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  • liquid cooling (technology)

    gasoline engine: Cooling system: Liquid cooling is employed in most gasoline engines, whether the engines are for use in automobiles or elsewhere. The liquid is circulated around the cylinders to pick up heat and then through a radiator to dissipate the heat. Usually a thermostat is located in the…

  • liquid crystal (physics)

    Liquid crystal, substance that blends the structures and properties of the normally disparate liquid and crystalline solid states. Liquids can flow, for example, while solids cannot, and crystalline solids possess special symmetry properties that liquids lack. Ordinary solids melt into ordinary

  • liquid crystal display (electronics)

    Liquid crystal display (LCD), electronic display device that operates by applying a varying electric voltage to a layer of liquid crystal, thereby inducing changes in its optical properties. LCDs are commonly used for portable electronic games, as viewfinders for digital cameras and camcorders, in

  • liquid drop (physics)

    liquid: Surface tension: …shape of a volume of liquid is one that has a minimum area—i.e., a sphere. In the Earth’s field this shape is found only for small drops, for which the gravitational forces, since they are proportional to the volume, are negligible compared with surface forces, which are proportional to the…

  • liquid egg (food product)

    egg: Liquid egg products: Refrigerated liquid egg products have become increasingly popular, especially in food-service establishments. Liquid egg products may be delivered in a variety of packages, including bulk tank trucks, smaller portable tanks or “totes,” paper cartons, hermetically sealed polyethylene bags, lacquer-coated tins, and plastic…

  • liquid fat

    carboxylic acid: Unsaturated aliphatic acids: Liquid fats (often called oils), obtained mainly from plant or fish sources, have a high percentage of unsaturated fatty acids. An exception is coconut oil, which, though obtained from a plant, has only a low percentage of unsaturated acids. The liquidity in this case is…

  • liquid fluoride thorium reactor (nuclear physics)

    breeder reactor: Thermal breeder reactors: …thermal breeder known as the liquid fluoride thorium reactor (LFTR) employs molten fluoride salt to transfer heat to the turbines. Such reactors do not require fuel rods, and interest in developing the technology has grown in the early 21st century.

  • liquid honey (beekeeping)

    beekeeping: Honey production: …marketed in several different forms: liquid honey, comb honey, and creamed honey. Sometimes the predominant floral type from which the honey was collected is indicated.

  • liquid hydrogen (chemical state)

    subatomic particle: Size: …a beam is fired at liquid hydrogen, whose atoms contain only single protons in their nuclei, the pattern of scattered electrons reveals the size of the proton. At energies greater than a gigaelectron volt (GeV; 109 eV), the electrons penetrate within the protons and neutrons, and their scattering patterns reveal…

  • liquid laser (instrument)

    laser: Types of lasers: … the laser medium is a liquid containing organic dye molecules that can emit light over a range of wavelengths; adjusting the laser cavity changes, or tunes, the output wavelength. Chemical lasers are gas lasers in which a chemical reaction generates the excited molecules that produce stimulated emission. In free-electron lasers…

  • liquid limit (geology)

    clay mineral: Clay-water relations: …defined by the plastic and liquid limits, which vary with the kind of exchangeable cations and the salt concentration in the adsorbed water. The plasticity index (PI), the difference between the two limits, gives a measure for the rheological (flowage) properties of clays. A good example is a comparison of…

  • liquid measure (measurement)

    measurement system: The Egyptians: Egyptian liquid measures, from large to small, were ro, hin, hekat, khar, and cubic cubit.

  • liquid metal MHD generator (device)

    magnetohydrodynamic power generator: Other MHD systems: While such liquid metal MHD systems offer attractive features from the viewpoint of electrical machine operation, they are limited in temperature by the properties of liquid metals to about 1,250 K (about 975 °C, or 1,800 °F). Thus, they compete with various existing energy-conversion systems capable of…

  • liquid mix process (materials processing)

    advanced ceramics: The Pechini process: A process related to the sol-gel route is the Pechini, or liquid mix, process (named after its American inventor, Maggio Pechini). An aqueous solution of suitable oxides or salts is mixed with an alpha-hydroxycarboxylic acid such as citric acid. Chelation, or the formation…

  • liquid mixture (physics)

    liquid: Physical properties of liquids: …general categories: pure liquids and liquid mixtures. On Earth, water is the most abundant liquid, although much of the water with which organisms come into contact is not in pure form but is a mixture in which various substances are dissolved. Such mixtures include those fluids essential to life—blood, for…

  • Liquid Modernity (work by Bauman)

    Zygmunt Bauman: …possible to carry out, and Liquid Modernity (2000), in which he examined the effects of consumption-based economies, the disappearance of social institutions, and the rise of globalization. His other notable publications included Culture as Praxis (1973), Modernity and Ambivalence (1991), Postmodernity and Its Discontents (1997), Globalization: The Human Consequences (1998),…

  • liquid nitrogen (chemistry)

    food preservation: Industrial freezers: …moved through a spray of liquid nitrogen or directly immersed in liquid nitrogen. The liquid nitrogen boils around the food at a temperature of ?196 °C (?321 °F) and extracts a large amount of heat.

  • liquid oxygen (chemistry)

    oxygen therapy: Storage of therapeutic oxygen: …stored as a highly concentrated liquid. Oxygen turns to liquid only when it is kept at very cold temperatures; when it is released under pressure from cold storage, it is converted to a gas. Liquid oxygen can be stored in small or large insulated containers, which can be refilled at…

  • liquid oxygen explosive (explosive)

    explosive: Liquid oxygen explosives: In 1895 the German Carl von Linde introduced carbon black packed in porous bags and dipped in liquid oxygen. This, which was a Sprengel-type explosive, came to be known as LOX. Because of the shortage of nitrates, LOX was widely used in…

  • liquid propellant (fuel)

    aerospace industry: Propulsion: …control and multiple starts employ liquid-propellant systems as main engines for the primary stages but use large solid-fuel rockets as boost-stage auxiliaries for additional thrust in the initial phase of launch. Among American companies engaged in the production of rocket motors are Boeing’s subsidiary Rocketdyne, Thiokol, Kaiser Marquardt, and Aerojet…

  • liquid scintillator (device)

    radiation measurement: Organic scintillators: …third component is added to liquid or plastic scintillators to act as a wave shifter, which absorbs the primary light from the organic fluor and re-radiates the energy at a longer wavelength more suitable for matching the response of photomultiplier tubes or photodiodes. Plastic scintillators are commercially available in sheets…

  • liquid state (state of matter)

    Liquid, in physics, one of the three principal states of matter, intermediate between gas and crystalline solid. The most obvious physical properties of a liquid are its retention of volume and its conformation to the shape of its container. When a liquid substance is poured into a vessel, it takes

  • liquid thermometer (measurement device)

    thermometer: Liquid thermometers are the most common type in use. They are simple, inexpensive, long-lasting, and able to measure a wide temperature span. The liquid is almost always mercury, sealed in a glass tube with nitrogen gas making up the rest of the volume of the…

  • liquid-driven transducer (instrument)

    ultrasonics: Transducers: …as whistles as well as liquid-driven transducers such as hydrodynamic oscillators and vibrating blades. These devices, limited to low ultrasonic frequencies, have a number of industrial applications, including drying, ultrasonic cleaning, and injection of fuel oil into burners. Electromechanical transducers are far more versatile and include piezoelectric and magnetostrictive devices.…

  • liquid-drop model (nuclear physics)

    Liquid-drop model, in nuclear physics, a description of atomic nuclei in which the nucleons (neutrons and protons) behave like the molecules in a drop of liquid. If given sufficient extra energy (as by the absorption of a neutron), the spherical nucleus may be distorted into a dumbbell shape and

  • liquid-ion-exchanger electrode

    chemical analysis: Ion-selective electrodes: Liquid-ion-exchanger electrodes utilize a liquid ion exchanger that is held in place in an inert, porous hydrophobic membrane. The electrodes are selective because the ion exchangers selectively exchange a single analyte ion. Solid-state ion-selective electrodes use a solid sparingly soluble, ionically conducting substance, either alone…

  • liquid-liquid chromatography (chemistry)

    chromatography: Liquid chromatography: Liquid-liquid chromatography employs liquid mobile and stationary phases. High-performance liquid chromatography uses small particles with molecules bonded to their surface to give a thin film that has liquidlike properties. A number of bonding agents are available. A nonpolar molecule can be bonded to the solid…

  • liquid-liquid solvent extraction (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Separations based on equilibria: …previously cited involved extraction (liquid-liquid). The other methods are described below.

  • liquid-metal fast-breeder reactor

    nuclear reactor: Liquid-metal reactors: Sodium-cooled fast-neutron-spectrum liquid-metal reactors (LMRs) received much attention during the 1960s and ’70s when it appeared that their breeding capabilities would soon be needed to supply fissile material to a rapidly expanding nuclear industry. When it became clear in the 1980s that this…

  • liquid-metal reactor (physics)

    nuclear reactor: Fuel types: In a sodium-cooled fast reactor, commonly called a liquid-metal reactor (LMR), the fuel consists of uranium dioxide or uranium-plutonium dioxide pellets (French design) or of uranium-plutonium-zirconium metal alloy pins (U.S. design) in steel cladding.

  • liquid-phase epitaxy (crystallography)

    crystal: Growth from the melt: Liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) uses the solution method to grow crystals on a substrate. The substrate is placed in a solution with a saturated concentration of solute. This technique is used to grow many crystals employed in modern electronics and optoelectronic devices, such as gallium arsenide,…

  • liquid-propellant rocket motor

    rocket: Liquid-propellant rocket engines: Liquid-propellant systems carry the propellant in tanks external to the combustion chamber. Most of these engines use a liquid oxidizer and a liquid fuel, which are transferred from their respective tanks by pumps. The pumps raise the pressure above the operating pressure…

  • liquid-solid chromatography (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Chromatography: One important method is liquid-solid chromatography in which the porous adsorbent is polar and separation is based on the properties of classes of compounds—e.g., amines (alkaline) from alcohols (neutral) and esters (neutral) from acids.

  • liquid-vapour equilibrium (chemistry)

    separation and purification: Distillation: …of vapour form within the liquid and rise to the surface. Above the surface of a mixture, the vapour contains all the substances present in the mixture, each making a contribution to the total pressure exerted by the vapour. The boiling point of the mixture is the temperature at which…

  • Liquidambar (plant)

    Sweet gum, (genus Liquidambar), genus of 15 species of deciduous trees, the only genus of the family Altingiaceae. Sweet gums are native to North America and Asia and are valued as a source of resin and timber. Several species are grown as ornamental trees for their showy fall foliage. The taxonomy

  • Liquidambar formosana (plant)

    sweet gum: The Formosan gum (L. formosana), with three-lobed leaves, is widely grown as a garden tree in mild climates.

  • Liquidambar orientalis (plant)

    sweet gum: …or Turkish, sweet gum (L. orientalis). The Formosan gum (L. formosana), with three-lobed leaves, is widely grown as a garden tree in mild climates.

  • Liquidambar styraciflua (plant)

    sweet gum: The American sweet gum, or bilsted (Liquidambar styraciflua), which sometimes reaches 45 metres (150 feet) in moist lowlands but is usually half that height at maturity, is grown for its handsome foliage, shade, and scarlet autumnal colour. It is also valued for its heartwood, called red…

  • liquidation (business)

    Liquidation, discharge of a debt or the determination by agreement or litigation of the amount of a previously unliquidated claim. One important legal meaning is the distribution of the assets of an enterprise among its creditors and proprietors. At the dissolution of a solvent corporation or

  • Liquidationist Party (political organization, Russia)

    Aleksandr Nikolayevich Potresov: …a leader of the so-called liquidationists (a pejorative term devised by Lenin), who advocated political activity by legal means, in contrast to the conspiratorial methods of the Bolsheviks.

  • liquidity (economics)

    bank: Asset management: …maintain cash reserves and other liquid assets at a certain level or have access to a “lender of last resort,” such as a central bank. In a number of countries, commercial banks have at times been required to maintain a minimum liquid assets ratio. Among the assets of commercial banks,…

  • Liquidity Balance (economics)

    international payment and exchange: Assessing the balance: …monetary and nonmonetary items, the Liquidity Balance included any increase in the holding of short-term dollar securities abroad as part of the U.S. deficit during the period; but it did not include as counterweight any increase in short-term foreign claims held by U.S. resident banks or others (apart from official…

  • liquidity preference (economics)

    Liquidity preference, in economics, the premium that wealth holders demand for exchanging ready money or bank deposits for safe, non-liquid assets such as government bonds. As originally employed by John Maynard Keynes, liquidity preference referred to the relationship between the quantity of

  • liquidity ratio (business)

    business finance: Financial ratio analysis: This is known as a liquidity ratio. Financial leverage ratios (such as the debt–asset ratio and debt as a percentage of total capitalization) are used to make judgments about the advantages to be gained from raising funds by the issuance of bonds (debt) rather than stock. Activity ratios, relating to…

  • liquidus diagram (phase diagram)

    mineral: Use in igneous petrology: …a liquid phase are called liquidus diagrams. The dashed contours of a liquidus diagram, called isotherms, represent temperatures at which a mineral melts. They define what is known as a liquidus surface. As temperatures decrease, the minerals will crystallize in the manner defined by the arrows on the boundaries separating…

  • liquified natural gas (chemical compound)

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG), natural gas (primarily methane) that has been liquefied for ease of storing and transporting. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is 600 times smaller than natural gas when the latter is in its gaseous form, and it can be easily shipped overseas. LNG is produced by cooling

  • liquified petroleum gas (chemical compound)

    Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), any of several liquid mixtures of the volatile hydrocarbons propene, propane, butene, and butane. It was used as early as 1860 for a portable fuel source, and its production and consumption for both domestic and industrial use have expanded ever since. A typical

  • liquor

    Alcoholic beverage, any fermented liquor, such as wine, beer, or distilled spirit, that contains ethyl alcohol, or ethanol (CH3CH2OH), as an intoxicating agent. A brief treatment of alcoholic beverages follows. For full treatment, see alcohol consumption. Alcoholic beverages are fermented from the

  • Liquor Prohibition (United States Constitution)

    Eighteenth Amendment, amendment (1919) to the Constitution of the United States imposing the federal prohibition of alcohol. The Eighteenth Amendment emerged from the organized efforts of the temperance movement and Anti-Saloon League, which attributed to alcohol virtually all of society’s ills and

  • liquor, distilled (alcoholic beverage)

    Distilled spirit, alcoholic beverage (such as brandy, whisky, rum, or arrack) that is obtained by distillation from wine or other fermented fruit or plant juice or from a starchy material (such as various grains) that has first been brewed. The alcoholic content of distilled liquor is higher than

  • liquorice (herb)

    Licorice, (Glycyrrhiza glabra), perennial herb of the pea family (Fabaceae), and the flavouring, confection, and folk medicine made from its roots. Licorice is similar to anise (Pimpinella anisum) in flavour; both plants are somewhat sweet and slightly bitter. The Greek name glykyrrhiza, of which

  • lira (musical instrument)

    Lira, in music, a pear-shaped bowed instrument with three to five strings. Closely related to the medieval rebec and, like the rebec, a precursor of the medieval fiddle, the lira survives essentially unchanged in several Balkan folk instruments, among them the Bulgarian gadulka, the Aegean lira,

  • lira (currency)

    Lira, the former monetary unit of Italy and Malta and the currency of modern Turkey. The lira was introduced in Europe by Charlemagne (c. 742–814), who based it on the pound (Latin: libra) of silver. No lira coins were struck during the Middle Ages, and the lira remained strictly a money of

  • Lira (work by Kalvos)

    Andréas Ioannídis Kálvos: …patriotic odes in two fascicles: Líra (“The Lyre”) at Geneva in 1824 and Néas Odás (“New Odes”) at Paris in 1826. He wrote of an idealized Greece, a Greece of the old virtues but a Greece viewed from outside. Although he sometimes used Demotic Greek (the vernacular tongue), he was…

  • lira da braccio (musical instrument)

    stringed instrument: The violin family: …of the violin was the lira da braccio, an elaborate instrument of the Renaissance, whose form foreshadowed the physical essentials of the violin body: the arched modeling of the belly and back and the shallow ribs. This shallow arched form probably encouraged or suggested another important detail: the use of…

  • Lira, La (work by Marino)

    Italian literature: Poetry and prose: …collection of lyric verse (La lira [1608–14; “The Lyre”] and La sampogna [1620; “The Syrinx”]) and a long mythological poem, Adone (1623), in which the Ovidian myth of the love of Venus and Adonis, told by Shakespeare in 200 stanzas, is inflated by Marino to more than 8,000. Marino…

  • lire (currency)

    Lira, the former monetary unit of Italy and Malta and the currency of modern Turkey. The lira was introduced in Europe by Charlemagne (c. 742–814), who based it on the pound (Latin: libra) of silver. No lira coins were struck during the Middle Ages, and the lira remained strictly a money of

  • lire (musical instrument)

    Lira, in music, a pear-shaped bowed instrument with three to five strings. Closely related to the medieval rebec and, like the rebec, a precursor of the medieval fiddle, the lira survives essentially unchanged in several Balkan folk instruments, among them the Bulgarian gadulka, the Aegean lira,

  • liri (currency)

    Lira, the former monetary unit of Italy and Malta and the currency of modern Turkey. The lira was introduced in Europe by Charlemagne (c. 742–814), who based it on the pound (Latin: libra) of silver. No lira coins were struck during the Middle Ages, and the lira remained strictly a money of

  • Liri River (river, Italy)

    Liri River, river in central Italy, made up of two streams, the Rapido (or Gari) and the Liri, and having a total length of 98 mi (158 km) and a drainage basin of 1,911 sq mi (4,950 sq km). It has its sources near Cappadocia, in the Monti Simbruini east of Rome, and flows south and southeast

  • Liri Valley (valley, Italy)

    World War II: The Italian front, 1944: …to the valley of the Liri (headstream of the Garigliano). The combined attack, which was started in the night of May 11–12, 1944, succeeded in breaching the German defenses at a number of points between Cassino and the coast. Thanks to this victory, the Americans could push forward up the…

  • Liriodendron (plant genus)

    Magnoliales: Distribution and abundance: …genera, Magnolia (225 species) and Liriodendron (2 species). Liriodendron (tulip tree) has one species in China and one in the eastern United States. Such a bicentric dispersal suggests a more continuous distribution in the past. Magnolia is widely distributed in temperate and tropical Southeast Asia, from the Himalayas to Japan,…

  • Liriodendron tulipifera (tree)

    Tulip tree, (Liriodendron tulipifera), North American ornamental and timber tree of the magnolia family (Magnoliaceae), order Magnoliales, not related to the true poplars. The tulip tree occurs in mixed-hardwood stands in eastern North America. It is taller than all other eastern broad-leaved

  • Liriope (hydrozoan genus)

    Liriope, genus of small marine jellyfish of the class Hydrozoa (phylum Cnidaria). Its medusoid body is characteristically hemispherical and measures up to about 30 mm (1.2 inches) in diameter. Eight short tentacles hang down from the edges of the body, and a shorter stalklike structure, the

  • liripipe (clothing)

    tippet: …a long streamer (also called liripipe) extending from a hat or hood. Tippet may also refer to an 18th-century capelike or scarflike garment worn around the neck and hanging down in front; this tippet could be made of gauze, crepe, lace, velvet, fur, or feathers. Finally, tippet refers to a…

  • LISA (spacecraft)

    Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), joint U.S.-European group of three spacecraft that are designed to search for gravitational radiation. LISA is scheduled for launch in 2015 and will be one of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s (NASA’s) series of Beyond Einstein Great

  • Lisa (computer)

    graphical user interface: Macintosh to Windows: …ideas into two new computers, Lisa and Macintosh, then in the design stage. Each product came to have a bit-mapped screen and a sleek, palm-sized mouse (though for simplicity this used a single command button in contrast to the multiple buttons on the SRI and PARC versions). The software interface…

  • Lisa Mountain (mountain, Brazil)

    Alagoas: The Serra Lisa (Lisa Mountain) is the state’s highest point. There are four zones of vegetation: the coastal plain; the Mata, or tropical rainforest; the Agreste, a shrubby savanna parkland; and the Caatinga, an arid region covered with underbrush and cacti. The animal life of the state is…

  • LISA Pathfinder (space mission)

    LISA Pathfinder, European Space Agency space mission that successfully tested the technology necessary for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA). LISA Pathfinder was launched on December 3, 2014, by a Vega launch vehicle from the Kourou spaceport in French Guiana. LISA, scheduled to launch

  • LISA Technology Package (instrument)

    LISA Pathfinder: …Pathfinder carried two instruments: the LISA Technology Package (LTP) and the Disturbance Reduction System (DRS). In the LTP two gold-platinum cubes, measuring 46 mm (1.8 inches) on a side, were suspended in evacuated chambers 37.6 cm (14.8 inches) apart. The distance between them was designed to be measured to within…

  • Lisa, Manuel (American fur trader)

    Manuel Lisa, U.S. fur trader who helped to open up the Missouri River area to the white man in the early 19th century. Of Spanish descent, Lisa automatically gained citizenship when Louisiana was purchased by the United States in 1803. Entering the fur trade out of St. Louis at an early age, he

  • Lisān, Al- (peninsula, Jordan)

    Dead Sea: Physiography and geology: The peninsula of Al-Lisān (Arabic: “The Tongue”) divided the lake on its eastern side into two unequal basins: the northern basin encompassed about three-fourths of the lake’s total surface area and reached a depth of 1,300 feet (400 metres), and the southern basin was smaller and considerably shallower,…

  • Lisao (poem by Qu Yuan)

    Qu Yuan: …with the long melancholic poem Lisao (“On Encountering Sorrow”; Eng. trans. Li sao and Other Poems of Qu Yuan, 2001), Qu Yuan’s most famous work, which initiated a tradition of romanticism in Chinese literature. Qu Yuan’s other works available in English include The Nine Songs: A Study of Shamanism in…

  • Lisboa (national capital, Portugal)

    Lisbon, city, port, capital of Portugal, and the centre of the Lisbon metropolitan area. Located in western Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus (Tejo) River, it is the westernmost capital city in continental Europe and serves as the country’s chief port, largest city, and commercial, political,

  • Lisboa, António Francisco (Brazilian architect)

    Latin American architecture: Ouro Prêto: Brazilian Baroque architecture in the 18th century: …Ouro Prêto (1730s), attributed to António Francisco Lisboa (brother of Manoel Francisco Lisboa, the father of Aleijadinho), was opened with a Baroque spectacle, the Triumph of the Eucharist, in the European manner. The exterior of the church is rectilinear, while the interior is polygonal—a faceted oval that is the precursor…

  • Lisboa, Ant?nio Francisco (Brazilian sculptor and architect)

    Aleijadinho, prolific and influential Brazilian sculptor and architect whose Rococo statuary and religious articles complement the dramatic sobriety of his churches. Aleijadinho, the son of the Portuguese architect Manoel Francisco Lisboa and an African woman, was born with a degenerative disease

  • Lisboa, Universidade de (university, Lisbon, Portugal)

    University of Lisbon, coeducational state institution of higher learning at Lisbon. The modern university, restored in 1911, traces its history, together with that of the University of Coimbra, to the medieval University of Lisbon founded in 1288. King Dinis of Portugal endowed a studium generale,

  • Lisbon (national capital, Portugal)

    Lisbon, city, port, capital of Portugal, and the centre of the Lisbon metropolitan area. Located in western Portugal on the estuary of the Tagus (Tejo) River, it is the westernmost capital city in continental Europe and serves as the country’s chief port, largest city, and commercial, political,

  • Lisbon Cathedral (cathedral, Lisbon, Portugal)

    Lisbon: The Portuguese conquest: …and, according to legend, the Lisbon Cathedral (Sé Patriarcal) was converted from a mosque (with subsequent restorations in the styles of many periods after fires and earthquakes). There is no evidence, however, of a building on the site of the cathedral before the time of Afonso I.

  • Lisbon earthquake of 1755 (Portugal)

    Lisbon earthquake of 1755, series of earthquakes that occurred on the morning of Nov. 1, 1755, causing serious damage to the port city of Lisbon, Port., and killing an estimated 60,000 people in Lisbon alone. Violent shaking demolished large public buildings and about 12,000 dwellings. Because

  • Lisbon Treaty (European Union)

    Lisbon Treaty, international agreement that amended the Maastricht Treaty, Treaties of Rome, and other documents to simplify and streamline the institutions that govern the European Union (EU). Proposed in 2007, the Lisbon Treaty was ratified by most member states in 2008, but a referendum in

  • Lisbon, Siege of (European history [1147])

    Battle of Lisbon, (1 July–25 October 1147). The capture of the city of Lisbon from the Almoravid Muslims was a by-product of the Second Crusade to the Holy Land and one of the few Christian victories of that campaign. It proved to be a pivotal turning point in the history of Portugal as it mutated

  • Lisbon, Treaty of (Portugal [1668])

    Ceuta: …assigned to Spain in the Treaty of Lisbon (1688). At the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War (1936), Gen. Francisco Franco dispatched an expedition to Spain from Ceuta. In 1995 the Spanish government approved statutes of autonomy for Ceuta, replacing the city council with an assembly similar to those of…

  • Lisbon, University of (university, Lisbon, Portugal)

    University of Lisbon, coeducational state institution of higher learning at Lisbon. The modern university, restored in 1911, traces its history, together with that of the University of Coimbra, to the medieval University of Lisbon founded in 1288. King Dinis of Portugal endowed a studium generale,

  • Lisburn (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Lisburn, town, Lisburn and Castlereagh City district, eastern Northern Ireland. The town, on the River Lagan 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Belfast, was a small village known as Lisnagarvey before the English, Scots, and Welsh settled the site in the 1620s as part of the Plantation of Ulster scheme.

  • Lisburn (former district, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Lisburn, former district (1973–2015), now in Lisburn and Castlereagh City district, eastern Northern Ireland. The former district of Lisburn was bordered by the Belfast City district and the former district of Antrim to the north and by the former districts of Craigavon to the west, Banbridge to

  • Lisburn and Castlereagh City (district, Northern Ireland)

    Lisburn and Castlereagh City, district, eastern Northern Ireland. It is bounded to the north by the districts of Antrim and Newtownabbey and Belfast City, to the northeast and east by the Ards and North Down district, to the southeast by the Newry, Mourne and Down district, to the southwest by the

  • Lisette, Gabriel (Chadian political leader)

    Chad: Independence: …territorial government was formed by Gabriel Lisette, a West Indian who had become the leader of the Chad Progressive Party (PPT). An autonomous republic within the French Community was proclaimed in November 1958, and complete independence in the restructured community was attained on Aug. 11, 1960. The country’s stability was…

  • Lisey’s Story (novel by King)

    Stephen King: … (2001; film 2003); Cell and Lisey’s Story (both 2006); Duma Key (2008); Under the Dome (2009; TV series 2013–15); 11/22/63 (2011; TV miniseries 2016); Joyland (2013); Doctor Sleep (2013; film 2019), a sequel to The Shining; Revival (2014); The Outsider

  • Lish, Gordon (American editor)

    Raymond Carver: …revealed that his long-time editor, Gordon Lish, had drastically changed many of Carver’s early stories. While Lish’s significant involvement in Carver’s writing had long been suspected, the extent of his editing became public knowledge when, in 2007, Carver’s widow, the poet Tess Gallagher, announced that she was seeking to publish…

  • lishny chelovek (literature)

    Superfluous man, a character type whose frequent recurrence in 19th-century Russian literature is sufficiently striking to make him a national archetype. He is usually an aristocrat, intelligent, well-educated, and informed by idealism and goodwill but incapable, for reasons as complex as H

  • lishu (Chinese script)

    Lishu, (Chinese: “clerical script,” or “chancery script”) in Chinese calligraphy, a style that may have originated in the brush writing of the later Zhou and Qin dynasties (c. 300–200 bc); it represents a more informal tradition than the zhuanshu (“seal script”), which was more suitable for

  • Lisi, Nicola (Italian author)

    Italian literature: Other writings: …siccità [1941; “The Drought”]) and Nicola Lisi (Diario di un parroco di campagna [1942; “Diary of a Country Priest”]) or in some respects back to Federigo Tozzi. Especially typical of Cassola’s works are Il taglio del bosco (1953; The Felling of the Forest), Un cuore arido (1961; An Arid Heart),…

  • Lisi, Virna (Italian actress)

    Virna Lisi, (Virna Lisa Pieralisi), Italian actress (born Nov. 8, 1936, Ancona, Italy—died Dec. 18, 2014, Rome, Italy), was a blonde bombshell in Hollywood during the 1960s, appearing in such romantic comedies as How to Murder Your Wife (1965), opposite actor Jack Lemmon, and Not with My Wife, You

  • Lisianthius (plant genus)

    Gentianales: Gentianaceae: …under the name “lisianthus” (true Lisianthius is actually a shrubby, uncultivated genus of tropical gentians native to the New World). Three distinct groups of tropical gentians (Voyria, Voyriella, and Cotylanthera) have lost their leaves and lack chlorophyll entirely. They rely instead on fungal associations (mycorrhizae) or decaying plant material to…

  • Lisichansk (Ukraine)

    Lysychansk, city, eastern Ukraine, on the Donets River. In 1721 the first discovery of coal in the Donets Basin was made there at the Cossack village of Lisya Balka, which dated from 1710. It was not until 1795, however, that Lysychansk was established as the first coal-mining settlement of the

  • Lisieux (France)

    Lisieux, town, formerly capital of the district known as the Pays d’Auge, Calvados département, Normandy région, northwestern France. Lisieux has become a world centre of pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Thérèse, a Carmelite nun who died there in 1897 and was canonized in 1925. Lisieux was also

  • Lisitsky, Lazar Markovich (Russian artist)

    El Lissitzky, Russian painter, typographer, and designer, a pioneer of nonrepresentational art in the early 20th century. His innovations in typography, advertising, and exhibition design were particularly influential. Lissitzky received his initial art training in Vitebsk (now Vitsyebsk, Belarus),

  • Liski (Russia)

    Liski, city and administrative centre of Liski rayon (sector), Voronezh oblast (region), western Russia, situated on the banks of the Don River. It is a main railway junction, with shops for servicing locomotives; its food industries include meat-packing and flour milling. It became a city in 1937

  • Liskov, Barbara Jane (American computer scientist)

    Barbara Jane Liskov, American winner of the 2008 A.M. Turing Award, the highest honour in computer science, for her “pioneering work in the design of computer programming languages.” After she earned a bachelor’s degree in mathematics in 1961 from the University of California, Berkeley, Liskov

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