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  • List of queens

    This is a list of queens and queen consorts organized alphabetically by kingdom and chronologically by years of rule. See also

  • list of rabbis

    This is a list of notable rabbis, ordered alphabetically by country or place of residence. (See also

  • list of racehorses

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of notable racehorses. (See also horse

  • list of rivers

    This is a list of selected rivers, ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of rodents

    Rodents are mammals characterized by upper and lower pairs of ever-growing rootless incisor teeth. Rodents are the largest group of mammals, constituting almost half of the class Mammalia’s approximately 4,660 species. This is a list of selected rodents, arranged alphabetically by suborder and

  • list of Roman emperors

    This is a chronologically ordered list of Roman emperors. See also Roman Empire and ancient

  • list of runners

    The sport of running involves footraces over a variety of distances and courses and is among the most popular sports of nearly all times and places. Modern competitive running ranges from sprints (dashes), with an emphasis on continuous high speed, to grueling long-distance and marathon races,

  • list of saints

    The following is a list of saints recognized by the Roman Catholic Church and/or Eastern Orthodox churches, organized alphabetically by country or nation of origin or

  • list of satellites

    This is a list of satellites, ordered alphabetically according to the country that launched them. Note that some satellite launches were the result of collaborative efforts and are thus listed under multiple countries. (See also satellite communication; satellite

  • list of sculptors

    This is a list of sculptors organized alphabetically by nationality. (See also

  • list of serial killers

    Serial killers, or serial murderers, are criminals who have committed at least two homicides over a period of time. This is a list of notable serial killers, ordered alphabetically by country of origin or

  • list of sharks, skates, and rays

    A chondrichthian (class Chondrichthyes) is any member of the diverse group of cartilaginous fishes that includes the sharks, skates, rays, chimaeras, and their relatives. The class is one of the two great groups of living fishes, the other being the osteichthians, or bony fishes. This is a list of

  • list of sheep

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of sheep (genus Ovis). (See also artiodactyl; bovid;

  • list of singers

    This is a list of singers ordered alphabetically by place of origin or residence. (See also blues; cabaret; country music; folk music; hip-hop; jazz; opera; popular music; rock and roll; rhythm and

  • list of small cats

    This list provides all the genera that make up the Felinae—a subfamily of the cat family, Felidae. All species in each genus are included. Informally referred to as the small cats, they are distinguished from the big cats (subfamily Pantherinae; see list of big cats) by their ossified hyoid bones,

  • list of snakes

    There are nearly 3,000 species of snakes distributed nearly worldwide. The following is a list of some of the major genera and species of snake, organized alphabetically by family. Sometimes listed as a subfamily of the boa family (Boidae). Sometimes listed as a subfamily of the boa family

  • list of soccer (football) players

    This is a list of soccer (football) players ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also Major League Soccer and World

  • list of social movements

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of social movements organized by country. A social movement is defined as a loosely organized but sustained campaign in support of a social

  • list of songwriters

    This is a list of songwriters organized alphabetically by country of birth or residence. See also

  • list of Spanish monarchs

    This is a chronologically ordered list of monarchs of Spain, including the medieval kingdoms of Asturias, Leon, Castile, Galicia, and

  • list of spies

    This is a list of notable spies ordered alphabetically by country of origin or residence. (See also espionage;

  • list of sports

    Sports are defined as physical contests pursued for the goals and challenges they entail. This is an alphabetically ordered list of sports, grouped by manner of play (individual or team). Sports that may be played with either opposing individuals or opposing teams are listed twice. Sports that

  • list of stars

    A star is any massive self-luminous celestial body of gas that shines by radiation derived from its internal energy sources. Of the tens of billions of trillions of stars composing the observable universe, only a very small percentage are visible to the naked eye. Many stars occur in pairs,

  • list of state capitals in the United States

    This is a list of the cities that are state capitals in the United States, ordered alphabetically by state. This list also provides the most recent U.S. census figures for each city as well as estimated populations. (This list does not include the capital of the United States, Washington, D.C.)

  • list of suffragists

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of woman, universal, and manhood suffragists organized by nationality. See also American Woman Suffrage Association; National American Woman Suffrage Association; National Woman’s Party; National Woman Suffrage Association; Nineteenth Amendment; Seneca Falls

  • list of superheroes

    Superheroes have their antecedents in the semidivine heroes of myth and legend. Protagonists who exhibit feats of incredible strength, fighting prowess, and cunning are commonplace in both scripture and early secular literature. Comic strips of the early 20th century provided the perfect visual

  • list of Supreme Court justices of the United States

    The Supreme Court of the United States is the final court of appeal and final expositor of the Constitution of the United States. The justices are appointed by the president of the United States and must be confirmed by the U.S. Senate. The chief justice of the United States is also appointed by

  • list of television shows

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of television shows. (See also situation comedy; soap opera; talk show; television; television in the United

  • list of textiles

    The following is a list of textiles, fibres, and fabrics ordered

  • list of the populations of the world’s countries, dependencies, and territories

    This list provides the populations for all the countries of the world and for all but the smallest political dependencies and territories. It is ordered alphabetically by the names of the countries, dependencies, and territories. The populations are estimates calculated by Encyclop?dia Britannica’s

  • list of the total areas of the world’s countries, dependencies, and territories

    This list provides the total area in square miles and square kilometres for all the countries of the world and for all but the smallest political dependencies and territories. It is ordered alphabetically by the name of the country, dependency, or territory. 1 Includes river area of 3,180 square

  • list of theatres

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of theatres organized by country. See also theatre (art); theatre (building); theatrical production; Western

  • list of treaties

    A treaty is a binding formal agreement, contract, or other written instrument that establishes obligations between two or more subjects of international law (primarily states and international organizations). This is a list of treaties, organized chronologically by the years that they were

  • list of tropical cyclones

    A tropical cyclone, also called a typhoon or hurricane, is an intense circular storm that originates over warm tropical oceans and is characterized by low atmospheric pressure, high winds, and heavy rain. This is a chronologically ordered list of significant tropical

  • list of true bugs

    The order Heteroptera comprises the so-called true bugs. This is an alphabetically ordered list of true

  • list of turtles

    Turtles (order Testudines), including tortoises, are reptiles with bodies encased in bony shells. This is a list of turtles, ordered alphabetically and grouped by

  • list of U.S. states by date of admission to the Union

    This is a list of the states of the United States of America and the dates on which they achieved statehood, ordered by date of admission to the union. This list excludes U.S. territories, as they have not been admitted as states, although they are constituents of the United States. This list also

  • list of United States presidential elections

    The United States is rare among democracies in that the role of president is not primarily ceremonial, as it is in most parliamentary governments, but is instead the most powerful role in U.S. government, and the quadrennial U.S. presidential elections are of great importance to both the country

  • list of valleys

    Valleys are elongate depressions of Earth’s surface. Valleys are most commonly drained by rivers and may occur in a relatively flat plain or between ranges of hills or mountains. Those valleys produced by tectonic action are called rift valleys. Very narrow, deep valleys of similar appearance are

  • list of vegetables

    The term “vegetable” usually refers to the fresh edible portions of certain herbaceous plants; these portions include the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruit, or seeds. These plant parts are either eaten fresh or prepared in a number of ways, usually as a savory, rather than sweet, dish. The

  • list of viverrids

    Viverrids (family Viverridae) are any of 35 species of small Old World mammals, including civets, genets, and linsangs. Viverrids are among the most poorly known carnivores. This is an alphabetically ordered list of selected

  • list of wars

    This is a list of wars ordered chronologically by the year that hostilities were initiated. (See also war; law of war; military technology; collective

  • list of waterfalls

    This is a list of waterfalls, ordered alphabetically by continent or region and by

  • list of weapons

    This is a list of weapons organized alphabetically by

  • list of women artists born before the 20th century

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of women artists born before the 20th century.(See also painting; sculpture;

  • list of women photographers

    The following is an alphabetically ordered list of women who made significant contributions to

  • list of World Heritage sites

    This is an alphabetically ordered list of World Heritage sites—sites that have “outstanding universal value”—as designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). Where possible, site names are linked to relevant Britannica content. In some cases spelling

  • list of zoos

    This is a list of zoos, also called zoological parks or zoological gardens, ordered alphabetically by country. (See also

  • list price (economics)

    price index: Adjusting for biases: …they may be based on list prices rather than actual transactions prices. List prices probably are changed less frequently than the actual prices at which goods are sold; they may represent only an initial base of negotiation, a seller’s asking price rather than an actual price. One study has shown…

  • list processing (computer language)

    LISP, a computer programming language developed about 1960 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). LISP was founded on the mathematical theory of recursive functions (in which a function appears in its own definition). A LISP program is a function applied to data,

  • List Processor (computer language)

    LISP, a computer programming language developed about 1960 by John McCarthy at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). LISP was founded on the mathematical theory of recursive functions (in which a function appears in its own definition). A LISP program is a function applied to data,

  • list system (voting)

    List system, a method of voting for several electoral candidates, usually members of the same political party, with one mark of the ballot. It is used to elect the parliaments of many western European countries, including Switzerland, Italy, the Benelux countries, and Germany. Electors vote for o

  • List, Friedrich (German-American economist)

    Friedrich List, German-U.S. economist who believed tariffs on imported goods would stimulate domestic development. List also supported the free exchange of domestic goods, and he gained prominence as founder and secretary of an association of middle and southern German industrialists who sought to

  • List, Georg Friedrich (German-American economist)

    Friedrich List, German-U.S. economist who believed tariffs on imported goods would stimulate domestic development. List also supported the free exchange of domestic goods, and he gained prominence as founder and secretary of an association of middle and southern German industrialists who sought to

  • List, Guido von (German poet)

    swastika: …a poet and nationalist ideologist Guido von List had suggested the swastika as a symbol for all anti-Semitic organizations; and when the National Socialist Party was formed in 1919–20, it adopted it. On September 15, 1935, the black swastika on a white circle with a red background became the national…

  • List, John A. (American economist)

    John A. List, American economist who made novel contributions to the fields of experimental and behavioral economics. He helped to popularize the use of field experiments as viable tools for analyzing a broad set of economic questions. In 2011 he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts

  • List, John August (American economist)

    John A. List, American economist who made novel contributions to the fields of experimental and behavioral economics. He helped to popularize the use of field experiments as viable tools for analyzing a broad set of economic questions. In 2011 he was elected a fellow of the American Academy of Arts

  • List, Wilhelm (German general)

    Battle of Stalingrad: …Group A (under Field Marshal Wilhelm List) and Army Group B (under Bock). Within days, Bock was replaced at the head of Army Group B by Field Marshal Maximilian von Weichs. The division of forces placed tremendous pressure on an already-strained logistical support system. It also caused a gap between…

  • Lista y Aragón, Alberto (Spanish writer)

    Alberto Lista, Spanish poet and critic considered to be the foremost member of the second Sevillian school of late 18th-century writers who espoused the tenets of Neoclassicism. At age 20, Lista held the chair of mathematics at a college in Sevilla (Seville); later (1807) he assumed the chair of

  • Lista, Alberto (Spanish writer)

    Alberto Lista, Spanish poet and critic considered to be the foremost member of the second Sevillian school of late 18th-century writers who espoused the tenets of Neoclassicism. At age 20, Lista held the chair of mathematics at a college in Sevilla (Seville); later (1807) he assumed the chair of

  • listel (architecture)

    Fillet, (from Latin filum, “thread”), in architecture, the characteristically rectangular or square ribbonlike bands that separate moldings and ornaments. Fillets are common in classical architecture (in which they also may be found between the flutings of columns) and in Gothic architecture. In

  • Listen (song by Beyoncé)

    Beyoncé: …Award and her song “Listen” for an Academy Award. She later starred in Cadillac Records (2008), in which she portrayed singer Etta James, and the thriller Obsessed (2009) before providing the voice of a fairylike forest queen in the animated Epic (2013). For the 2019 remake of Disney’s The…

  • Listen to Me Marlon (film by Riley [2015])

    Marlon Brando: …the basis of the documentary Listen to Me Marlon (2015).

  • Listener, The (British periodical)

    Wyndham Lewis: …he became art critic for The Listener, a publication of the British Broadcasting Corporation. Until his sight failed in 1951, Lewis produced a memorable series of articles for that journal, praising several young British artists, such as Michael Ayrton and Francis Bacon, who later became famous. Lewis also wrote a…

  • Lister, Joseph (British surgeon and medical scientist)

    Joseph Lister, British surgeon and medical scientist who was the founder of antiseptic medicine and a pioneer in preventive medicine. While his method, based on the use of antiseptics, is no longer employed, his principle—that bacteria must never gain entry to an operation wound—remains the basis

  • Lister, Joseph Jackson (British opticist)

    Joseph Jackson Lister, English amateur opticist whose discoveries played an important role in perfecting the objective lens system of the microscope, elevating that instrument to the status of a serious scientific tool. Lister discovered a method of combining lenses that greatly improved image

  • Lister, Joseph, Baron Lister of Lyme Regis (British surgeon and medical scientist)

    Joseph Lister, British surgeon and medical scientist who was the founder of antiseptic medicine and a pioneer in preventive medicine. While his method, based on the use of antiseptics, is no longer employed, his principle—that bacteria must never gain entry to an operation wound—remains the basis

  • Lister, Martin (British zoologist)

    Earth sciences: William Smith and faunal succession: In 1683 the zoologist Martin Lister proposed to the Royal Society that a new sort of map be drawn showing the areal distribution of the different kinds of British “soiles” (vegetable soils and underlying bedrock). The work proposed by Lister was not accomplished until 132 years later, when William…

  • Lister, Ryan (American researcher)

    epigenomics: Research tools of epigenomics: In 2009 American researcher Ryan Lister and colleagues reported the first success in using this approach to investigate epigenetic changes across whole genomes. The researchers produced a single-nucleotide-resolution map of 5′-methylcytosines in the genomes of human embryonic stem cells, which are pluripotent (capable of giving rise to each of…

  • Lister, Samuel Cunliffe (British inventor)

    Samuel Cunliffe Lister, 1st Baron Masham, English inventor whose contributions included a wool-combing machine that helped to lower the price of clothing and a silk-combing machine that utilized silk waste. In 1838 Samuel and his brother John opened a worsted mill in Manningham. He had worked on a

  • Lister, Sir Joseph, Baronet (British surgeon and medical scientist)

    Joseph Lister, British surgeon and medical scientist who was the founder of antiseptic medicine and a pioneer in preventive medicine. While his method, based on the use of antiseptics, is no longer employed, his principle—that bacteria must never gain entry to an operation wound—remains the basis

  • Listera (former plant genus)

    twayblade: … (including the former twayblade genus Listera) are found throughout north temperate regions. Each flower has a large forked lip. Many species have an unusual pollination mechanism by which pollinia (masses of pollen grains) are glued to a visiting insect with an explosive force. The frightened insect then leaves and transfers…

  • Listera cordata (plant)

    twayblade: The lesser twayblade (N. cordata), also widespread in Eurasia, has heart-shaped leaves.

  • Listera ovata (plant)

    twayblade: The common twayblade (N. ovata), found throughout Eurasia, has small green flowers and broad egg-shaped leaves. The lesser twayblade (N. cordata), also widespread in Eurasia, has heart-shaped leaves.

  • Listeria monocytogenes (bacterium)

    listeriosis: …disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterium has been isolated from humans and from more than 50 species of wild and domestic animals, including mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, and ticks. It has also been isolated from environmental sources such as animal silage, soil, plants, sewage, and stream water.

  • Listerine (mouthwash)

    Gerard Barnes Lambert: …marketed his father’s invention of Listerine mouthwash by making bad breath a social disgrace.

  • listeriosis (pathology)

    Listeriosis, disease caused by the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. The bacterium has been isolated from humans and from more than 50 species of wild and domestic animals, including mammals, birds, fish, crustaceans, and ticks. It has also been isolated from environmental sources such as animal

  • listing (agriculture)

    agricultural technology: Primary tillage equipment: …said to be bedded or listed.

  • Listing, Johann Benedict (German mathematician)

    M?bius strip: August Ferdinand M?bius and Johann Benedict Listing, in 1858. See also Klein bottle.

  • Liston, Charles (American boxer)

    Sonny Liston, American boxer who was world heavyweight boxing champion from September 25, 1962, when he knocked out Floyd Patterson in the first round in Chicago, until February 25, 1964, when he stopped fighting Cassius Clay (afterward Muhammad Ali) before the seventh round at Miami Beach,

  • Liston, Robert (British physician)

    anesthetic: Anesthetics through history: …a leg amputation performed by Robert Liston at University College Hospital in London. In Britain, official royal sanction was given to anesthetics by Queen Victoria, who accepted chloroform from her physician, John Snow, when giving birth to her eighth child, Prince Leopold, in 1853.

  • Liston, Sonny (American boxer)

    Sonny Liston, American boxer who was world heavyweight boxing champion from September 25, 1962, when he knocked out Floyd Patterson in the first round in Chicago, until February 25, 1964, when he stopped fighting Cassius Clay (afterward Muhammad Ali) before the seventh round at Miami Beach,

  • Listy ze wsi (work by Orkan)

    W?adys?aw Orkan: Listy ze wsi, 2 vol. (1925–27; “Letters from a Village”), contains sociological reflections on Poland’s immediate condition and the country’s prospects.

  • Listyev, Vladislav Nikolayevich (Russian journalist)

    Vladislav Nikolayevich Listyev, Russian journalist and television personality (born 1956—died March 1, 1995, Moscow, Russia), as an investigative journalist, a popular game-show host, and a tough network executive, was central to the emergence of a more independent, Westernized style of t

  • Lisu (people)

    Lisu, ethnic group who numbered more than 630,000 in China in the early 21st century. They are an official minority of China. The Lisu have spread southward from Yunnan province as far as Myanmar (Burma) and northern Thailand. The Chinese distinguish between Black Lisu, White Lisu, and Flowery

  • Lisu language

    Sino-Tibetan languages: Tibeto-Burman languages: (Lolo), Hani, Lahu, Lisu, Kachin (Jingpo), Kuki-Chin, the obsolete Xixia (Tangut), and other languages. The Tibetan writing system (which dates from the 7th century) and the Burmese (dating from the 11th century) are derived from the Indo-Aryan (Indic) tradition. The Xixia system (developed in the 11th–13th century in…

  • Lisya Balka (Ukraine)

    Lysychansk: …at the Cossack village of Lisya Balka, which dated from 1710. It was not until 1795, however, that Lysychansk was established as the first coal-mining settlement of the region. In addition to coal mining, industries have included the underground gasification of coal, chemical production (especially soda making), glassmaking, and petroleum…

  • Liszt Ferenc (Hungarian composer)

    Franz Liszt, Hungarian piano virtuoso and composer. Among his many notable compositions are his 12 symphonic poems, two (completed) piano concerti, several sacred choral works, and a great variety of solo piano pieces. Liszt’s father, ádám Liszt, was an official in the service of Prince Nicolas

  • Liszt, Adam (Hungarian official)

    Franz Liszt: Youth and early training: Liszt’s father, ádám Liszt, was an official in the service of Prince Nicolas Eszterházy, whose palace in Eisenstadt was frequented by many celebrated musicians. ádám Liszt was a talented amateur musician who played the cello in the court concerts. By the time Franz was five years old,…

  • Liszt, Cosima (German art director)

    Cosima Wagner, wife of the composer Richard Wagner and director of the Bayreuth Festivals from his death in 1883 to 1908. Cosima was the illegitimate daughter of the composer-pianist Franz Liszt and the countess Marie d’Agoult, who also bore Liszt two other children. Liszt later legitimatized their

  • Liszt, Franz (Hungarian composer)

    Franz Liszt, Hungarian piano virtuoso and composer. Among his many notable compositions are his 12 symphonic poems, two (completed) piano concerti, several sacred choral works, and a great variety of solo piano pieces. Liszt’s father, ádám Liszt, was an official in the service of Prince Nicolas

  • Lit, Le (novel by Rolin)

    Dominique Rolin: Le Lit (1960; “The Bed”), a woman’s account of her husband’s death, shows the influence of the French nouveau roman (see antinovel) and was filmed in 1982 by the Belgian director Marion H?nsel. The monologues of La Maison, la forêt (1965; “The House, the Forest”)…

  • Litai (Greek mythological figures)

    Ate: …later sent to earth the Litai (“Prayers”), his old and crippled daughters, who followed Ate and repaired the harm done by her.

  • Litaneutria minor (insect)

    mantid: … is widely distributed), Litaneutria (L. minor, a small western species, is the sole mantid native to Canada), and Thesprotia and Oligonicella (both very slender forms). M. religiosa, Iris oratoria, Tenodera angustipennis, and T. aridifolia sinensis have been introduced into North America. The last species is the familiar Chinese mantid,…

  • Lī?ānī River (river, Lebanon)

    Lī?ānī River, chief river of Lebanon, rising in a low divide west of Baalbek and flowing southwestward through the Al-Biqā? Valley between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains. Near Marj ?Uyūn it bends sharply west and cuts a spectacular gorge up to 900 feet (275 metres) deep through the Lebanon

  • Litani River (river, South America)

    Maroni River: …course is known as the Litani in Suriname, or Itany in French Guiana; its middle course, along which there is placer gold mining, is called the Lawa, or Aoua. Shallow-draft vessels can penetrate 60 miles (100 km) upstream from the river’s mouth; beyond that point there are many waterfalls and…

  • Lī?anī River Authority (hydroelectric project, Lebanon)

    Lebanon: Resources and power: The Lī?ānī River hydroelectric project generates electricity and has increased the amount of irrigated land for agriculture. Lebanon’s power networks and facilities were damaged during the country’s civil war and by Israeli air strikes carried out during the periodic warfare of the late 20th and early…

  • Lī?ānī, Nahr Al- (river, Lebanon)

    Lī?ānī River, chief river of Lebanon, rising in a low divide west of Baalbek and flowing southwestward through the Al-Biqā? Valley between the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains. Near Marj ?Uyūn it bends sharply west and cuts a spectacular gorge up to 900 feet (275 metres) deep through the Lebanon

  • Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (work by Mozart)

    Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart: Early maturity: …for the church was the Litaniae de venerabili altaris sacramento (K 243), which embraces a wide range of styles (fugues, choruses of considerable dramatic force, florid arias, and a plainchant setting). The instrumental works included divertimentos, concertos, and serenades, notably the Haffner (K 250), which in its use of instruments…

  • litas (Lithuanian currency)

    Lithuania: Finance: The litas, the national currency, which had been introduced to Lithuania in 1922, was restored in 1993. In January 2015 Lithuania became the 19th country to adopt the euro as its official currency. The country’s central bank is the Bank of Lithuania. All state-owned banks in…

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