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  • Lady Usher of the Black Rod (English official)

    Black Rod, an office of the British House of Lords (the upper house in Parliament), instituted in 1350. Its holder is appointed by royal letters patent, and the title is derived from the staff of office, an ebony stick surmounted with a gold lion. Black Rod is a personal attendant of the sovereign

  • Lady Vanishes, The (film by Hitchcock [1938])

    The Lady Vanishes, British thriller film, released in 1938, that was one of director Alfred Hitchcock’s early classics, noted for the taut suspense and dry humour that would largely define his movies. Iris Henderson (played by Margaret Lockwood) is a young British woman traveling on a train in

  • Lady Vols (American basketball team)

    Pat Summitt: Named head coach of the Lady Vols at the University of Tennessee at Knoxville in 1974, she posted a 16–8 record in her inaugural season. (In 1980 she married R.B. Summitt; the couple divorced in 2008.) Driven and uncompromising, Summitt demanded the best from her players and was known for…

  • Lady Windermere’s Fan (play by Wilde)

    Lady Windermere’s Fan, comedy of manners in four acts by Oscar Wilde, performed in 1892 and published the following year. Set in London, the play’s action is put in motion by Lady Windermere’s jealousy over her husband’s apparent interest in Mrs. Erlynne, a beautiful older woman with a mysterious

  • Lady with a Fan, The (painting by Velázquez)

    Diego Velázquez: Middle years: The Lady with a Fan (c. 1640), one of the few informal portraits of women, is, on the other hand, remarkable for the subtle and delicate painting and for the sensitive portrayal of personal charm.

  • Lady with Primroses (sculpture by Verrocchio)

    Andrea del Verrocchio: Paintings and sculptures: …his marble bust known as Lady with Primroses (also called Woman Holding Flowers) (1475–80). The latter work created a new type of Renaissance bust, in which the arms of the sitter are included in the manner of ancient Roman models. This compositional device allows the hands, as well as the…

  • Lady with Red Hair (film by Bernhardt [1940])

    Curtis Bernhardt: Early years in Hollywood: …for Olivia de Havilland, and Lady with Red Hair (1940) was a biopic with Miriam Hopkins as famed actress Mrs. Leslie Carter, though it was Claude Rains as David Belasco who stole the film.

  • Lady with the Dog, The (short story by Chekov)

    irony: …of Anton Chekhov’s story “Lady with the Dog,” in which an accomplished Don Juan engages in a routine flirtation only to find himself seduced into a passionate lifelong commitment to a woman who is no different from all the others. Dramatic irony is often equated with situational irony, tragic…

  • Lady Without Passport, A (film by Lewis [1950])

    Joseph H. Lewis: Lewis’s next film, A Lady Without Passport (1950), was only serviceable, despite the presence of Hedy Lamarr as a shady woman trying to get out of Havana. Retreat, Hell! (1952) was his only foray into war pictures, a downbeat but effective account of U.S. Marines during the Korean…

  • lady’s bedstraw (plant)

    bedstraw: Lady’s bedstraw, or yellow bedstraw (G. verum), is used in Europe to curdle milk and to colour cheese. The roots of several species of Galium yield a red dye, and many were used historically to stuff mattresses, hence their common name.

  • Lady’s Magazine, The (British magazine)

    history of publishing: Women’s magazines: …Regency magazines in Britain were The Lady’s Magazine (1770), a sixpenny monthly that, along with its literary contributions and fashion notes, gave away embroidery patterns and sheet music; The Lady’s Monthly Museum (1798), which had a half-yearly “Cabinet of Fashion” illustrated by coloured engravings, the first to appear in a…

  • lady’s mantle (plant)

    Lady’s mantle, (genus Alchemilla), genus of some 300 species of herbaceous perennials within the rose family (Rosaceae). A number of species are used as ornamental plants in borders and cottage gardens, and some have historically been used in herbal remedies. Lady’s mantles are typically

  • Lady’s Monthly Museum, The (British magazine)

    history of publishing: Women’s magazines: …embroidery patterns and sheet music; The Lady’s Monthly Museum (1798), which had a half-yearly “Cabinet of Fashion” illustrated by coloured engravings, the first to appear in a women’s periodical; and La Belle Assemblée (1806), which encouraged its readers to unburden themselves in its correspondence columns. These three merged in 1832,…

  • Lady’s New-Year’s-Gift; or, Advice to a Daughter, The (work by Halifax)

    English literature: Chroniclers: …composed for his own daughter The Lady’s New-Year’s-Gift; or, Advice to a Daughter (1688), in which he anatomizes, with a sombre but affectionate wit, the pitfalls awaiting a young gentlewoman in life, especially in marriage.

  • Lady’s Not for Burning, The (play by Fry)

    The Lady’s Not for Burning, verse comedy in three acts by Christopher Fry, produced in 1948 and published in 1949. Known for its wry characterizations and graceful language, this lighthearted play about 15th-century England brought Fry renown. Evoking spring, it was the first in his series of four

  • lady’s slipper (plant)

    Lady’s slipper, (subfamily Cypripedioideae), subfamily of five genera of orchids (family Orchidaceae), in which the lip of the flower is slipper-shaped. Lady’s slippers are found throughout Eurasia and the Americas, and some species are cultivated. Lady’s slipper orchids are usually terrestrial,

  • lady’s smock (plant)

    cress: Bitter cress, cuckoo flower, or meadow cress (Cardamine pratensis), of the Northern Hemisphere, grows in damp meadows and in bog gardens. It is low-growing, with pinnately divided leaves and small white to rose flowers. Yellow cress (Rorippa species) includes several marshy plants little cultivated. Pennycress…

  • lady’s tresses (plant)

    Ladies’ tresses, (genus Spiranthes), genus of about 45 species of terrestrial orchids (family Orchidaceae), found in woods and grasslands throughout most of the world. Ladies’ tresses have a fleshy root system, and most species have narrow basal leaves. Species of Spiranthes vary greatly in size

  • Lady, or the Tiger?, The (story by Stockton)

    Frank Stockton: …story of a collection called The Lady, or the Tiger? (1884).

  • ladybell (plant)

    Campanulaceae: Adenophora, the ladybell genus, is similar to Campanula except for a cuplike disk at the base of the style, which covers the ovary (the basal part of the pistil). It includes 60 species native to cool parts of Europe and Asia and mostly flowering with blue, bell-shaped…

  • ladybird beetle (insect)

    Ladybug, (family Coccinellidae), any of approximately 5,000 widely distributed species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose name originated in the Middle Ages, when the beetle was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and called “beetle of Our Lady.” Ladybird beetles are hemispheric in shape and

  • Ladybird Ladybird (film by Loach [1994])

    Ken Loach: Loach also received praise for Ladybird Ladybird (1994), a downbeat portrayal of a single mother struggling to hold her family together in the face of bureaucratic obstacles.

  • ladybug (insect)

    Ladybug, (family Coccinellidae), any of approximately 5,000 widely distributed species of beetles (insect order Coleoptera) whose name originated in the Middle Ages, when the beetle was dedicated to the Virgin Mary and called “beetle of Our Lady.” Ladybird beetles are hemispheric in shape and

  • Ladybug, Ladybug (film by Perry [1963])

    Frank Perry: The fact-based Ladybug, Ladybug (1963) was a rather heavy-handed drama about a group of rural children who seek shelter after an air-raid siren is accidentally sounded, and the existential allegory The Swimmer (1968) starred Burt Lancaster as an ad man who confronts his past while swimming from…

  • ladyfish (fish, Elops saurus)

    Ladyfish, (Elops saurus), primarily tropical coastal marine fish of the family Elopidae (order Elopiformes), related to the tarpon and bonefish. The ladyfish is slender and pikelike in form and covered with fine silver scales; there are grooves into which the dorsal and anal fins can be depressed.

  • ladyfish (fish)

    Bonefish, (Albula vulpes), marine game fish of the family Albulidae (order Elopiformes). It inhabits shallow coastal and island waters in tropical seas and is admired by anglers for its speed and strength. Maximum length and weight are about 76 cm (30 inches) and 6.4 kg (14 pounds). The bonefish

  • Ladykillers, The (film by MacKendrick [1955])

    The Ladykillers, British dark comedy film, released in 1955, that is considered one of the best comedies produced by the historic Ealing Studios. Alec Guinness played Professor Marcus, the head of a motley band of criminals who use the rented rooms of an old woman’s boarding house as the base for a

  • Ladysmith (South Africa)

    Ladysmith, town, northwestern KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, on the Klip River. Founded in 1850 after the British annexed the area, it was named for the wife of Sir Harry Smith (then governor of Cape Colony). It was besieged by the Boers during the South African War from Nov. 1, 1899, until

  • Ladysmith Black Mambazo (South African music group)

    Ladysmith Black Mambazo, South African music group founded in 1964 by Joseph Shabalala, a young musician who hoped to bring new interpretations to traditional Zulu music. The a cappella group’s compelling performance style was a unique melding of indigenous Zulu songs and dances with South African

  • Lae (Papua New Guinea)

    Lae, port city, on the island of New Guinea, northeastern Papua New Guinea, southwestern Pacific Ocean. It is located near the mouth of the Markham River on the Huon Gulf. Commercial activities centre on the export of timber, plywood, and coffee (transported by road from Bulolo and Wau) as well as

  • Laelia (plant genus)

    Laelia, genus of orchids (family Orchidaceae), containing about 25 species of plants with attractively coloured flowers. The plants are found in semitropical and temperate areas of Central America and Mexico. Many species have been crossed with Cattleya and other genera to produce hybrid orchids

  • Laelius Sapiens, Gaius, the Younger (Roman politician)

    Gaius Laelius Sapiens, the Younger, Roman soldier and politician known chiefly as an orator and a friend of Scipio Aemilianus. Laelius appears as one of the speakers in Cicero’s De senectute (“On Old Age”), De amicitia (“On Friendship”; also called Laelius), and De republica (“On the Republic”). In

  • Laelius, Gaius (Roman general)

    Gaius Laelius, Roman general and politician who contributed to Roman victory during the Second Punic War (218–201) between Rome and Carthage. Owing his political advancement to his friend, the renowned commander Scipio Africanus, Laelius accompanied Scipio on his Spanish campaign (210–206). While

  • Laemmle, Carl (American film producer)

    Carl Laemmle, German-born U.S. film producer. After immigrating to the U.S. in 1884, he worked at various jobs in Chicago before opening a nickelodeon there in 1906 and becoming a leading film distributor. He founded the Independent Motion Picture Co. in 1909 and induced stars such as Mary Pickford

  • Laenas, Gaius Popillius (Roman diplomat)

    Antiochus IV Epiphanes: Early career: …of Alexandria, the Roman ambassador, Gaius Popillius Laenas, presented Antiochus with the ultimatum that he evacuate Egypt and Cyprus immediately. Antiochus, taken by surprise, asked for time to consider. Popillius, however, drew a circle in the earth around the king with his walking stick and demanded an unequivocal answer before…

  • La?nnec cirrhosis (pathology)

    alcoholism: Chronic diseases: …cirrhosis of the liver (specifically, La?nnec cirrhosis), which is commonly preceded by a fatty enlargement of the organ. Genetic vulnerability, the strain of metabolizing excessive amounts of alcohol, and defective nutrition influence the development of alcohol-related cirrhosis. In its severest form, La?nnec cirrhosis can be fatal; the successful treatment of…

  • La?nnec, René (French physician)

    René La?nnec, French physician who invented the stethoscope and perfected the art of auditory examination of the chest cavity. When La?nnec was five years old, his mother, Michelle Félicité Guesdon, died from tuberculosis, leaving La?nnec and his brother, Michaud, in the incompetent care of their

  • La?nnec, René-Théophile-Hyacinthe (French physician)

    René La?nnec, French physician who invented the stethoscope and perfected the art of auditory examination of the chest cavity. When La?nnec was five years old, his mother, Michelle Félicité Guesdon, died from tuberculosis, leaving La?nnec and his brother, Michaud, in the incompetent care of their

  • Laer, Pieter van (Dutch artist)

    Bamboccianti: …the physically malformed Dutch painter Pieter van Laer (1592/95–1642). Generally regarded as the originator of the style and its most important exponent, van Laer arrived in Rome from Haarlem about 1625 and was soon well known for paintings in which his Netherlandish interest in the picturesque was combined with the…

  • L?rdal-Aurland tunnel (tunnel, Norway)

    Norway: Transportation and telecommunications: The L?rdal-Aurland tunnel (15.2 miles [24.5 km]) became, when it opened in 2000, the world’s longest road tunnel. Located along the route linking Oslo and Bergen, it provides a reliable connection between the two cities, replacing mountain highways that were impassable during the winter months.

  • L?rkesen, Anna (Danish ballerina and choreographer)

    Anna L?rkesen, Danish ballerina and choreographer (born March 2, 1942, Copenhagen, Den.—died Jan. 14, 2016, Copenhagen), brought elegance and a delicate sensibility to the Royal Danish Ballet (RDB), which had traditionally emphasized a dramatic ballet style based on bravura dancing and expressive

  • Laertes (fictional character)

    Hamlet: …death) and that her brother Laertes seeks to avenge Polonius’s murder. Claudius is only too eager to arrange the duel. Carnage ensues. Hamlet dies of a wound inflicted by a sword that Claudius and Laertes have conspired to tip with poison; in the scuffle, Hamlet realizes what has happened and…

  • Laestrygones (Greek mythology)

    Laestrygones, fictional race of cannibalistic giants described in Book 10 of Homer’s Odyssey. When Odysseus and his men land on the island native to the Laestrygones, the giants pelt Odysseus’s ships with boulders, sinking all but Odysseus’s own

  • Laestrygonians (Greek mythology)

    Laestrygones, fictional race of cannibalistic giants described in Book 10 of Homer’s Odyssey. When Odysseus and his men land on the island native to the Laestrygones, the giants pelt Odysseus’s ships with boulders, sinking all but Odysseus’s own

  • Laetare Sunday (Christianity)

    Laetare Sunday, fourth Sunday in Lent in the Western Christian Church, so called from the first word (“Rejoice”) of the introit of the liturgy. It is also known as mid-Lent Sunday, for it occurs just over halfway through Lent, and as Refreshment Sunday because it may be observed with some

  • Laetentur Caeli (decree of union)

    Council of Ferrara-Florence: …between the two groups (Laetentur Caeli) was signed on July 6, 1439. After their return to Constantinople, many of the Greeks repudiated the reunion. Meanwhile, the Latins completed union agreements with certain other Eastern churches. No extant document records the closing of the council, which moved to Rome in…

  • Laetentur Coeli (decree of union)

    Council of Ferrara-Florence: …between the two groups (Laetentur Caeli) was signed on July 6, 1439. After their return to Constantinople, many of the Greeks repudiated the reunion. Meanwhile, the Latins completed union agreements with certain other Eastern churches. No extant document records the closing of the council, which moved to Rome in…

  • Laetilia coccidivora (insect)

    pyralid moth: Laetilia coccidivora is an unusual caterpillar in that it is predatory, feeding on the eggs and young of scale insects. The freshwater larvae of Acentropus occur throughout the world, feeding on water plants and either breathing through their skin and tracheal gills or obtaining oxygen…

  • Laetiporus sulphureus (fungus)

    Polyporales: The sulfur mushroom, P. (Laetiporus) sulphureus, a common shelflike fungus that grows on dead wood, derives its name from its sulfur-yellow colour; only the younger portions of the fruiting body are edible.

  • Laetoli (anthropological and archaeological site, Tanzania)

    Laetoli, site of paleoanthropological excavations in northern Tanzania about 40 km (25 miles) from Olduvai Gorge, another major site. Mary Leakey and coworkers discovered fossils of Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli in 1978, not far from where a group of hominin (of human lineage) fossils had

  • Laetoli remains (hominin fossils)

    Laetoli: fossils of Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli in 1978, not far from where a group of hominin (of human lineage) fossils had been unearthed in 1938. The fossils found at Laetoli date to a period between 3.76 and 3.46 million years ago (mya). They come from…

  • Laetolil (anthropological and archaeological site, Tanzania)

    Laetoli, site of paleoanthropological excavations in northern Tanzania about 40 km (25 miles) from Olduvai Gorge, another major site. Mary Leakey and coworkers discovered fossils of Australopithecus afarensis at Laetoli in 1978, not far from where a group of hominin (of human lineage) fossils had

  • Laetus, Julius Pomponius (Italian humanist)

    Julius Pomponius Laetus, Italian humanist and founder of the Academia Romana, a semisecret society devoted to archaeological and antiquarian interests and the celebration of ancient Roman rites. As a youth, Laetus decided to dedicate his life to the study of the ancient world. He went to Rome about

  • Laevicaudata (crustacean)

    branchiopod: Annotated classification: Suborder Laevicaudata Large bivalved carapace encloses the trunk but not the head; antennae large, branched, and used in swimming; first pair of trunk limbs of male modified for grasping the female during mating, other trunk limbs leaflike and used in filter feeding; nauplius larvae; fossils known…

  • Lafayette (Rhode Island, United States)

    North Kingstown: …villages of Allenton, Davisville, Hamilton, Lafayette, Quonset Point, Saunderstown, Slocum, and Wickford (the administrative centre).

  • Lafayette (United States submarine class)

    submarine: Strategic submarines: …the United States fitted its Lafayette-class submarines with 16 Poseidon SLBMs, which could launch its warheads a distance of 2,500 nautical miles (4,600 km). To carry as many as 24 Trident missiles, improved versions of which could travel about 6,500 nautical miles (12,000 km), the U.S. Navy commissioned 18 Ohio-class…

  • Lafayette (Indiana, United States)

    Lafayette, city, seat (1826) of Tippecanoe county, west-central Indiana, U.S., on the Wabash River, 63 miles (101 km) northwest of Indianapolis. Laid out by William Digby on May 24, 1825, it was named for the American Revolutionary War hero the marquis de Lafayette, who was then making his last

  • Lafayette (Louisiana, United States)

    Lafayette, city, seat (1824) of Lafayette parish, south-central Louisiana, U.S., on the Vermilion River, 55 miles (88 km) southwest of Baton Rouge. The area was first settled by exiled Acadians from Nova Scotia in 1763. The earliest village, Vermilionville, was established in 1824 but was renamed

  • Lafayette College (college, Easton, Pennsylvania, United States)

    Lafayette College, private, coeducational institution of higher learning in Easton, Pennsylvania, U.S. It is affiliated with the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.). The college is dedicated solely to undergraduate education and awards bachelor’s degrees in arts, sciences, and engineering. Students can

  • Lafayette Escadrille (film by Wellman [1958])

    William Wellman: Films of the 1950s: …during World War II, and Lafayette Escadrille (both 1958), the latter his most autobiographical film, dealing with his own flying unit during World War I. Over his prolific career Wellman put his name on scores of films, many of which were unmemorable; however, when he was at his best, his…

  • Lafayette National Park (national park, Maine, United States)

    Acadia National Park, national park on the Atlantic coast of Maine, U.S., astride Frenchman Bay. It has an area of 65 square miles (168 square km) and was originally established as Sieur de Monts National Monument (1916), named for Pierre du Guast, sieur (lord) de Monts. It became the first

  • Lafayette Square (neighborhood and park, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    Washington, D.C.: Lafayette Square: The Lafayette Square neighbourhood lies directly north of the White House on H Street between 15th and 17th streets. It was once a showplace of wealth and influence. Throughout the 19th century some of the most distinguished Washingtonians and important national and world leaders…

  • Lafayette, Marie-Joseph-Paul-Yves-Roch-Gilbert du Motier, marquis de (French noble)

    Marquis de Lafayette, French aristocrat who fought in the Continental Army with the American colonists against the British in the American Revolution. Later, as a leading advocate for constitutional monarchy, he became one of the most powerful men in France during the first few years of the French

  • LaFayette, Marie-Madeleine Pioche de la Vergne, comtesse de (French author)

    Marie-Madeleine, comtesse de La Fayette, French writer whose La Princesse de Clèves is a landmark of French fiction. In Paris during the civil wars of the Fronde, young Mlle de la Vergne was brought into contact with Madame de Sévigné, now famous for her letters. She also met a leading political

  • Lafayette, Marquis de (French noble)

    Marquis de Lafayette, French aristocrat who fought in the Continental Army with the American colonists against the British in the American Revolution. Later, as a leading advocate for constitutional monarchy, he became one of the most powerful men in France during the first few years of the French

  • Laferrière, Dany (Haitian-born Canadian author)

    Dany Laferrière, Haitian-born Canadian author known for his lyrical works that often addressed the immigrant experience. Laferrière was the son of a political dissident forced into exile by the regime of Fran?ois Duvalier, and as a child he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother in the

  • Laferrière, Windsor Kléber (Haitian-born Canadian author)

    Dany Laferrière, Haitian-born Canadian author known for his lyrical works that often addressed the immigrant experience. Laferrière was the son of a political dissident forced into exile by the regime of Fran?ois Duvalier, and as a child he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother in the

  • Laffer curve (economics)

    Arthur Laffer: Laffer drew the famous Laffer curve, which showed that, starting from a zero tax rate, increases in tax rates will increase the government’s tax revenue but that, at some point, when the rates become high enough, further increases in tax rates will decrease revenue. This occurs because higher tax…

  • Laffer, Arthur (American economist)

    Arthur Laffer, American economist who propounded the idea that lowering tax rates could result in higher revenues. His theory on taxes influenced U.S. economic policy in the 1980s. Laffer studied economics at Yale University (B.A., 1963) and international economics at Stanford University (M.B.A.,

  • Laffer, Arthur Betz (American economist)

    Arthur Laffer, American economist who propounded the idea that lowering tax rates could result in higher revenues. His theory on taxes influenced U.S. economic policy in the 1980s. Laffer studied economics at Yale University (B.A., 1963) and international economics at Stanford University (M.B.A.,

  • Lafferty, R. A. (American author)

    R.A. Lafferty, American writer (born Nov. 7, 1914, Neola, Iowa—died March 18, 2002, Broken Arrow, Okla.), was a prolific award-winning author of science-fiction and historical novels; he also published more than 200 short stories. Lafferty did not begin his writing career until 1960, when he p

  • Lafferty, Rafael Aloysius (American author)

    R.A. Lafferty, American writer (born Nov. 7, 1914, Neola, Iowa—died March 18, 2002, Broken Arrow, Okla.), was a prolific award-winning author of science-fiction and historical novels; he also published more than 200 short stories. Lafferty did not begin his writing career until 1960, when he p

  • Laffite, Jean (American pirate)

    Jean Laffite, privateer and smuggler who interrupted his illicit adventures to fight heroically for the United States in defense of New Orleans in the War of 1812. Little is known of Laffite’s early life, but by 1809 he and his brother Pierre apparently had established in New Orleans a blacksmith

  • Laffitte, Jacques (French banker and politician)

    Jacques Laffitte, French banker and politician prominent in public affairs from the end of the Napoleonic period to the first years of the July Monarchy (1830–31). The son of a carpenter, Laffitte became clerk in the banking house of Perregaux in Paris, was made a partner in the business in 1800,

  • Laffitte, Louis (French author)

    Jean-Louis Curtis, (LOUIS LAFFITTE), French novelist, translator, and member of the French Academy who won the Prix Goncourt in 1947 for his novel Les Forêts de la nuit (b. May 22, 1917--d. Nov. 11,

  • Laffitte, Pierre (French philosopher)

    Pierre Laffitte, French philosopher, the closest disciple of the philosopher Auguste Comte, who taught in his doctrine of Positivism that only knowledge verifiable by the methods of the empirical sciences is valid. On Comte’s death in 1857, Laffitte, who was one of his executors, became head of the

  • Lafforgue, Laurent (French mathematician)

    Laurent Lafforgue, French mathematician who won the Fields Medal in 2002 for his work connecting number theory and analysis. Lafforgue attended the école Normale Supérieure (1986–90) in Paris before receiving a Ph.D. in algebraic geometry from the University of Paris in 1994. In 2001 he became a

  • Lafia (Nigeria)

    Lafia, town, capital of Nasarawa state, central Nigeria. Originally the site of Anane, a small town of the Arago people, Lafia became the capital of a prominent local chiefdom in the early 19th century. During the rule of Mohamman Agwe (1881–1903), the Lafia market became one of the most important

  • Lafia Beri-Beri (Nigeria)

    Lafia, town, capital of Nasarawa state, central Nigeria. Originally the site of Anane, a small town of the Arago people, Lafia became the capital of a prominent local chiefdom in the early 19th century. During the rule of Mohamman Agwe (1881–1903), the Lafia market became one of the most important

  • Lafiagi (Nigeria)

    Lafiagi, town, Kwara state, west central Nigeria, on the south bank of the Niger River. It was founded in 1810 by Malam Maliki and his brother Manzuma, two Fulani leaders from Gwandu, 250 mi (400 km) north-northwest, as a fortified town in Nupe territory. Following Maliki’s death in 1824, the Emir

  • Lafitte, Jean (American pirate)

    Jean Laffite, privateer and smuggler who interrupted his illicit adventures to fight heroically for the United States in defense of New Orleans in the War of 1812. Little is known of Laffite’s early life, but by 1809 he and his brother Pierre apparently had established in New Orleans a blacksmith

  • LaFleche, Gisele Marie Louise Marguerite (Canadian-American actress and singer)

    Gisele MacKenzie, (Gisele Marie Louise Marguerite LaFleche), Canadian-born singer and actress (born Jan. 10, 1927, Winnipeg, Man.—died Sept. 5, 2003, Burbank, Calif.), became known as Canada’s first lady of song in the 1940s and appeared in the U.S. with such stars as Bob Crosby and Jack Benny b

  • Lafleur, Guy (Canadian ice hockey player)

    Montreal Canadiens: …future Hall of Fame players Guy Lafleur, Ken Dryden, and Larry Robinson.

  • Lafond, Jean-Daniel (Canadian filmmaker)

    Micha?lle Jean: …her husband, French-born Canadian filmmaker Jean-Daniel Lafond, she also made several acclaimed documentaries, most notably Ha?ti dans tous nos rêves (1995; “Haiti in All Our Dreams”).

  • Lafont, Bernadette (French actress)

    Bernadette Lafont, French actress (born Oct. 28, 1938, N?mes, France—died July 25, 2013, N?mes), starred in some of the seminal films of the French New Wave, where her natural and exuberant performances made her a favourite of many of the directors of the era. Lafont, who trained as a dancer, had

  • Lafontaine, Mlle de (French ballerina)

    La Fontaine, French ballerina and the first woman professional ballet dancer. Before La Fontaine’s debut in 1681 at the Paris Opéra as première danseuse in Jean-Baptiste Lully’s ballet Le Triomphe de l’amour, girls’ roles on the public stage had been taken by young men. Although hampered by the

  • Lafontaine, Oskar (German politician)

    Social Democratic Party of Germany: History: …party under former SPD leader Oskar Lafontaine; the new party jointly campaigned in 2005 with the eastern-based Party of Democratic Socialism (PDS). Despite the split and dissatisfaction with the SPD government, Schr?der still retained widespread popularity, and the SPD captured 34 percent of the national vote. It fell only four…

  • LaFontaine, Pat (American hockey player)

    New York Islanders: …but the team—led by centres Pat LaFontaine and Brent Sutter by the end of the decade—failed to advance any farther than the second round of the postseason during this period.

  • LaFontaine, Pierre Dewey, Jr. (American musician)

    Pete Fountain, (Pierre Dewey LaFontaine, Jr.), American jazz musician (born July 3, 1930, New Orleans, La.—died Aug. 6, 2016, New Orleans), played traditional Dixieland jazz on his clarinet with a characteristic full and swinging sound that made him an icon of that musical style and of his city.

  • LaFontaine, Sir Louis-Hippolyte, Baronet (prime minister of Canada)

    Sir Louis-Hippolyte LaFontaine, Baronet, Canadian statesman who was joint premier of the Province of Canada with Robert Baldwin (as the attorneys general of Canada East and Canada West, respectively) in 1842–43 and again during the “great ministry” of 1848–51, when responsible, or cabinet,

  • Laforet, Carmen (Spanish author)

    Carmen Laforet, Spanish novelist and short-story writer who received international recognition when her novel Nada (1944; “Nothingness”; Eng. trans., Nada) won the first Nadal Prize. Laforet was educated in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, and returned to Barcelona immediately after the Spanish Civil

  • Laforet, Carmen Díaz (Spanish author)

    Carmen Laforet, Spanish novelist and short-story writer who received international recognition when her novel Nada (1944; “Nothingness”; Eng. trans., Nada) won the first Nadal Prize. Laforet was educated in Las Palmas, Canary Islands, and returned to Barcelona immediately after the Spanish Civil

  • Laforgue, Jules (French poet)

    Jules Laforgue, French Symbolist poet, a master of lyrical irony and one of the inventors of vers libre (“free verse”). The impact of his work was felt by several 20th-century American poets, including T.S. Eliot, and he also influenced the work of the Surrealists. His critical essays, though

  • LAFTA (international economic organization)

    Mercosur: …of Latin America through the Latin American Free Trade Association (1960) and its successor, the Latin American Integration Association (1980). In 1985 Argentina and Brazil signed the Declaration of Igua?u, which created a bilateral commission to promote the integration of their economies; by the following year the two countries had…

  • LAG (zoology)

    dinosaur: Clues to dinosaurian metabolism: …other hand, most dinosaurs retain lines of arrested growth (LAGs) in most of their long bones. LAGs are found in other reptiles, amphibians, and fishes, and they often reflect a seasonal period during which metabolism slows, usually because of environmental stresses. This slowdown produces “rest lines” as LAGs in the…

  • Lag ba-?Omer (Jewish holiday)

    Lag ba-?Omer, a minor Jewish observance falling on the 33rd day in the period of the counting of the ?omer (“barley sheaves”); on this day semimourning ceases and weddings are allowed. The origin of the festival is obscure. Among many traditions, one has it that manna first fell from heaven on

  • Lag be-Omer (Jewish holiday)

    Lag ba-?Omer, a minor Jewish observance falling on the 33rd day in the period of the counting of the ?omer (“barley sheaves”); on this day semimourning ceases and weddings are allowed. The origin of the festival is obscure. Among many traditions, one has it that manna first fell from heaven on

  • Lag b?Omer (Jewish holiday)

    Lag ba-?Omer, a minor Jewish observance falling on the 33rd day in the period of the counting of the ?omer (“barley sheaves”); on this day semimourning ceases and weddings are allowed. The origin of the festival is obscure. Among many traditions, one has it that manna first fell from heaven on

  • lag gravel (geology)

    desert pavement: …desert areas are sometimes called lag gravels, in reference to the residue left by the removal of fine material. Thus, pavements are produced by the combined effects of water and wind. Evaporation and capillarity draw soil moisture to the surface and may precipitate calcium carbonate, gypsum, and other salts that…

  • lag phase (biology)

    bacteria: Growth of bacterial populations: During this period, called the lag phase, the cells are metabolically active and increase only in cell size. They are also synthesizing the enzymes and factors needed for cell division and population growth under their new environmental conditions. The population then enters the log phase, in which cell numbers increase…

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