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  • Little World of Don Camillo, The (film)

    Gino Cervi: The Little World of Don Camillo (1951), a French-Italian screen venture costarring Cervi and the French comedian Fernandel, was so successful that five Don Camillo sequels were produced before the death of Fernandel in 1971. Cervi appeared in more than 110 motion pictures and played…

  • Little World of the Past, The (novel by Fogazzaro)

    Antonio Fogazzaro: …work, Piccolo mondo antico (1896; The Little World of the Past), was highly acclaimed, even by critics unsympathetic to his religious and philosophical ideas.

  • Little Yenisey (river, Russia)

    Yenisey River: Physical features: …Mountains of Tyva, and the Little (Maly) Yenisey, or Ka-Khem, which rises in the Darhad?n Bowl of Mongolia. From the confluence the Yenisey River runs for 2,167 miles (3,487 km), mainly along the border between eastern and western Siberia, before emptying into the icy Kara Sea. If the Great Yenisey…

  • Little Zab River (river, Asia)

    Tigris-Euphrates river system: Physiography of the Tigris: …with the Great Zab and Little Zab rivers. During flood time, in March and April, the two Zabs double the volume of the Tigris, but their flow is controlled by the Bakhma and Dukān dams. The rapids of Al-Fat?ah Gorge impede navigation.

  • Little, Arthur D. (American chemical engineer)

    chemical engineering: History: …by the American chemical engineer Arthur D. Little in 1915 and formed the basis for a classification of chemical engineering that dominated the subject for the next 40 years. The number of unit operations—the building blocks of a chemical plant—is not large. The complexity arises from the variety of conditions…

  • Little, James Oswald (Australian singer and musician)

    Jimmy Little, (James Oswald Little), Australian singer and musician (born March 1, 1937, Cummeragunja Mission, N.S.W., Australia—died April 2, 2012, Dubbo, N.S.W., Australia), was one of Australia’s first Aboriginal musical stars; his “honeyed” baritone voice and easy-listening approach to both pop

  • Little, Jimmy (Australian singer and musician)

    Jimmy Little, (James Oswald Little), Australian singer and musician (born March 1, 1937, Cummeragunja Mission, N.S.W., Australia—died April 2, 2012, Dubbo, N.S.W., Australia), was one of Australia’s first Aboriginal musical stars; his “honeyed” baritone voice and easy-listening approach to both pop

  • Little, Malcolm (American Muslim leader)

    Malcolm X, African American leader and prominent figure in the Nation of Islam who articulated concepts of race pride and black nationalism in the early 1960s. After his assassination, the widespread distribution of his life story—The Autobiography of Malcolm X (1965)—made him an ideological hero,

  • Little, Mike (British blogger)

    WordPress: …Matt Mullenweg and British blogger Mike Little. WordPress is most often used to create blogs, but the program is sufficiently flexible that it can be used to create and design any sort of Web site. It is also an open-source product, so users can modify it for their own purposes.

  • Little, Royal (American businessman)

    Royal Little, American businessman and investor who founded Textron, Inc., the first major American corporation built on the concept of diversification, or conglomeration. In spite of an academic probation, Little graduated from Harvard University in 1919. He subsequently began working for a

  • little-leaf linden (plant)

    linden: Small-leaf, or little-leaf, linden (T. cordata), a European tree, is widely planted as a street tree. The hybrid Crimean linden (T. euchlora, a cross between T. cordata and T. dasystyla), which grows up to 20 metres (66 feet), has yielded a graceful pyramidal variety, the…

  • LittleBigPlanet (electronic game)

    LittleBigPlanet, electronic platform game, created by the British game-development company Media Molecule and released in 2008 for the Sony Corporation’s PlayStation 3 (PS3) video-game console. LittleBigPlanet is viewed as one of the flagship titles for the PS3. The game is set apart from similar

  • littleneck clam (mollusk)

    clam: The northern quahog (Mercenaria mercenaria), also known as the cherrystone clam, littleneck clam, or hard-shell clam, and the southern quahog (M. campechiensis) belong to the family of venus clams (Veneridae). M. mercenaria is about 7.5 to 12.5 cm (3 to 5 inches) long. The dingy white…

  • Littler, William (English pottery manufacturer)

    Longton Hall porcelain: …was established in Staffordshire by William Littler. Its mark consists of crossed L’s with three dots in blue; most pieces, however, are unmarked.

  • Littleton (Pennsylvania, United States)

    Bradford, city, McKean county, northern Pennsylvania, U.S., on the forks of the Tunungwant (Tuna) River, near the New York state border. Settlers first came to the area about 1823 or 1827, but Bradford itself was not established until 1837. First called Littleton, it took the name Bradford after

  • Littleton (Colorado, United States)

    Littleton, city, seat (1904) of Arapahoe county, north-central Colorado, U.S. Parts of the city also lie within Douglas and Jefferson counties. Located 11 miles (18 km) south of Denver, the city arose on the site of a flour mill and granary established in 1867 to serve the gold camps in the Rocky

  • Littleton on Tenures (work by Littleton)

    Sir Thomas Littleton: …1481, Frankley), jurist, author of Littleton on Tenures (or Treatise on Tenures), the first important English legal text neither written in Latin nor significantly influenced by Roman (civil) law. An edition (1481 or 1482?) by John Lettou and William de Machlinia was doubtless the first book on English law to…

  • Littleton, Mark (American author and statesman)

    John P. Kennedy, American statesman and writer whose best remembered work was his historical fiction. Kennedy was admitted to the Maryland bar in 1816. From 1821 he served two terms in the Maryland House of Delegates and three terms in the U.S. Congress and was secretary of the navy in the cabinet

  • Littleton, Sir Thomas (British jurist)

    Sir Thomas Littleton, jurist, author of Littleton on Tenures (or Treatise on Tenures), the first important English legal text neither written in Latin nor significantly influenced by Roman (civil) law. An edition (1481 or 1482?) by John Lettou and William de Machlinia was doubtless the first book

  • Littlewood conjecture (mathematics)

    Elon Lindenstrauss: …number theory, such as the Littlewood conjecture about approximations to irrational numbers, and in quantum chaos, such as the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture.

  • Littlewood, Joan (British theatrical director)

    Joan Littlewood, influential British theatrical director who rejected the standardized form and innocuous social content of the commercial theatre in favour of experimental productions of plays concerned with contemporary social issues for working-class audiences. After studying at the Royal

  • Littlewood, Joan Maud (British theatrical director)

    Joan Littlewood, influential British theatrical director who rejected the standardized form and innocuous social content of the commercial theatre in favour of experimental productions of plays concerned with contemporary social issues for working-class audiences. After studying at the Royal

  • Littlewood, John E. (English mathematician)

    G.H. Hardy: In 1912 Hardy published, with John E. Littlewood, the first of a series of papers that contributed fundamentally to many realms in mathematics, including the theory of Diophantine analysis, divergent series summation (see infinite series), Fourier series, the Riemann zeta function, and the distribution of primes. The collaboration between Hardy…

  • Litton Industries, Inc. (American company)

    Litton Industries, Inc., diversified U.S. multinational corporation founded in 1953 by Charles Bates “Tex” Thornton (1913–81). Its more than 80 divisions provide products and services ranging from electronic and electrical components and equipment to aerospace and marine systems and equipment. It

  • Litton Sector (American company)

    Litton Industries, Inc., diversified U.S. multinational corporation founded in 1953 by Charles Bates “Tex” Thornton (1913–81). Its more than 80 divisions provide products and services ranging from electronic and electrical components and equipment to aerospace and marine systems and equipment. It

  • littoral zone (marine ecology)

    Littoral zone, marine ecological realm that experiences the effects of tidal and longshore currents and breaking waves to a depth of 5 to 10 metres (16 to 33 feet) below the low-tide level, depending on the intensity of storm waves. The zone is characterized by abundant dissolved oxygen, sunlight,

  • Littorina (mollusk genus)

    gastropod: Ecology and habitats: …average population of 860 million Littorina (periwinkles) on one square mile of rocky shore ingests 2,200 tons of material each year, only about 55 tons of which is organic matter. Limpets of all types are even more influential in such habitats, browsing and grazing on the algae and sessile animals.…

  • Littorina littoralis (mollusk)

    gastropod: Reproduction and life cycles: …six days later into veligers; L. littoralis, which lives on seaweeds that are rarely exposed by the tides, deposits gelatinous egg masses on the seaweeds, and the larvae pass through the veliger stage in the egg mass, emerging in two to three weeks as crawling young; and L. saxatilis, which…

  • Littorina littorea (marine snail)

    periwinkle: The common periwinkle, Littorina littorea, is the largest, most common and widespread of the northern species. It may reach a length of 4 centimetres (1 12 inches), is usually dark gray, and has a solid spiral (turbinate) shell that readily withstands the buffeting of waves. Widespread…

  • Littorina neritoides (mollusk)

    gastropod: Reproduction and life cycles: …a classic example: in England L. neritoides lives in crevices of exposed rocks above normal high water but releases floating (pelagic) egg capsules during fortnightly high tides or storms; L. littorea, on the lower half of the shore, also has pelagic egg capsules, which hatch six days later into veligers;…

  • Littorina saxatilis (mollusk)

    periwinkle: L. saxatilis, which lives high up on rocks and is often out of water for long periods of time, holds its embryos in a brood sac until the young are fully developed, at which time they emerge as tiny crawling replicas of the adult. L.…

  • Littorinacea (gastropod superfamily)

    gastropod: Classification: Superfamily Littorinacea Periwinkles, on rocky shores (Littorinidae) of all oceans; land snails of the West Indies, part of Africa, and Europe (Pomatiasidae). Superfamily Rissoacea Small to minute, generally cylindrical, marine, freshwater and land snails found in most tropical and warm temperate

  • Littorinidae (marine snail)

    Periwinkle, in zoology, any small marine snail belonging to the family Littorinidae (class Gastropoda, phylum Mollusca). Periwinkles are widely distributed shore (littoral) snails, chiefly herbivorous, usually found on rocks, stones, or pilings between high- and low-tide marks; a few are found on

  • Littré (French dictionary)

    Dictionnaire de la langue fran?aise, monumental French dictionary compiled by Maximilien-Paul-émile Littré, a French lexicographer. Begun in 1844 and published in four volumes from 1863 to 1873, with a supplement issued in 1877, it contained many quotations from works of literature written in the

  • littre gland (anatomy)

    Urethral gland, in male placental mammals, any of the glands that branch off the internal wall of the urethra, the passageway for both urine and semen. The glands contribute mucus to the seminal fluid. They are located along the whole length of the urethra but are most numerous along the section o

  • Littré, Maximilien-Paul-émile (French lexicographer)

    Paul-émile Littré, French language scholar, lexicographer, and philosopher whose monumental Dictionnaire de la langue fran?aise, 4 vol. (1863–73; “Dictionary of the French Language”), is one of the outstanding lexicographic accomplishments of all time. A close friend of the philosopher Auguste

  • Littré, Paul-émile (French lexicographer)

    Paul-émile Littré, French language scholar, lexicographer, and philosopher whose monumental Dictionnaire de la langue fran?aise, 4 vol. (1863–73; “Dictionary of the French Language”), is one of the outstanding lexicographic accomplishments of all time. A close friend of the philosopher Auguste

  • Lituites (fossil cephalopod genus)

    Lituites, genus of extinct cephalopods (primitive animals related to the modern pearly nautilus) found as fossils in marine rocks of the Ordovician Period (the Ordovician Period lasted from about 488 million to 444 million years ago). The distinctive shell of Lituites is composed of serially

  • litungu (musical instrument)

    African music: Lyres: The litungu is a typical specimen.

  • liturgical chant (music)

    Plainsong, the Gregorian chant (q.v.) and, by extension, other similar religious chants. The word derives from the 13th-century Latin term cantus planus (“plain song”), referring to the unmeasured rhythm and monophony (single line of melody) of Gregorian chant, as distinguished from the measured

  • liturgical colours

    church year: Liturgical colours: The early Christians had no system of colours associated with the seasons, nor do the Eastern churches to this day have any rules or traditions in this matter. The Roman emperor Constantine gave Bishop Macarius of Jerusalem a “sacred robe…fashioned with golden threads”…

  • liturgical dance

    Christianity: New liturgical forms and antiliturgical attitudes: Liturgical dancing, widely spread in pagan cults, was not practiced in the early church, but in the latter part of the 20th century liturgical dances were reintroduced in some churches in a limited fashion. Among the many other gestures of devotion and veneration practiced in…

  • liturgical drama (medieval drama)

    Liturgical drama, in the Middle Ages, type of play acted within or near the church and relating stories from the Bible and of the saints. Although they had their roots in the Christian liturgy, such plays were not performed as essential parts of a standard church service. The language of the

  • liturgical hours (Christian service)

    Divine office, in various Christian churches, the public service of praise and worship consisting of psalms, hymns, prayers, readings from the Fathers of the early church, and other writings. Recurring at various times during the day and night, it is intended to sanctify the life of the Christian

  • Liturgical Movement (Christian churches)

    Liturgical Movement, a 19th- and 20th-century effort in Christian churches to restore the active and intelligent participation of the people in the liturgy, or official rites, of the Christian religion. The movement sought to make the liturgy both more attuned to early Christian traditions and

  • liturgical music

    Liturgical music, music written for performance in a religious rite of worship. The term is most commonly associated with the Christian tradition. Developing from the musical practices of the Jewish synagogues, which allowed the cantor an improvised charismatic song, early Christian services

  • liturgical poetry

    Greek literature: Liturgical poetry: From the earliest times song—and short rhythmic stanzas (troparia) in particular—had formed part of the liturgy of the church. Poems in classical metre and style were composed by Christian writers from Clement of Alexandria and Gregory of Nazianzus to Sophronius of Jerusalem. But…

  • liturgy (religion)

    Christianity: Liturgy: the school and feast of faith: Christians gather regularly for worship, particularly on Sundays and on the great annual festivals. In these assemblies, their faith is directed to God in praise and prayer; it is also exposed to God for strengthening, deepening, and enriching.…

  • liturgy of the Word (Christianity)

    Liturgy of the Word, the first of the two principal rites of the mass, the central act of worship of the Roman Catholic Church, the second being the liturgy of the Eucharist (see also Eucharist). The liturgy of the Word typically consists of three readings, the first from the Old Testament (Hebrew

  • liturgy system (ancient Greek history)

    ancient Greek civilization: The liturgy system: …of this sort, the so-called liturgy system, was complicated. On the one hand, the system differed from the kind of tyrannical or individual patronage the poetry of Pindar shows still existed in, for example, 5th-century Sicily or at Dorian Cyrene, which still had a hereditary monarchy (the Battiads) until the…

  • lituus (musical instrument)

    wind instrument: Trumpets: Another Roman trumpet was the lituus, a J-shaped instrument whose immediate origin was also Etruscan. Its inspiration, visible in its earliest examples, was a simple hollow cane with a cow horn for a bell. Similar instruments are also found in China, where the zhajiao adds a shallow and flat mouthpiece…

  • Litvak, Anatole (Ukrainian-born director)

    Anatole Litvak, Ukrainian-born film director who worked in a variety of genres and whose notable credits included film noirs, war documentaries, and crime dramas. Litvak, born into a Jewish family, began acting in his teens at an experimental theatre in St. Petersburg. In 1923 he started working in

  • Litvinenko, Alexander (Russian intelligence officer)

    Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko, Russian security agent (born Dec. 4, 1962, Voronezh, near Moscow, U.S.S.R.—died Nov. 23, 2006, London, Eng.), investigated domestic organized crime in his role as a member (1988–99) of the KGB (from 1994 the FSB). In 1998 he brought charges of corruption, e

  • Litvinoff, Emanuel (British poet and novelist)

    Emanuel Litvinoff, British poet and novelist (born May 5, 1915, London, Eng.—died Sept. 24, 2011, London), explored the experiences of being Jewish in 20th-century Europe in numerous verse collections and novels; he was best known for the poem “To T.S. Eliot” (1951), in which he castigated the

  • Litvínov (industrial complex, Czech Republic)

    Litvínov, industrial commune, northwestern Czech Republic. Located at the foot of the Kru?né Hory (Ore Mountains), the commune was created in 1950 from the villages of Horní Litvínov, Dolní Litvínov, Chude?ín, Lipětín, and Rauchengrund and has become part of the Most-Zálu?í-Litvínov industrial

  • Litvinov, Maksim (Soviet diplomat)

    Maksim Litvinov, Soviet diplomat and commissar of foreign affairs (1930–39) who was a prominent advocate of world disarmament and of collective security with the Western powers against Nazi Germany before World War II. He also served as ambassador to the United States (1941–43). Having been

  • Litvinov, Maksim Maksimovich (Soviet diplomat)

    Maksim Litvinov, Soviet diplomat and commissar of foreign affairs (1930–39) who was a prominent advocate of world disarmament and of collective security with the Western powers against Nazi Germany before World War II. He also served as ambassador to the United States (1941–43). Having been

  • Litwak, Mikhail Anatol (Ukrainian-born director)

    Anatole Litvak, Ukrainian-born film director who worked in a variety of genres and whose notable credits included film noirs, war documentaries, and crime dramas. Litvak, born into a Jewish family, began acting in his teens at an experimental theatre in St. Petersburg. In 1923 he started working in

  • Litwos (Polish writer)

    Henryk Sienkiewicz, Polish novelist, winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1905. Sienkiewicz’s family owned a small estate but lost everything and moved to Warsaw, where Sienkiewicz studied literature, history, and philology at Warsaw University. He left the university in 1871 without taking

  • Liu An (Chinese scholar)

    Liu An, Chinese nobleman and scholar who was one of the few prominent Daoist philosophers active during the 700-year period between the peak of Daoist thought in the 4th century bc and its resurgence in the 3rd and 4th centuries ad. Liu An was a grandson of Gaozu, the founder of the Western Han

  • Liu Bang (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Gaozu, temple name (miaohao) of the founder and first emperor of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), under which the Chinese imperial system assumed most of the characteristics that it was to retain until it was overthrown in 1911/12. He reigned from 206 to 195 bc. His wife, the empress Gaohou

  • Liu Bei (emperor of Shu-Han dynasty)

    Liu Bei, founder of the Shu-Han dynasty (ad 221–263/264), one of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo) into which China was divided at the end of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). Although Liu claimed descent from one of the early Han emperors, he grew up in poverty. Distinguishing himself in battle in the

  • Liu Bingji (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Xuandi, posthumous name (shi) of the eighth emperor (reigned 74–49/48 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), who ascended the throne when the designated heir apparent behaved indecorously during mourning ceremonies for his father. The Xuandi emperor strove to abate the harshness and widespread

  • Liu Binyan (Chinese author)

    Liu Binyan, Chinese investigative journalist (born Jan. 15, 1925, Chanchun, Jilin province, China—died Dec. 5, 2005, East Windsor, N.J.), was a persistent critic of corruption and abuse of power within the Communist Party of China (CPC). Liu joined the CPC in 1943. He began his career in jo

  • Liu Bocheng (Chinese general)

    China: Phase two: stalemate and stagnation: …Lin Biao, Ho Lung, and Liu Bocheng were in charge of its three divisions. The communist base in the northwest covered parts of three provinces with an undeveloped economy and a population of about 1.5 million. Operating within the general framework of the United Front against Japan, the leaders of…

  • Liu Buoming (Chinese astronaut)

    Zhai Zhigang: …with two other crew members, Liu Buoming and Jing Haipeng, aboard Shenzhou 7 from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in Gansu province, northwestern China. The crew spent three days in Earth orbit. On the second day, as a camera broadcast the event live to audiences in China, Zhai left the…

  • Liu Che (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Wudi, posthumous name (shi) of the autocratic Chinese emperor (141–87 bc) who vastly increased the authority of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) and extended Chinese influence abroad. He made Confucianism the state religion of China. Liu Che was probably the 11th son of the Jingdi emperor, the fifth

  • Liu Chia-Liang (Hong Kong motion-picture action choreographer and director)

    Lau Kar-leung, (Liu Chia-Liang; Liu Jialiang), Hong Kong motion-picture action choreographer and director (born July 28, 1934, Canton [now Guangzhou], China—died June 25, 2013, Hong Kong, China), was the first action choreographer to transition into being a director. He was involved—as an actor, a

  • Liu Chih (Chinese Muslim scholar)

    Islamic world: Indian Ocean Islam: Liu Xhi, a scholar born around 1650 in Nanking (Nanjing), created serious Islamicate literature in Chinese, including works of philosophy and law.

  • Liu Chih (emperor of Han dynasty)

    European exploration: The exploration of the coastlines of the Indian Ocean and the China Sea: …Marcus Aurelius to the emperor Huan-ti, bearing goods that Huan-ti gratefully received as “tribute.” Ptolemy, however, did not know of these voyages: he swept his peninsula of Colmorgo (Malay) southwestward to join the eastward trend of his coast of Africa, thus creating a closed Indian Ocean. He presumably did not…

  • Liu Chin (Chinese eunuch)

    Liu Jin, eunuch who dominated the Chinese government during the early rule of the Zhengde emperor (reigned 1506–21) of the Ming dynasty. The emperor was an eccentric pleasure-seeker, and Liu Jin gradually gained control of the government. Corruption spread, offices were bought and sold, and

  • Liu Chunhong (Chinese weightlifter)

    Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: Key Events from the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games: August 14:

  • Liu Da (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Zhangdi, posthumous name (shi) of an emperor (reigned ad 75–88) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), whose reign marked the beginning of the dissipation of Han rule. The Zhangdi emperor’s reign was the third since the Liu family had restored the Han imperial dynasty following Wang Mang’s usurpation

  • Liu E (Chinese writer)

    Liu E, Chinese government functionary and economic promoter famed for his major literary work, Laocan youji (1904–07; The Travels of Laocan). Liu, the son of a provincial official, engaged in various government work related to flood control, famine relief, and railroad construction until he became

  • Liu Gengshi (emperor of Han dynasty)

    China: Dong (Eastern) Han: …house—Liu Xuan, better known as Liu Gengshi—who had been actually enthroned for two years, until his death in the course of turbulent civil fighting. Chang’an had been virtually destroyed by warfare, and Guangwudi established his capital at Luoyang.

  • Liu Hai-su (Chinese artist)

    Liu Haisu, Chinese painter and teacher (born 1895?, Wujin [Wu-chin], Jiangsu [Chiang-su] province, China—died Aug. 7, 1994, Shanghai, China), combined traditional Chinese painting methods with European techniques, especially those of van Gogh and Cézanne, and promoted this style as a model for rev

  • Liu Haisu (Chinese artist)

    Liu Haisu, Chinese painter and teacher (born 1895?, Wujin [Wu-chin], Jiangsu [Chiang-su] province, China—died Aug. 7, 1994, Shanghai, China), combined traditional Chinese painting methods with European techniques, especially those of van Gogh and Cézanne, and promoted this style as a model for rev

  • Liu Heita (Chinese rebel)

    China: Early Tang (618–626): …the northeast again rebelled under Liu Heita and recaptured most of the northeast. He was finally defeated by a Tang army under the crown prince Jiancheng at the beginning of 623. The prolonged resistance in Hebei and the comparatively harsh Tang conquest of the region were the beginning of resistance…

  • Liu Heng (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Wendi, posthumous name (shi) of the fourth emperor (reigned 180–157 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220) of China. His reign was marked by good government and the peaceful consolidation of imperial power. A son of Liu Bang (the Gaozu emperor), the founder of the Han dynasty, Liu Heng was the

  • Liu Hui (Chinese mathematician)

    Liu Hui, Chinese mathematician. All that is known about the life of Liu Hui is that he lived in the northern Wei kingdom (see Three Kingdoms) during the 3rd century ce. His fame rests on the commentary he completed in 263 on Jiuzhang suanshu (The Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art)—a

  • Liu Jialiang (Hong Kong motion-picture action choreographer and director)

    Lau Kar-leung, (Liu Chia-Liang; Liu Jialiang), Hong Kong motion-picture action choreographer and director (born July 28, 1934, Canton [now Guangzhou], China—died June 25, 2013, Hong Kong, China), was the first action choreographer to transition into being a director. He was involved—as an actor, a

  • Liu Jin (Chinese eunuch)

    Liu Jin, eunuch who dominated the Chinese government during the early rule of the Zhengde emperor (reigned 1506–21) of the Ming dynasty. The emperor was an eccentric pleasure-seeker, and Liu Jin gradually gained control of the government. Corruption spread, offices were bought and sold, and

  • Liu Jinzao (Chinese writer)

    encyclopaedia: China: …wenxian tongkao (1905), compiled by Liu Jinzao, was revised and enlarged in 400 volumes in 1921. It includes contemporary material on fiscal, administrative, and industrial affairs and gives some attention to technical matters. Lu Erkui’s Ciyuan (1915), with a supplement issued in 1931, was the first really modern Chinese encyclopaedia…

  • Liu Jue (Chinese official and painter)

    Chinese painting: Ming dynasty (1368–1644): …bamboo painter Xia Chang and Liu Jue, who retired to Suzhou at the age of 50 after having been president of the Board of Justice. In his landscapes Liu Jue gives to the cool, often austere style of the Yuan masters a looser, more genial character, thus making them more…

  • Liu K’un-i (Chinese official)

    Liu Kunyi, official and modernizer in the later years of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). A principal figure in quelling the great Taiping Rebellion in South China between 1850 and 1864, Liu became one of the leading provincial viceroys who dominated China after the uprising. He advised the

  • Liu Kunyi (Chinese official)

    Liu Kunyi, official and modernizer in the later years of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12). A principal figure in quelling the great Taiping Rebellion in South China between 1850 and 1864, Liu became one of the leading provincial viceroys who dominated China after the uprising. He advised the

  • Liu Ngim Kong (Chinese-Malaysian politician)

    Yap Ah Loy: …fortunes improved when his friend Liu Ngim Kong became Capitan China of Kuala Lumpur, a position not only of leadership within the Chinese community but also of liaison with the Malay political system and, after British intervention in 1874, with British officials as well. He served as Liu’s trusted lieutenant…

  • Liu O (Chinese writer)

    Liu E, Chinese government functionary and economic promoter famed for his major literary work, Laocan youji (1904–07; The Travels of Laocan). Liu, the son of a provincial official, engaged in various government work related to flood control, famine relief, and railroad construction until he became

  • Liu Pei (emperor of Shu-Han dynasty)

    Liu Bei, founder of the Shu-Han dynasty (ad 221–263/264), one of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo) into which China was divided at the end of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220). Although Liu claimed descent from one of the early Han emperors, he grew up in poverty. Distinguishing himself in battle in the

  • Liu Po-ch’eng (Chinese general)

    China: Phase two: stalemate and stagnation: …Lin Biao, Ho Lung, and Liu Bocheng were in charge of its three divisions. The communist base in the northwest covered parts of three provinces with an undeveloped economy and a population of about 1.5 million. Operating within the general framework of the United Front against Japan, the leaders of…

  • Liu Qi (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Jingdi, posthumous name (shi) of the fifth emperor of the Han dynasty, during whose reign (157–141 bc) an attempt was made to limit the power of the great feudal princes, who had been enfeoffed in separate kingdoms during the tolerant rule of Jingdi’s father, the Wendi emperor (reigned 180–157 bc).

  • Liu River (river, China)

    Hongshui River: Its chief tributary is the Liu River, which joins it shortly below Laibin (Laiping). The section below Laibin and the Liu River as far as Liuzhou are navigable by shallow-draft junks. The upper stream of the Hongshui, however, is so impeded by rapids and deep gorges that it is virtually…

  • Liu Shao-ch’i (Chinese statesman)

    Liu Shaoqi, chairman of the People’s Republic of China (1959–68) and chief theoretician for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), who was considered the heir apparent to Mao Zedong until he was purged in the late 1960s. Liu was active in the Chinese labour movement from its inception, and he was

  • Liu Shaoqi (Chinese statesman)

    Liu Shaoqi, chairman of the People’s Republic of China (1959–68) and chief theoretician for the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), who was considered the heir apparent to Mao Zedong until he was purged in the late 1960s. Liu was active in the Chinese labour movement from its inception, and he was

  • Liu Shi (emperor of Han dynasty)

    Yuandi, posthumous name (shi) of the ninth emperor (reigned 49/48–33 bc) of the Han dynasty (206 bc–ad 220), who ardently promoted and helped firmly establish Confucianism as the official creed of China. Although Confucianism had been made the state cult of China in 136 bc, previous emperors had

  • Liu Shifu (Chinese revolutionary)

    anarchism: Anarchism in China: …known by his adopted name Shifu. In 1912 Shifu founded the Cock-Crow Society, whose journal, People’s Voice, was the leading organ of Chinese anarchism in the 1910s. Although not a particularly original thinker, Shifu was a skilled expositor of anarchist doctrine. His polemical exchanges with the socialist leader Jiang Khangu…

  • liu shu (Chinese writing)

    Chinese writing: Characteristics: …characters into six types (called liu shu, “six scripts”), the most common of which is xingsheng, a type of character that combines a semantic element (called a radical) with a phonetic element intended to remind the reader of the word’s pronunciation. The phonetic element is usually a contracted form of…

  • Liu Songnian (Chinese painter)

    Liu Songnian, Chinese figure and landscape painter who was one of the great masters of the Southern Song dynasty. Liu entered the Southern Song Painting Academy as a student in the Chunxi period (1174–1189) and went on to become a daizhao (“painter-in-attendance”) in the Shaoxi period (1190–1194).

  • Liu Sung-nien (Chinese painter)

    Liu Songnian, Chinese figure and landscape painter who was one of the great masters of the Southern Song dynasty. Liu entered the Southern Song Painting Academy as a student in the Chunxi period (1174–1189) and went on to become a daizhao (“painter-in-attendance”) in the Shaoxi period (1190–1194).

  • Liu Tieyun (Chinese writer)

    Liu E, Chinese government functionary and economic promoter famed for his major literary work, Laocan youji (1904–07; The Travels of Laocan). Liu, the son of a provincial official, engaged in various government work related to flood control, famine relief, and railroad construction until he became

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