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  • Lisky (Russia)

    Liski, city and administrative centre of Liski rayon (sector), Voronezh oblast (region), western Russia, situated on the banks of the Don River. It is a main railway junction, with shops for servicing locomotives; its food industries include meat-packing and flour milling. It became a city in 1937

  • Lisle (Illinois, United States)

    Lisle, village, DuPage county, northeastern Illinois, U.S. A suburb of Chicago, it is located about 25 miles (40 km) west of downtown. The village was founded in 1832 by James and Luther Hatch, settlers from New Hampshire, and named for a town in New York. In the 1860s Lisle became a station along

  • Lisle, John Dudley, Baron (English politician and soldier)

    John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, English politician and soldier who was virtual ruler of England from 1549 to 1553, during the minority of King Edward VI. Almost all historical sources regard him as an unscrupulous schemer whose policies undermined England’s political stability. His father,

  • Lisle, John Dudley, Viscount (English politician and soldier)

    John Dudley, duke of Northumberland, English politician and soldier who was virtual ruler of England from 1549 to 1553, during the minority of King Edward VI. Almost all historical sources regard him as an unscrupulous schemer whose policies undermined England’s political stability. His father,

  • Lismore (island, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Lismore, island in the entrance of the sea inlet of Loch Linnhe, Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Argyllshire, Scotland. It is about 9.5 miles (15 km) long and less than 2 miles (3 km) wide. A Columban (early Celtic Christian) monastery was founded on the island about 592. In the

  • Lismore (Ireland)

    Lismore, market town, County Waterford, Ireland. It lies in the Blackwater valley, at the southern foot of the Knockmealdown Mountains. A monastery was founded in Lismore by St. Cartagh about 633. In the 9th and 10th centuries it was plundered by the Norsemen. The baronial castle, erected by Prince

  • Lismore (New South Wales, Australia)

    Lismore, city, northeastern New South Wales, Australia, on the north arm of the Richmond River. It is situated between rainforest and sea, some 20 miles (32 km) inland from the Pacific Ocean, and has its outport at Ballina. Ward Stephens first settled the site in 1843; it was later occupied by

  • Lismore, The Book of the Dean of (Gaelic literature)

    The Book of the Dean of Lismore, miscellany of Scottish and Irish poetry, the oldest collection of Gaelic poetry extant in Scotland. It was compiled between 1512 and 1526, chiefly by Sir James MacGregor, the dean of Lismore (now in Argyll and Bute council area), and his brother Duncan. The

  • Lisnagarvey (Northern Ireland, United Kingdom)

    Lisburn, town, Lisburn and Castlereagh City district, eastern Northern Ireland. The town, on the River Lagan 8 miles (13 km) southwest of Belfast, was a small village known as Lisnagarvey before the English, Scots, and Welsh settled the site in the 1620s as part of the Plantation of Ulster scheme.

  • Lisovska, Aleksandra (wife of Süleyman the Magnificent)

    Roxelana, Slavic woman who was forced into concubinage and later became the wife of the Ottoman sultan Süleyman the Magnificent. Through her influence on the sultan and her mastery of palace intrigue, Roxelana wielded considerable power. Roxelana was born about 1505 in the town of Rohatyn, in what

  • lisp (speech disorder)

    speech disorder: Lisping: Although lisping belongs among the articulatory disorders and usually has the same causes as articulatory disorders (dyslalia) in general, it differs from other disorders of articulation in several respects. For one, lisping occurs in various varieties: with the tongue tip protruding between the front…

  • LISP (computer language)

    LISP, a computer programming language developed about 1960 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). LISP was founded on the mathematical theory of recursive functions (in which a function appears in its own definition). A LISP program is a function applied to data,

  • Lispector, Clarice (Brazilian author)

    Clarice Lispector, novelist and short-story writer, one of Brazil’s most important literary figures, who is considered to be among the greatest women writers of the 20th century. Escaping the Jewish pogroms that were part of life in Ukraine and other parts of the Russian Empire in the late

  • Liss, Johann (Italian artist)

    Western painting: Early and High Baroque in Italy: In the hands of Johann Liss (or Jan Lys) the groundwork was laid for the flowering of the Venetian school of the 18th century. Venetian painting was also enriched by the pale colours and flickering brushwork of Francesco Maffei from Vicenza, whereas Bernardo Strozzi in 1630 carried to Venice…

  • Lissa (island, Croatia)

    Vis, island of Croatia in the Adriatic Sea. It is the outermost major island of the Dalmatian archipelago. The highest point on Vis is Mount Hum, at 1,926 feet (587 metres). Its climate and vegetation are Mediterranean and subtropical, with palms, Mediterranean pines, citrus, eucalyptus, cacti, and

  • Lissa (Poland)

    Leszno, city, Wielkopolskie województwo (province), west-central Poland. It is a rail junction and an agricultural and manufacturing centre. Leszno was founded in the 15th century by the prominent Leszczyński family, whose tombs are in the parish church. In the 16th century a band of Protestant

  • Lissa, Battle of (Austrian-Italian history)

    naval ship: Toward the battleship: When the Austrians won the Battle of Lissa from the Italians in 1866 by ramming, its value for the future seemed confirmed. Hence for years most large ships carried rams, which proved to be more dangerous to friend than foe when ships were sunk in peacetime collisions.

  • Lissajous figure (mathematics)

    Lissajous figure, also called Bowditch Curve, pattern produced by the intersection of two sinusoidal curves the axes of which are at right angles to each other. First studied by the American mathematician Nathaniel Bowditch in 1815, the curves were investigated independently by the French

  • Lissamphibia (amphibian subclass)

    amphibian: …three orders make up subclass Lissamphibia. Neither the lissamphibians nor any of the extinct groups of amphibians were the ancestors of the group of tetrapods that gave rise to reptiles. Though some aspects of the biology and anatomy of the various amphibian groups might demonstrate features possessed by reptilian ancestors,…

  • lissamphibian (amphibian subclass)

    amphibian: …three orders make up subclass Lissamphibia. Neither the lissamphibians nor any of the extinct groups of amphibians were the ancestors of the group of tetrapods that gave rise to reptiles. Though some aspects of the biology and anatomy of the various amphibian groups might demonstrate features possessed by reptilian ancestors,…

  • Lissandrino (Italian painter)

    Alessandro Magnasco, Italian painter of the late Baroque period distinguished for his landscapes and genre paintings. Magnasco worked in Milan but is thought to have been influenced by the Bolognese painter Giuseppe Maria Crespi. Although Magnasco began as a portrait painter, only a self-portrait

  • Lissandrino, Il (Italian painter)

    Alessandro Magnasco, Italian painter of the late Baroque period distinguished for his landscapes and genre paintings. Magnasco worked in Milan but is thought to have been influenced by the Bolognese painter Giuseppe Maria Crespi. Although Magnasco began as a portrait painter, only a self-portrait

  • Lissanoure, George Macartney, Baron of (British emissary)

    George Macartney, Earl Macartney, Viscount Macartney of Dervock, baron of Lissanoure, Baron Macartney of Parkhurst and of Auchinleck, Lord Macartney, first British emissary to Beijing. A member of an old Scots-Irish family, Macartney studied at Trinity College (M.A., 1759) in Dublin. He was

  • Lisse (Netherlands)

    Lisse, gemeente (municipality), western Netherlands. It lies in the centre of the flower fields between Haarlem and Leiden. With Hillegom, it is one of the two great commercial centres of the Netherlands’ bulb-growing district. It is also the site of the State Bulb School and Laboratory. The annual

  • lissencephaly (birth defect)

    cephalic disorder: Lissencephaly: Lissencephaly means “smooth brain.” The normal brain surface has many folds and grooves (gyri and sulci), but a brain affected by lissencephaly does not; the folds may be incomplete or entirely absent. Lissencephaly is further characterized by microcephaly (reduced head size) and by symptoms…

  • Lissitzky, El (Russian artist)

    El Lissitzky, Russian painter, typographer, and designer, a pioneer of nonrepresentational art in the early 20th century. His innovations in typography, advertising, and exhibition design were particularly influential. Lissitzky received his initial art training in Vitebsk (now Vitsyebsk, Belarus),

  • Lissitzky, Eliezer (Russian artist)

    El Lissitzky, Russian painter, typographer, and designer, a pioneer of nonrepresentational art in the early 20th century. His innovations in typography, advertising, and exhibition design were particularly influential. Lissitzky received his initial art training in Vitebsk (now Vitsyebsk, Belarus),

  • Lissitzky, Elizar (Russian artist)

    El Lissitzky, Russian painter, typographer, and designer, a pioneer of nonrepresentational art in the early 20th century. His innovations in typography, advertising, and exhibition design were particularly influential. Lissitzky received his initial art training in Vitebsk (now Vitsyebsk, Belarus),

  • Lissitzky, Lasar Markowitsch (Russian artist)

    El Lissitzky, Russian painter, typographer, and designer, a pioneer of nonrepresentational art in the early 20th century. His innovations in typography, advertising, and exhibition design were particularly influential. Lissitzky received his initial art training in Vitebsk (now Vitsyebsk, Belarus),

  • Lissopimpla (wasp genus)

    orchid: Natural history: …ichneumon wasps of the genus Lissopimpla. The wasp, after backing into the stigma, attempts to copulate with the flower by bending its body into an arch, with the base of the lip of the flower held by the claspers of the wasp. The upper side of the apex of the…

  • Lissouba, Pascal (president of Republic of the Congo)

    Denis Sassou-Nguesso: …first round of voting, and Pascal Lissouba of the Pan-African Union for Social Development (Union Panafricaine pour la Démocratie Sociale; UPADS) was elected president.

  • Lissy (painting by Lohse-W?chtler)

    Elfriede Lohse-W?chtler: …she painted her best-known work, Lissy, a three-quarter-length portrait of a blond prostitute gazing confrontationally at the viewer. Some art historians interpret that work as a self-portrait revealing the artist’s identification with the marginalized figures of Hamburg’s underworld.

  • list (data structure)

    artificial intelligence programming language: …structure that they called a list. A list is simply an ordered sequence of items of data. Some or all of the items in a list may themselves be lists. This scheme leads to richly branching structures.

  • list of actors

    This is a list of actors, ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of actresses

    This is a list of actresses, ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of acts and laws

    This is a chronologically ordered list of legislative acts and laws organized by country or historical empire or

  • list of African American writers

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of African American writers. In addition to including writers born in the United States, the list contains those who became naturalized citizens. The term writers is here broadly defined to include philosophers, critics, journalists, sociologists, and

  • list of algae

    Algae are predominantly aquatic, photosynthetic organisms. The group is extremely diverse, ranging from giant kelps to microscopic diatoms, and their taxonomy is contentious. The following is a list of algae, arranged alphabetically by taxonomic division (the taxonomic rank below kingdom). The

  • list of amendments to the U.S. Constitution

    The Constitution of the United States, which entered into force in 1789, is the oldest written national constitution in use. The framers of the U.S. Constitution included a provision whereby the document may be amended, generally (though not solely) by a two-thirds majority of each house of

  • list of American writers

    This list of American writers is alphabetically ordered by period. The term writers is broadly defined to include philosophers, scientists, cookbook writers, critics, journalists, sociologists, historians, and even explorers, as well as poets and novelists. This list is limited, however, to those

  • list of ancient civilizations

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of ancient civilizations. It includes types of cultures, traditions, and industries as well as more traditionally defined

  • list of anthropologists

    Anthropology is “the science of humanity,” which studies human beings in aspects ranging from the biology and evolutionary history of Homo sapiens to the features of society and culture that decisively distinguish humans from other animal species. This is a list of anthropologists organized

  • list of ants, bees, and wasps

    The order Hymenoptera is the third largest of all insect orders. More than 115,000 species have been described, including ants, bees, ichneumons, chalcids, sawflies, wasps, and lesser-known types. Except for the polar regions, they are abundant in most habitats, particularly in tropical and

  • list of arachnids

    The arachnids (class Arachnida) are an arthropod group that includes spiders, daddy longlegs, scorpions, mites, and ticks as well as lesser-known subgroups. This is a list of notable arachnids grouped by order or subclass and arranged

  • list of archaeologists

    This is a list of archaeologists organized alphabetically by country of origin or residence. See also archaeology and

  • list of architects

    This is a list of significant architects ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of art and design movements of the 20th century

    The following is an alphabetically ordered list of major art and design movements that took place during the 20th century. A “movement” is a style or prevailing inclination in art or design that upholds a specific philosophy or ideal and is followed and promoted by a group of artists for a defined

  • list of art historians

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of art historians and art critics. (See also art criticism and art

  • list of articles on literary works

    This is a list of Britannica articles that include summaries and analysis of significant literary works. It is organized alphabetically by title. These articles are brief guides that summarize each book’s plot, identify its characters and themes, provide insights into the book’s author, and

  • list of artists and architects of the 17th century

    The following list of artists and architects who flourished in the 17th century is organized alphabetically by country of origin or residence. With a few exceptions, the work of these artists falls into either the Baroque or the Classical style, though sometimes both. Baroque art is generally

  • list of asteroids

    An asteroid, also called a minor planet or planetoid, is any of a host of small bodies, about 1,000 km (600 miles) or less in diameter, that orbit the Sun primarily between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter in a nearly flat ring called the asteroid belt. It is because of their small size and large

  • list of astronauts

    This is a list of astronauts ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. The list also includes private citizens who have been to space. (See also space

  • list of astronomical observatories and telescopes

    Astronomical observatories are structures containing telescopes and auxiliary instruments with which to observe celestial objects. Telescopes provide a means of collecting and analyzing radiation from celestial objects, even those in the far reaches of the universe. This is a list of astronomical

  • list of Australian politicians

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of Australian politicians. (See also

  • list of Australian writers

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of notable Australian writers. (See also Australian

  • list of awards

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of awards organized by country from which the award is presented and by field: art; architecture; civilian; film; literature; mathematics; media; military; music; religion; science; sports; television; and

  • list of bands

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of bands. See also band, rock, alternative rock, popular music, heavy metal, grunge, psychedelic rock, punk, and country

  • list of banks

    This is a list of banks ordered alphabetically by continent or region and country. (See also accounting; finance;

  • list of baseball players

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of baseball players. (See also American League; Central League; Cuban League; Japanese baseball leagues; Major League Baseball; National League; Negro league; Pacific

  • list of basketball players

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of basketball players. (See also National Basketball Association; Women’s National Basketball

  • list of bats

    Bats (order Chiroptera) are the only mammals capable of flight. This capability, coupled with the ability to navigate at night by using a system of acoustic orientation (echolocation), has made the bats a highly diverse and populous order. More than 1,200 species are currently recognized, and many

  • list of battles

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of land-fought battles. With the exception of ancient battles, the list is organized by continent and then by country or region in which it took place (determined by the boundaries of the modern-day country or region). See also

  • list of bays and gulfs

    Bays and gulfs are concavities formed by tidal erosion in the coastline of an ocean, lake, or sea. The difference between a bay and a gulf is not clearly defined, but the term bay usually refers to a body of water somewhat smaller than a gulf. Numerous exceptions, however, are found throughout the

  • list of bears

    This is a list of bears (family Ursidae) ordered alphabetically by genus and common name. (See also

  • list of beetles

    The order Coleoptera consists of the beetles and weevils. It is the largest order of insects, representing about 40 percent of the known insect species. Among the more than 360,000 species of Coleoptera are many of the largest and most-conspicuous insects, some of which also have brilliant metallic

  • list of boats, ships, and submarines

    A ship is any large floating vessel capable of crossing open waters, as opposed to a boat, which is generally a smaller craft. A submarine is any naval vessel that is capable of propelling itself beneath the water as well as on the water’s surface. This is an alphabetically ordered list of notable

  • list of botanists

    This is a list of botanists organized alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also

  • list of bridges

    The following is a list of bridges, ordered alphabetically by

  • list of British monarchs

    This is a chronologically ordered list of British monarchs starting from the Act of Union of 1707—the unification of the English and Scottish kingdoms as Great Britain. See also list of English

  • list of butterflies and moths

    The order Lepidoptera consists of more than 155,000 species of butterflies, moths, and skippers. This order of insects is second in size to Coleoptera, the beetles. This is an alphabetically ordered list of significant butterflies and moths, grouped by

  • list of camelids

    This is a list of camelids (family Camelidae) ordered alphabetically by common name. (See also artiodactyl;

  • list of canals

    Canals are used for navigation, crop irrigation, water supply, or drainage. This is an alphabetically ordered list of major canals grouped by continent and

  • list of cancers

    Cancer is any of more than 100 distinct diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. (See also metastasis; list of infectious diseases; list of parasitic

  • list of canines

    Canines, also called canids, include foxes, wolves, jackals, and other members of the dog family (Canidae). They are found throughout the world and tend to be slender long-legged animals with long muzzles, bushy tails, and erect pointed ears. This is a list of canines ordered alphabetically by

  • list of canyons and gorges

    A canyon is a deep steep-walled V-shaped valley cut by a river through resistant rock. Such valleys often occur in the upper courses of rivers, where the stream has a strong swift current that digs its valley relatively rapidly. Smaller valleys of similar appearance are called gorges. The term

  • list of carnivorous plants

    Carnivorous plants are specially adapted to trap and digest small prey as a way to supplement their nutrient requirements in poor soil conditions. Carnivory in plants has evolved independently about six times, with more than 600 species occurring across several families. Such plants employ a

  • list of cartoon characters

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of cartoon characters. (See also animation, Disney Company, Hanna and Barbera, and Looney

  • list of cat breeds

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of selected domestic cat breeds. (See also domestication; feline;

  • list of cattle

    The animals most often called cattle are the domesticated bovids raised for meat, milk, and leather or as beasts of burden. However, certain wild bovids are sometimes called cattle as well. (See also artiodactyl;

  • list of caves

    This is a list of notable caves, organized by continent or region and by

  • list of Central Intelligence Agency directors

    The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), formally created in 1947, is the principal foreign intelligence and counterintelligence agency of the U.S. government. The CIA is headed by a director and deputy director, only one of whom may be a military officer. The director of central intelligence (DCI)

  • list of cetaceans

    Cetaceans (order Cetacea) are an entirely aquatic order of mammals comprising the whales, the dolphins, and the porpoises. The ancient Greeks recognized that cetaceans breathe air, give birth to live young, produce milk, and have hair—all features of mammals. Because of their body form, however,

  • list of chancellors of Germany

    This is a chronologically ordered list of chancellors of

  • list of characters in plays by Shakespeare

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of characters in plays by William Shakespeare. (See also list of plays by

  • list of chefs

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of notable chefs. (See also cuisine; food; nouvelle cuisine; grande

  • list of chemical elements

    A chemical element is any substance that cannot be decomposed into simpler substances by ordinary chemical processes. Elements are the fundamental materials of which all matter is composed. Here, the elements are ordered alphabetically. Each element is followed by its atomic number, the total

  • list of chemists

    This is a list of chemists, ordered alphabetically by place of origin or residence. It includes scientists who received degrees in chemistry or who made significant contributions to the study of chemistry, as well as those whose work in other areas of science employed chemical analysis. (See also

  • list of choreographers

    This is a list of choreographers organized alphabetically by country of birth or residence. (See also

  • list of cities and towns in Argentina

    This is a list of cities and towns in Argentina, ordered alphabetically by province (provincia). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Australia

    This is a list of selected cities, towns, and other populated places in Australia, ordered alphabetically by state or territory. (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Austria

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of cities and towns in Austria, arranged by state (Bundesland). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Brazil

    This is a list of cities and towns in Brazil, ordered alphabetically by unidad federativa (federative unit). All but Distrito Federal are estados (states). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Canada

    This is a list of selected cities, towns, and other populated places in Canada, ordered alphabetically by province or territory. (See also city and urban

  • list of cities and towns in Chile

    This is a list of cities and towns in Chile, arranged alphabetically by region (región). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Colombia

    This is a list of cities and towns in Colombia ordered alphabetically by departamento (department). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Denmark

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of cities and towns in Denmark, arranged by region. (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in Egypt

    This is a list of cities and towns in Egypt, ordered alphabetically by mu?āfa?ah (governorate). (See also city; urban

  • list of cities and towns in France

    This is a list of selected cities, towns, and other populated places in France, ordered alphabetically by administrative unit. (See also city and urban

  • list of cities and towns in Germany

    This is a list of selected cities, towns, and other populated places in Germany, ordered alphabetically by state. (See also city and urban

  • list of cities and towns in Guatemala

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of cities and towns in Guatemala. (See also city; urban

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