Lifestyle Heart Trial, a controlled study of the effects of a low-fat diet and stress-management regime on a small group of heart disease patients, implementing a unique approach to treating heart disease that he developed in the late 1970s while he was still a student.…

  • Lifetime Achievement Academy Award (Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences)

    Sophia Loren: …distinguished acting career included a lifetime achievement Oscar (1991) and a career Golden Lion from the Venice Film Festival (1998). She also made headlines in the 1990s for her strong defense of animal rights. In 2010 she received the Japan Art Association’s Praemium Imperiale prize for theatre/film.

  • Liffey, River (river, Ireland)

    River Liffey, river in Counties Wicklow, Kildare, and Dublin, Ireland, rising in the Wicklow Mountains about 20 miles (32 km) southwest of Dublin. Following a tortuous course laid out in preglacial times, it flows in a generally northwesterly direction from its source to the Lackan Reservoir, the

  • LIFO (accounting)

    accounting: Cost of goods sold: …(1) first-in, first-out (FIFO), (2) last-in, first-out (LIFO), or (3) average cost. The LIFO method is widely used in the United States, where it is also an acceptable costing method for income tax purposes; companies in most other countries measure inventory cost and the cost of goods sold by some…

  • Lifou Island (island, New Caledonia)

    Lifou Island, largest and most populous of the Loyalty Islands in the French overseas country of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is the central island of the group. Lifou rises no higher than 200 feet (60 metres) above sea level. The coralline limestone creates a fertile soil but also

  • Lifsens rot (novel by Lidman)

    Sara Lidman: …narrative writer with the novel Lifsens rot (1996; “Life’s Root”), “an independent continuation of the Railroad Suite” in which the author “masterfully goes over to a feminine track,” to quote one critic. Lifsens rot was followed by another railroad epic, Oskuldens minut (1999; “The Moment of Innocence”), which depicts a…

  • Lifshitz, Ralph Rueben (American fashion designer)

    Ralph Lauren, American fashion designer who, by developing his brand around the image of an elite American lifestyle, built one of the world’s most successful fashion empires. Lifshitz grew up in the Bronx, in New York City. He and his brother changed their last name to Lauren when they were

  • Lifshitz, Yevgeny (Russian physicist)

    Casimir effect: In 1956 Russian physicist Yevgeny Lifshitz applied Casimir’s work to materials with different dielectric properties and found that in some cases the Casimir effect could be repulsive. In 2008 American physicist Jeremy Munday and Italian American physicist Federico Capasso first observed the repulsive Casimir effect between a gold-plated polystyrene

  • lift (physics)

    Lift, upward-acting force on an aircraft wing or airfoil. An aircraft in flight experiences an upward lift force, as well as the thrust of the engine, the force of its own weight, and a drag force. The lift force arises because the speed at which the displaced air moves over the top of the airfoil

  • lift (ice skating)

    figure skating: Lifts: Lifts are among the more spectacular elements of pairs skating. A basic lift is the overhead lift, in which the man raises his partner off the ice and balances her overhead with his arms fully extended as he moves across the ice. The star…

  • lift (vertical transport)

    Elevator, car that moves in a vertical shaft to carry passengers or freight between the levels of a multistory building. Most modern elevators are propelled by electric motors, with the aid of a counterweight, through a system of cables and sheaves (pulleys). By opening the way to higher buildings,

  • lift (rigging)

    rigging: …rigging is subdivided into the lifts, jeers, and halyards (haulyards), by which the sails are raised and lowered, and the tacks and sheets, which hold down the lower corners of the sails. The history of the development of rigging over the centuries is obscure, but the combination of square and…

  • Lift Every Voice and Sing (song by Johnson)

    James Weldon Johnson: …began writing songs, including “Lift Every Voice and Sing,” based on James’s 1900 poem of the same name, which became something of a national anthem to many African Americans. In 1901 the two went to New York, where they wrote some 200 songs for the Broadway musical stage.

  • lift net (fishing net)

    commercial fishing: Drive-in and lift nets: A further fishing method employs lift nets, which are submerged, then raised or hauled upward out of the water to catch the fish or crustaceans above them, often attracted by light or natural bait. This group includes small hand-operated lift nets, such as hoop and blanket nets, as well as…

  • lift station (civil engineering)

    wastewater treatment: Pumps: …are installed in structures called lift stations. There are two basic types of lift stations: dry well and wet well. A wet-well installation has only one chamber or tank to receive and hold the sewage until it is pumped out. Specially designed submersible pumps and motors can be located at…

  • lift-drag ratio

    airplane: Aerodynamics: The ratio of lift to drag is low. When the hand is held parallel to the wind, there is far less drag and a moderate amount of lift is generated, the turbulence smooths out, and there is a better ratio of lift to drag. However, if…

  • lift-ground etching (printmaking)

    printmaking: Lift-ground etching (sugar-lift aquatint): In lift-ground etching, a positive image is etched on an aquatint plate by drawing with a water-soluble ground. In the conventional aquatint technique, the artist controls the image by stopping out negative areas with varnish, thus working around the positive image.…

  • lift-netter (fishing vessel)

    commercial fishing: Lift-netters: These vessels catch fish by lowering nets over the side, switching on powerful lights to attract the fish, and then lifting the net. Their main characteristics are long booms and support masts along the working side of the vessel. Lift-netters are generally low-powered vessels…

  • lift-slab construction (building construction)

    Lift-slab construction, Technique whereby concrete floor slabs are poured on the ground, one on top of the other, and then lifted into place on top of columns by hydraulic jacks. Used for very tall multistory buildings, this method offers substantial savings in

  • lift-to-drag ratio

    airplane: Aerodynamics: The ratio of lift to drag is low. When the hand is held parallel to the wind, there is far less drag and a moderate amount of lift is generated, the turbulence smooths out, and there is a better ratio of lift to drag. However, if…

  • Lifthrasir (Norse mythology)

    Ragnar?k: …two human beings, Lif and Lifthrasir (“Life” and “Vitality”), will emerge from the world tree (which was not destroyed) and repeople the earth. The title of Richard Wagner’s opera G?tterd?mmerung is a German equivalent of Ragnar?k meaning “twilight of the gods.”

  • lifting

    Weight training, system of physical conditioning using free weights (barbells and dumbbells) and weight machines (e.g., Nautilus-type equipment). It is a training system rather than a competitive sport such as Olympic weightlifting or powerlifting. There is evidence of weight training even in

  • Lifting Up of the Bronze Serpent (painting by Tintoretto)

    Tintoretto: Career: …of the upper hall with Lifting Up of the Bronze Serpent in time for the feast of the saint on August 16 and promised to paint a certain number of canvases, “wishing to demonstrate the great love that I bear for the saint and our venerable school, because of my…

  • Lifu Island (island, New Caledonia)

    Lifou Island, largest and most populous of the Loyalty Islands in the French overseas country of New Caledonia, southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is the central island of the group. Lifou rises no higher than 200 feet (60 metres) above sea level. The coralline limestone creates a fertile soil but also

  • Lifuka (island, Tonga)

    Lifuka, uplifted crescent-shaped coral island in the Ha?apai Group of Tonga, southwestern Pacific Ocean. Lifuka was once the seat of the Tongan kings. Pangai, on its west coast, has the best harbour of the Ha?apai Group; it is also an administrative centre. Copra is exported. Area 4.4 square miles

  • Liga Filipina (Filipino political society)

    José Rizal: …founded a nonviolent-reform society, the Liga Filipina, in Manila, and was deported to Dapitan in northwest Mindanao. He remained in exile for the next four years. In 1896 the Katipunan, a Filipino nationalist secret society, revolted against Spain. Although he had no connections with that organization and he had had…

  • Liga Litoral (Argentine political society)

    unitario: …which was opposed by the Liga Litoral, composed of the littoral provinces of Santa Fe and Entre Ríos. The Liga Litoral was joined in 1831 by Buenos Aires, which was in the hands of its governor (later dictator) Juan Manuel de Rosas, who fashioned his politics to further his drive…

  • Liga Unitaria (Argentine political society)

    unitario: José María Paz organized the Liga Unitaria to oppose the federalists; the provinces of Córdoba, San Luis, Mendoza, San Juan, Santiago del Estero, Tucumán, Salta, Jujuy, and Catamarca adhered to the league, which was opposed by the Liga Litoral, composed of the littoral provinces of Santa Fe and Entre Ríos.…

  • Ligachev, Yegor Kuzmich (Soviet politician)

    Russia: The Gorbachev era: perestroika and glasnost: When he took office, Yegor Ligachev was made head of the party’s Central Committee Secretariat, one of the two main centres of power (with the Politburo) in the Soviet Union. Ligachev subsequently became one of Gorbachev’s opponents, making it difficult for Gorbachev to use the party apparatus to implement…

  • ligament (anatomy)

    Ligament, tough fibrous band of connective tissue that serves to support the internal organs and hold bones together in proper articulation at the joints. A ligament is composed of dense fibrous bundles of collagenous fibres and spindle-shaped cells known as fibrocytes, with little ground substance

  • ligamentum teres femoris (anatomy)

    femur: …place by a ligament (ligamentum teres femoris) within the socket and by strong surrounding ligaments. In humans the neck of the femur connects the shaft and head at a 125° angle, which is efficient for walking. A prominence of the femur at the outside top of the thigh provides…

  • ligancy (chemistry)

    Coordination number, the number of atoms, ions, or molecules that a central atom or ion holds as its nearest neighbours in a complex or coordination compound or in a crystal. Thus the metal atom has coordination number 8 in the coordination complexes [Mo(CN)8]4- and [Sr(H2O)8]2+; 7 in the complex [

  • ligand (chemistry)

    Ligand, in chemistry, any atom or molecule attached to a central atom, usually a metallic element, in a coordination or complex compound. The atoms and molecules used as ligands are almost always those that are capable of functioning as the electron-pair donor in the electron-pair bond (a

  • ligand field theory (chemistry)

    Ligand field theory, in chemistry, one of several theories that describe the electronic structure of coordination or complex compounds, notably transition metal complexes, which consist of a central metal atom surrounded by a group of electron-rich atoms or molecules called ligands. The ligand

  • ligand isomerism (chemistry)

    coordination compound: Ligand isomerism: Isomeric coordination compounds are known in which the overall isomerism results from isomerism solely within the ligand groups. An example of such isomerism is shown by the ions, bis(1,3-diaminopropane)platinum(2+) and bis(1,2-diaminopropane)platinum(2+),

  • ligand-field splitting energy

    chemical bonding: Ligand field theory: …two sets of orbitals, the ligand-field splitting energy (LFSE) is the ligand field version of the CFSE in crystal field theory, and from this point on the construction of the lowest-energy electron configuration is much the same as in crystal field theory. However, ligand field theory is less artificial, allows…

  • Ligaridis, Paisios (Greek adventurer)

    Nikon: A Greek adventurer, Paisios Ligaridis (now known to have been in collusion with Rome), was particularly active in bringing about Nikon’s downfall. The council deprived Nikon of all his sacerdotal functions and on December 23 exiled him as a monk to Beloozero, about 350 miles (560 km) directly…

  • ligase (biochemistry)

    Ligase, any one of a class of about 50 enzymes that catalyze reactions involving the conservation of chemical energy and provide a couple between energy-demanding synthetic processes and energy-yielding breakdown reactions. They catalyze the joining of two molecules, deriving the needed energy from

  • ligature (music)

    musical notation: Neumes: …of notes are called “ligatures”:

  • ligature (calligraphy)

    calligraphy: Origins to the 8th century ce: …in a continuous stroke (a ligature); from the running action of the pen, this writing is often termed cursive. Scribes also made frequent use of abbreviations. When the scribe was skillful in reconciling clarity and speed, such writing may have much character, even beauty; but it often degenerates into a…

  • Ligdan (khan of Mongolia)

    Ligdan, last of the paramount Mongol khans (ruled 1604–34). Ligdan was a member of the Chahar royal family in which the Mongol supreme khanate was vested. He lived at a time when the Mongols were abandoning their traditional shamanism to convert to Tibetan Buddhism. He had Buddhist temples

  • Ligdan Kahn (khan of Mongolia)

    Ligdan, last of the paramount Mongol khans (ruled 1604–34). Ligdan was a member of the Chahar royal family in which the Mongol supreme khanate was vested. He lived at a time when the Mongols were abandoning their traditional shamanism to convert to Tibetan Buddhism. He had Buddhist temples

  • liger (mammal)

    Liger, offspring of a male lion and a female tiger. The liger is a zoo-bred hybrid, as is the tigon, which is the result of mating a male tiger with a female lion. The liger and the tigon possess features of both parents, in variable proportions, but are generally larger than either. It is thought

  • Ligeti, Gy?rgy (Hungarian-born composer)

    Gy?rgy Ligeti, a leading composer of the branch of avant-garde music concerned principally with shifting masses of sound and tone colours. Ligeti, the great-nephew of violinist Leopold Auer, studied and taught music in Hungary until the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, when he fled to Vienna; he later

  • Ligeti, Gy?rgy Sándor (Hungarian-born composer)

    Gy?rgy Ligeti, a leading composer of the branch of avant-garde music concerned principally with shifting masses of sound and tone colours. Ligeti, the great-nephew of violinist Leopold Auer, studied and taught music in Hungary until the Hungarian Revolution in 1956, when he fled to Vienna; he later

  • Ligety, Ted (American skier)

    Ted Ligety, American Alpine skier who was the first American man to win two Olympic gold medals in Alpine skiing events. Ligety began to ski when he was two years old. He started racing competitively at age 10 and quickly earned the nickname “Ted Shred” from his coach. By that age he had progressed

  • Ligety, Theodore Sharp (American skier)

    Ted Ligety, American Alpine skier who was the first American man to win two Olympic gold medals in Alpine skiing events. Ligety began to ski when he was two years old. He started racing competitively at age 10 and quickly earned the nickname “Ted Shred” from his coach. By that age he had progressed

  • Ligget’s Gap Railroad (American railway)

    Delaware, Lackawanna and Western Railroad Company, American railroad built to carry coal from the anthracite fields of northeastern Pennsylvania. Originally known as Ligget’s Gap Railroad, it was chartered in 1851 as the Lackawanna and Western. Eventually it ran from the Lackawanna Valley in

  • Liggett & Myers Company (American company)

    Liggett Group Inc., former U.S. conglomerate that once held major interests in tobacco products, spirits and wines, and pet foods. In 1849 J.E. Liggett and Brother was established in St. Louis, Mo., by John Edmund Liggett (1826–97) as an outgrowth of a family concern dating to 1822. George S. Myers

  • Liggett & Myers Incorporated (American company)

    Liggett Group Inc., former U.S. conglomerate that once held major interests in tobacco products, spirits and wines, and pet foods. In 1849 J.E. Liggett and Brother was established in St. Louis, Mo., by John Edmund Liggett (1826–97) as an outgrowth of a family concern dating to 1822. George S. Myers

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