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  • Q (American songwriter and record producer)

    Quincy Jones, American musical performer, producer, arranger, and composer whose work encompasses virtually all forms of popular music. Jones was born in Chicago and reared in Bremerton, Washington, where he studied the trumpet and worked locally with the then-unknown pianist-singer Ray Charles. In

  • Q (British publication)

    Rock criticism: …new music magazines such as Q, Mojo, and Select. These glossy monthlies took a markedly different approach to rock journalism, replacing confrontational interviews and expansive think pieces with star profiles and short, consumer-oriented record reviews. British readers who craved writing with reach and edge were forced to look to specialist…

  • Q (electronics)

    electricity: Piezoelectricity: …of the crystals have a quality factor Q of several hundred, and, in the case of quartz, the value can be 106. The result is a piezoelectric coefficient a factor Q higher than for a static electric field. The very large Q of quartz is exploited in electronic oscillator circuits…

  • q (letter)

    Q, seventeenth letter of the modern alphabet. It corresponds to Semitic koph, which may derive from an earlier sign representing the eye of a needle, and to Greek koppa. The form of the majuscule has been practically identical throughout its known history. In the form found on the Moabite stone,

  • Q (British writer)

    Sir Arthur Thomas Quiller-Couch, English poet, novelist, and anthologist noted for his compilation of The Oxford Book of English Verse 1250–1900 (1900; revised 1939) and The Oxford Book of Ballads (1910). He was educated at Newton Abbot College, Clifton College, and Trinity College, Oxford, where

  • Q (letter)

    Q, seventeenth letter of the modern alphabet. It corresponds to Semitic koph, which may derive from an earlier sign representing the eye of a needle, and to Greek koppa. The form of the majuscule has been practically identical throughout its known history. In the form found on the Moabite stone,

  • Q (biblical literature)

    Q, in the study of biblical literature, a hypothetical Greek-language proto-Gospel that might have been in circulation in written form about the time of the composition of the Synoptic Gospels—Mark, Matthew, and Luke—approximately between 65 and ad 95. The name Q, coined by the German theologian

  • Q fever (pathology)

    Q fever, acute, self-limited, systemic disease caused by the rickettsia Coxiella burnetii. Q fever spreads rapidly in cows, sheep, and goats, and in humans it tends to occur in localized outbreaks. The clinical symptoms are those of fever, chills, severe headache, and pneumonia. The disease is

  • Q’anjobalan (people)

    Maya: …[Tektiteko], Awakateko, and Ixil); the Q’anjobalan peoples of Huehuetenango and adjacent parts of Mexico (Motocintlec [Mocho’], Tuzantec, Jakalteko, Akateko, Tojolabal, and Chuj); the Tzotzil and Tzeltal peoples of Chiapas in southern Mexico; the Cholan peoples, including the Chontal and Chol speakers in

  • Q’eqchi’ (people)

    Kekchí, Mayan Indians of central Guatemala, living in damp highlands and lowlands of irregular terrain. The Kekchí raise corn and beans as staple crops. These are planted together in plots that are burned off and then worked with digging sticks. Sexual taboos and fertility rituals are associated

  • Q-banding (cytogenetics)

    cytogenetics: …such as Giemsa banding (G-banding), quinacrine banding (Q-banding), reverse banding (R-banding), constitutive heterochromatin (or centromere) banding (C-banding), and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). G-banding is one of the most-used chromosomal staining methods. In this approach, chromosomes are first treated with an enzyme known as trypsin and then with Giemsa stain.

  • Q-BOP (metallurgy)

    basic oxygen process: …in North America and the OBM (from the German, Oxygen bodenblasen Maxhuette, or “oxygen bottom-blowing furnace”) in Europe. In this system, oxygen is injected with lime through nozzles, or tuyeres, located in the bottom of the vessel. The tuyeres consist of two concentric tubes: oxygen and lime are introduced through…

  • Q-carbon (chemistry)

    carbon: Properties and uses: Q-carbon, which is created by rapidly cooling a sample of elemental carbon whose temperature has been raised to 4,000 K (3,727 °C [6,740 °F]), is harder than diamond, and it can be used to manufacture diamond structures (such as diamond films and microneedles) within its…

  • Q-Celtic languages

    Goidelic languages, one of two groups of the modern Celtic languages; the group includes Irish, Manx, and Scottish Gaelic. The Goidelic languages originated in Ireland and are distinguished from the other group of Insular Celtic tongues—the Brythonic—by the retention of the sound q (later

  • Q-sort (statistics)

    personality assessment: Other self-report techniques: …method of self-report called the Q-sort is devised for problems similar to those for which rating scales are used. In a Q-sort a person is given a set of sentences, phrases, or words (usually presented individually on cards) and is asked to use them to describe himself (as he thinks…

  • Q-teen Eighty-Four (work by Murakami)

    Haruki Murakami: 1Q84 (2009), its title a reference to George Orwell’s Nineteen Eighty-four (1949), shifts between two characters as they navigate an alternate reality of their own making; the book’s dystopian themes range from the September 11 attacks to vigilante justice. Shikisai o motanai Tazaki Tsukuru to,…

  • Q-value (nuclear physics)

    radiation measurement: Modes of operation: …a certain amount of charge Q as a result of depositing its energy in the detector material. For example, in a gas, Q represents the total positive charge carried by the many positive ions that are produced along the track of the particle. (An equal charge of opposite sign is…

  • Q.E.D. (short story by Stein)

    Q.E.D., short story by Gertrude Stein, one of her earliest works, written in 1903 and published posthumously in 1950 in Things as They Are, a novel in three parts. Q.E.D. is autobiographical, based on an ill-fated relationship between Adele (Stein), an exuberant young woman, and Helen, who seduces

  • Q.R.S. Company (American company)

    Raytheon Company: In 1928 Raytheon merged with Q.R.S. Company, an American manufacturer of electron tubes and switches, to form the successor Raytheon Manufacturing Company. In 1933 it diversified by acquiring Acme-Delta Company, a producer of transformers, power equipment, and electronic auto parts.

  • Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! (album by Devo)

    Devo: …Devo released their debut album, Q: Are We Not Men? A: We Are Devo! (1978), to critical success. Produced by Brian Eno, it was considered their best record, featuring a techno-danceable beat and including a staccato cover version of the Rolling Stones’ “(I Can’t Get No) Satisfaction.” The band’s third…

  • qa (unit of measurement)

    Qa, ancient Babylonian liquid measure equal to the volume of a cube whose dimensions are each one handbreadth (3.9 to 4 inches, or 9.9 to 10.2 cm) in length. The cube held one great mina (about 2 pounds, or 1 kg) of water by weight. Five qa made up a ?iqlu, 100 qa equaled an imēru (donkey load),

  • Qā’en (Iran)

    Qāyen, town, northeastern Iran. Qāyen is a place of great antiquity and complex history. The present town, which lies in a broad valley, was founded in the 15th century to replace an older town. Later, the Uzbeks (a Turkic people) took possession of Qāyen and held it until Shāh ?Abbās I (1588–1629)

  • Qabācha, Nā?ir-ud-Dīn (sultan of Delhi)

    India: Consolidation of Turkish rule: …into the Punjab and while Nā?ir al-Dīn Qabācha, another of Mu?ammad of Ghūr’s former slaves, maintained a perilous hold on Lahore and Multan. Iltutmish’s political talents were pushed to the maximum as he tried desperately to avoid a direct confrontation with the armies of Genghis Khan. He refused aid to…

  • Qabbānī, Abū Khalīl al- (Syrian dramatist)

    Arabic literature: Literary drama: …other troupes was that of Abū Khalīl al-Qabbānī, whose performances in Damascus had been censored and even canceled after complaints from the conservative Islamic establishment. The theatrical scene that these Syrian émigrés encountered in Egypt was both lively and varied. To perform his dramas in the colloquial dialect, the Egyptian…

  • Qabbānī, Nizār (Syrian poet and diplomat)

    Nizār Qabbānī, Syrian diplomat and poet whose subject matter, at first strictly erotic and romantic, grew to embrace political issues as well. Written in simple but eloquent language, his verses, some of which were set to music, won the hearts of countless Arabic speakers throughout the Middle East

  • qabīlī (tribe)

    Arabia: Tribal relations: …exist between city dwellers and qabīlīs, arms-bearing tribes mostly settled in villages. Until after World War I the Bedouin of the northern deserts were able to keep the settled people in constant apprehension of their raiding; the tribes would even attack and plunder the pilgrim hajj caravans to the Holy…

  • Qābis (Tunisia)

    Gabès, town in southeastern Tunisia. Situated on a Mediterranean oasis along the Gulf of Gabes, the town is located at the mouth of the Wadi Qābis (Oued Gabès), which has its source 6 miles (10 km) upstream at the Ras al-Oued (springs), the town’s main water source. The town’s remains attest to

  • Qābis River (river, Tunisia)

    Gabès: …mouth of the Wadi Qābis (Oued Gabès), which has its source 6 miles (10 km) upstream at the Ras al-Oued (springs), the town’s main water source. The town’s remains attest to Carthaginian settlement before it came under Roman rule, when it functioned as a trading centre known as Tacapae. The…

  • Qābis, Khalīj (gulf, Tunisia)

    Gulf of Gabes, inlet, on the east coast of Tunisia, northern Africa. It is 60 miles (100 km) long and 60 miles wide and is bounded by the Qarqannah (Kerkena) Islands on the northeast and by Jarbah (Djerba) Island on the southeast. Except for the Strait of Gibraltar and the Gulf of Venice, it is the

  • Qaboos bin Said (sultan of Oman)

    Qaboos bin Said, sultan of Oman (1970–2020). Qaboos, a member of Oman’s āl Bū Sa?īd dynasty, was educated at Bury Saint Edmunds, Suffolk, England, and at Sandhurst, the Royal Military Academy, in Berkshire, England. He was called home in 1965 by his father, Sa?īd ibn Taymūr, who kept his son a

  • Qabul Khan (Mongol ruler)

    Mongolia: The rise of Genghis Khan: …he was the great-grandson of Khabul (Qabul) Khan, who had been the greatest ruler of All the Mongols. Temüüjin inherited a feud against the Juchen-Jin dynasty and another against the Tatars, who had betrayed a collateral ancestor of his to the Juchen. His own father was poisoned by Tatars. He…

  • Qābūs ibn Sa?īd (sultan of Oman)

    Qaboos bin Said, sultan of Oman (1970–2020). Qaboos, a member of Oman’s āl Bū Sa?īd dynasty, was educated at Bury Saint Edmunds, Suffolk, England, and at Sandhurst, the Royal Military Academy, in Berkshire, England. He was called home in 1965 by his father, Sa?īd ibn Taymūr, who kept his son a

  • Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr (Zeyārid ruler)

    Iran: The Būyids: The Ziyārid Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr (reigned 978–1012) built himself a tomb tower, the Gonbad-e Qābūs (1006–07), which remains one of Iran’s finest monuments. Also still extant is a work of his descendant ?Un?ur al-Ma?ālī Keykā?ūs (reigned 1049–90), the Qābūs-nāmeh, a prose “Mirror for Princes,” which is a…

  • Qacentina (Algeria)

    Constantine, city, northeast Algeria. A natural fortress, the city occupies a rocky diamond-shaped plateau that is surrounded, except at the southwest, by a precipitous gorge through the eastern side of which flows the Rhumel River. The plateau is 2,130 feet (650 metres) above sea level and from

  • Qa?ārif, Al- (Sudan)

    Gedaref, town, southeastern Sudan, situated about 120 miles (200 km) southwest of Kassala town. Located at an elevation of 1,975 feet (608 metres), it is a commercial centre for the cotton, cereals, sesame seeds, and fodder produced in the surrounding area. The Gash Irrigation Project is located to

  • Qadarīyah (Islam)

    Qadariyyah, in Islam, adherents of the doctrine of free will (from qadar, “power”). The name was also applied to the Mu?tazilah, the Muslim theological school that believed that humankind, through its free will, can choose between good and evil. But, as the Mu?tazilah also stressed the absolute

  • Qaddafi, Muammar al- (Libyan statesman)

    Muammar al-Qaddafi, de facto leader of Libya (1969–2011). Qaddafi had ruled for more than four decades when he was ousted by a revolt in August 2011. After evading capture for several weeks, he was killed by rebel forces in October 2011. The son of an itinerant Bedouin farmer, Qaddafi was born in a

  • Qaddish (Judaism)

    Kaddish, in Judaism, a doxology (hymn of praise to God) that is usually recited in Aramaic at the end of principal sections of all synagogue services. The nucleus of the prayer is the phrase “Glorified and sanctified be God’s great name throughout the world which He has created according to His

  • Qadhdhāfī, Mu?ammar al- (Libyan statesman)

    Muammar al-Qaddafi, de facto leader of Libya (1969–2011). Qaddafi had ruled for more than four decades when he was ousted by a revolt in August 2011. After evading capture for several weeks, he was killed by rebel forces in October 2011. The son of an itinerant Bedouin farmer, Qaddafi was born in a

  • qadi (Muslim judge)

    Qadi, a Muslim judge who renders decisions according to the Sharī?ah (Islamic law). The qadi’s jurisdiction theoretically includes civil as well as criminal matters. In modern states, however, qadis generally hear only cases related to personal status and religious custom, such as those involving

  • qā?ī (Muslim judge)

    Qadi, a Muslim judge who renders decisions according to the Sharī?ah (Islamic law). The qadi’s jurisdiction theoretically includes civil as well as criminal matters. In modern states, however, qadis generally hear only cases related to personal status and religious custom, such as those involving

  • Qā?ī, ?Isām al- (Syrian leader)

    al-?ā?iqah: …replaced by another Syrian protégé, ?Isām al-Qā?ī. Al-?ā?iqah opposed the Israeli-Palestinian peace process of the 1990s.

  • Qadir, Abdul (Afghani warlord and political official)

    Abdul Qadir, Afghan warlord and political official (born 1954?, Sorkh Rod, Afg.—died July 6, 2002, Kabul, Afg.), was one of the few Pashtun leaders in the Tajik-dominated government of Pres. Hamid Karzai. Qadir’s power base lay in eastern Afghanistan, where he was a powerful warlord and governor o

  • Qādir, al- (Dhū an-Nūnid ruler)

    Dhū an-Nūnid Dynasty: But Ya?yā al-Qādir (reigned 1075–92), al-Ma?mūn’s grandson, soon lost both Valencia and Córdoba. An alliance with Alfonso VI hastened the end of the Dhū an-Nūnid kingdom: while al-Qādir was briefly restored to Toledo, he bargained away his capital to the Christians in return for Valencia (1085),…

  • Qadiri, Abdullah (writer)

    Uzbekistan: Cultural life: Abdalrauf Fitrat, Sadriddin Ayni, and Abdullah Qadiri, each of whom was bilingual in Uzbek and Tajik. These writers all began as poets and subsequently branched out to produce many of the first modern indigenous plays, stories, and novels of Central Asia. The younger poets Batu, Cholpán (Abdulhamid Sulayman Yunús), and…

  • Qādirīyah (Sufi order)

    Qādirīyah, probably the oldest of the Muslim mystic (?ūfī) orders, founded by the ?anbalī theologian ?Abd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (1078–1166) in Baghdad. Al-Jīlānī may have intended the few rituals he prescribed to extend only to his small circle of followers, but his sons broadened this community into

  • Qādiriyyah (Sufi order)

    Qādirīyah, probably the oldest of the Muslim mystic (?ūfī) orders, founded by the ?anbalī theologian ?Abd al-Qādir al-Jīlānī (1078–1166) in Baghdad. Al-Jīlānī may have intended the few rituals he prescribed to extend only to his small circle of followers, but his sons broadened this community into

  • qadishtu (temple prostitute)

    Qedesha, one of a class of sacred prostitutes found throughout the ancient Middle East, especially in the worship of the fertility goddess Astarte (Ashtoreth). Prostitutes, who often played an important part in official temple worship, could be either male or female. In Egypt, a goddess named

  • Qaeda in Iraq, al- (militant group)

    Al-Qaeda in Iraq, militant Sunni network, active in Iraq after the U.S.-led invasion of 2003, comprising Iraqi and foreign fighters opposed to the U.S. occupation and the Shī?ite-dominated Iraqi government. Al-Qaeda in Iraq first appeared in 2004 when Abū Mu??ab al-Zarqāwī, a Jordanian-born

  • Qaeda in Mesopotamia, al- (militant group)

    Al-Qaeda in Iraq, militant Sunni network, active in Iraq after the U.S.-led invasion of 2003, comprising Iraqi and foreign fighters opposed to the U.S. occupation and the Shī?ite-dominated Iraqi government. Al-Qaeda in Iraq first appeared in 2004 when Abū Mu??ab al-Zarqāwī, a Jordanian-born

  • Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, al- (militant group)

    Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Yemen-based militant group, formed in 2009 by the merger of radical networks in Saudi Arabia and Yemen and linked to attacks in Yemen, Saudi Arabia, the United States, and France. After a series of deadly al-Qaeda attacks on U.S. and other Western targets in Saudi

  • Qaeda in the Islamic Maghrib, al- (militant group)

    Al-Qaeda in the Islamic Maghrib, Algeria-based Islamic militant group, active in North Africa and the Sahel region. The organization was founded as the GSPC in 1998 by a former member of the Armed Islamic Group (Groupe Islamique Armé; GIA), an Islamic militant group that participated in Algeria’s

  • Qaeda of Iraq, al- (Iraqi militant group)

    chemical weapon: Chemical weapons and terrorism: Furthermore, al-Qaeda of Mesopotamia (also known as al-Qaeda in Iraq) initiated chlorine attacks in Iraq in 2007. It is believed by some Western analysts that al-Qaeda leaders would not hesitate to use any chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons that they might acquire. For example, al-Qaeda…

  • Qaeda of Mesopotamia, al- (Iraqi militant group)

    chemical weapon: Chemical weapons and terrorism: Furthermore, al-Qaeda of Mesopotamia (also known as al-Qaeda in Iraq) initiated chlorine attacks in Iraq in 2007. It is believed by some Western analysts that al-Qaeda leaders would not hesitate to use any chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear weapons that they might acquire. For example, al-Qaeda…

  • Qaeda, al- (Islamic militant organization)

    Al-Qaeda, broad-based militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden in the late 1980s. Al-Qaeda began as a logistical network to support Muslims fighting against the Soviet Union during the Afghan War; members were recruited throughout the Islamic world. When the Soviets withdrew from

  • Qaf?ah (Tunisia)

    Gafsa, town situated in west-central Tunisia. The ancient name of the locality is applied to the Mesolithic Capsian industry (locally dated about 6250 bce) of the earliest inhabitants. The original Numidian town was destroyed (106 bce) by the Romans; it was rebuilt later by Trajan and was then

  • Qafzeh (anthropological and archaeological site, Israel)

    Qafzeh, paleoanthropological site south of Nazareth, Israel, where some of the oldest remains of modern humans in Asia have been found. More than 25 fossil skeletons dating to about 90,000 years ago have been recovered. The site is a rock shelter first excavated in the early 1930s; excavation

  • Qāhirah, Al- (national capital, Egypt)

    Cairo, city, capital of Egypt, and one of the largest cities in Africa. Cairo has stood for more than 1,000 years on the same site on the banks of the Nile, primarily on the eastern shore, some 500 miles (800 km) downstream from the Aswān High Dam. Located in the northeast of the country, Cairo is

  • Qa??ān (Arabian legendary figure)

    Arabia: Ethnic groups: …from a southern Arabian ancestor, Qa??ān, forebear of the “pure” or “genuine” Arabs (known as al-?Arab al-?āribah), and a northern Arabian ancestor, ?Adnān, forebear of the “Arabicized” Arabs (al-?Arab al-Musta?ribah). A tradition, seemingly derived from the Bible, makes ?Adnān, and perhaps Qa??ān also, descend from Ismā?īl (Ishmael), son of Abraham.…

  • Qaid-i-Azam (Pakistani governor-general)

    Mohammed Ali Jinnah, Indian Muslim politician, who was the founder and first governor-general (1947–48) of Pakistan. Jinnah was the eldest of seven children of Jinnahbhai Poonja, a prosperous merchant, and his wife, Mithibai. His family was a member of the Khoja caste, Hindus who had converted to

  • Qaidam Administrative District (district, China)

    Qinghai: Constitutional framework: …the establishment of a separate Qaidam Administrative District, with its headquarters at Dachaidan, a new settlement situated on the northern edge of a salt swamp and at a major road junction. In 1963 the Qaidam district was reincorporated into an autonomous district designated for the Mongol, Tibetan, and Kazakh minorities…

  • Qaidam Basin (basin, China)

    Qaidam Basin, northeastern section of the Plateau of Tibet, occupying the northwestern part of Qinghai province, western China. The basin is bounded on the south by the towering Kunlun Mountains—with many peaks in the western part exceeding 20,000 feet (6,000 metres) above sea level—and on the

  • Qaīn (Iran)

    Qāyen, town, northeastern Iran. Qāyen is a place of great antiquity and complex history. The present town, which lies in a broad valley, was founded in the 15th century to replace an older town. Later, the Uzbeks (a Turkic people) took possession of Qāyen and held it until Shāh ?Abbās I (1588–1629)

  • Qairouan, Al- (Tunisia)

    Kairouan, town located in north-central Tunisia. The town, one of the holy cities of Islam, lies on the Basse Steppe (Low Steppes), a semiarid alluvial plain southeast of the Central Tell. Tradition holds that the town was founded in 670 by ?Uqbah ibn Nāfi? (Sīdī ?Uqbah), a companion of the Prophet

  • Qais Island (island, Iran)

    Qeys Island, island in the Persian Gulf, lying about 10 miles (16 km) off mainland Iran. It rises 120 feet (37 metres) above sea level to a plateau and is almost without vegetation except for a few date groves and stunted herbage. Qeys attained importance only in the late 1st millennium ad, when a

  • Qājār dynasty (Iranian dynasty)

    Qājār dynasty, the ruling dynasty of Iran from 1794 to 1925. In 1779, following the death of Mo?ammad Karīm Khān Zand, the Zand dynasty ruler of southern Iran, āghā Mo?ammad Khān (reigned 1779–97), a leader of the Turkmen Qājār tribe, set out to reunify Iran. By 1794 he had eliminated all his

  • qalam (pen)

    Qalam, ancient reed pen still used in Arabic calligraphy and formerly used for all writing. The qalam was cut from between two nodes of the stem of a reed chosen for its straight fibres. As thick as a finger and 8 or 10 inches (20 or 25 cm) long, the reed segment was soaked and sun-dried, and a

  • qalamkārī textile (textile)

    Qalamkārī textile, painted textile of a type produced during the 17th century at various centres in India, notably at Golconda. The material was called qalamkārī (“brushwork”) because of the technique employed in executing it and was chiefly made into prayer carpets, hangings, coverlets, and

  • qalandar (literary motif)

    Persian literature: Religious poetry: …is the idealization of the qalandar, a type of outlaw who defies all rules of good behaviour and abandons himself to drunkenness and debauchery. The term was adopted by dervishes who practiced a nonconformist way of life that rejected not only the world but also conventional piety, which they decried…

  • Qalandarīyah (?ūfī order)

    Qalandarīyah, loosely organized group of wandering Muslim dervishes who form an “irregular” (bī-shar?) or antinomian ?ūfī mystical order. The Qalandarīyah seem to have arisen from the earlier Malāmatīyah in Central Asia and exhibited Buddhist and perhaps Hindu influences. The adherents of the

  • Qalat Jarmo (archaeological site, Iraq)

    Jarmo, prehistoric archaeological site located east of Kirkūk, in northeastern Iraq. The site is important for revealing traces of one of the world’s first village-farming communities. The approximately dozen layers of architectural building and renovation yield evidence of domesticated wheats a

  • Qalāwūn (Mamlūk sultan)

    Qalā?ūn, Mamlūk sultan of Egypt (1279–90), the founder of a dynasty that ruled that country for a century. In the 1250s Qalā?ūn was an early and devoted supporter of the Mamlūk commander Baybars, and, after the latter became sultan of Egypt and Syria in 1260, Qalā?ūn’s career advanced rapidly. U

  • Qalāwūn complex (architectural complex, Cairo, Egypt)

    Qalā?ūn complex, building complex, including a mausoleum, a madrasah, and a hospital, built in 1283–85 on the site of present-day Cairo by the fifth Mamlūk sultan, Qalā?ūn. The hospital, now in ruins, was one of the most remarkable buildings of the Mamlūk era. The mausoleum and madrasah both open

  • Qalā?ūn (Mamlūk sultan)

    Qalā?ūn, Mamlūk sultan of Egypt (1279–90), the founder of a dynasty that ruled that country for a century. In the 1250s Qalā?ūn was an early and devoted supporter of the Mamlūk commander Baybars, and, after the latter became sultan of Egypt and Syria in 1260, Qalā?ūn’s career advanced rapidly. U

  • Qalā?ūn complex (architectural complex, Cairo, Egypt)

    Qalā?ūn complex, building complex, including a mausoleum, a madrasah, and a hospital, built in 1283–85 on the site of present-day Cairo by the fifth Mamlūk sultan, Qalā?ūn. The hospital, now in ruins, was one of the most remarkable buildings of the Mamlūk era. The mausoleum and madrasah both open

  • Qalqashandī, Al- (Egyptian scholar)

    encyclopaedia: The Arab world: A third Egyptian, al-Qalqashandī (1355/56–1418), compiled a more important and well-organized encyclopaedia, ?ub? al-a?shā (“The Dawn for the Blind”), that covered geography, political history, natural history, zoology, mineralogy, cosmography, and time measurement. Al-Ibshīhī (1388–c. 1446) compiled a very individual encyclopaedia, the Musta?raf fī kull fann musta?raf

  • Qalyūb (Egypt)

    Qalyūb, town at the apex of the Nile River delta, in Al-Qalyūbiyyah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), Lower Egypt. It lies just north of Cairo, near the right bank of the Nile and the Nile Delta Barrage, which controls the division of the Nile’s waters into the Rosetta and Damietta branches. Qalyūb was

  • Qalyūbiyyah, Al- (governorate, Egypt)

    Al-Qalyūbiyyah, small mu?āfa?ah (governorate), just north of Cairo at the apex of the Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. It is bounded on the northeast by Al-Sharqiyyah mu?āfa?ah and on the northwest by the Damietta Branch of the Nile. It is densely populated, and about three-fifths of its population

  • Qal?ah al-Nahr, Al- (Spain)

    Alcalá de Henares, city, Madrid provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), central Spain. Known under the Romans as Complutum, the city was destroyed in ad 1000 and rebuilt in 1038 by the Moors, who called it Al-Qal?ah al-Nahr. It was reconquered in 1088 by Alfonso VI and

  • Qal?at Sharqā? (ancient city, Iraq)

    Ashur, ancient religious capital of Assyria, located on the west bank of the Tigris River in northern Iraq. The first scientific excavations there were conducted by a German expedition (1903–13) led by Walter Andrae. Ashur was a name applied to the city, to the country, and to the principal god of

  • Qal?eh-ye Sarkārī (region, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Resources and power: …Kabul and Mazār-e Sharīf, and Qal?eh-ye Sarkārī, southwest of Mazār-e Sharīf. In general, however, Afghanistan’s energy resources, including its large reserves of natural gas, remain untapped, and fuel shortages are chronic.

  • QAM (electronics)

    telecommunication: Advanced methods: …latter form of modulation is quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). QAM signals actually transmit two amplitude-modulated signals in phase quadrature (i.e., 90° apart), so that four or more bits are represented by each shift of the combined signal. Communications systems that employ QAM include digital cellular systems in the United States…

  • Qamar-ud-Din Khan (Mughal minister)

    India: The emperor, the nobility, and the provinces: …period until Amīn Khan’s son Qamar al-Dīn Khan assumed the title in July 1724 by a claim of hereditary right. The nobles themselves virtually dictated these appointments. However, because no faction of the nobility, nor for that matter the nobility as a whole, was capable of ruling on its own,…

  • Qamdo (region, China)

    Qamdo, mountainous area in the far eastern part of the Tibet Autonomous Region, western China. It borders the provinces of Qinghai, Yunnan, and Sichuan to the north, east, and southeast, respectively. Myanmar (Burma) and the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh lie to the south. In Qamdo the great

  • Qamdo (China)

    Qamdo: The city of Qamdo, in the northern section of the region, is a communications hub for eastern Tibet and a gateway providing access to the Chengdu Plain in Sichuan. In the 1950s a highway was built through this northern part from Chengdu (capital of Sichuan) via Qamdo, where…

  • Qāmishlī, Al- (Syria)

    Al-Qāmishlī, town in northeastern Syria. It lies along the Turkish border, which divides the Syrian town of Al-Qāmishlī from the Turkish town of Nusaybin. Al-Qāmishlī was founded in 1926 as a station on the Taurus railway. Its mixed population increased with influxes of Armenian, Assyrian

  • Qamishliye, Al- (Syria)

    Al-Qāmishlī, town in northeastern Syria. It lies along the Turkish border, which divides the Syrian town of Al-Qāmishlī from the Turkish town of Nusaybin. Al-Qāmishlī was founded in 1926 as a station on the Taurus railway. Its mixed population increased with influxes of Armenian, Assyrian

  • Qamudah (town, Tunisia)

    Sidi Bouzid, town in central Tunisia. It is located in the upland steppe country and was controlled by the Aghlabids in the 9th century ce. Sidi Bouzid lies in the semiarid land south of the Dorsale Mountains. Although the surrounding area has infertile soil and scanty rainfall, it has become a

  • Qāmūs, Al- (dictionary compiled by al-Firuzabadi)

    al-Fīrūzābādī: …that, in its digest form, Al-Qāmūs (“The Ocean”), served as the basis of later European dictionaries of Arabic.

  • qanāt (water-supply system)

    Qanāt, ancient type of water-supply system, developed and still used in arid regions of the world. A qanāt taps underground mountain water sources trapped in and beneath the upper reaches of alluvial fans and channels the water downhill through a series of gently sloping tunnels, often several

  • Qanāt al-Suways (canal, Egypt)

    Suez Canal, sea-level waterway running north-south across the Isthmus of Suez in Egypt to connect the Mediterranean and the Red seas. The canal separates the African continent from Asia, and it provides the shortest maritime route between Europe and the lands lying around the Indian and western

  • Qandahār (province, Afghanistan)

    Afghanistan: Ethnic groups: The Kandahār region is a sparsely populated part of southern Afghanistan. The Durrānī Pashtun, who have formed the traditional nucleus of Afghanistan’s social and political elite, live in the area around the city of Kandahār itself, which is located in a fertile oasis near the Arghandāb…

  • Qandahār (Afghanistan)

    Kandahār, city in south-central Afghanistan. It lies on a plain next to the Tarnak River, at an elevation of about 3,300 feet (1,000 metres). It is southern Afghanistan’s chief commercial centre and is situated at the junction of highways from Kabul, Herāt, and Quetta (Pakistan). Kandahār has an

  • Qangule, Z. S. (South African writer)

    African literature: Xhosa: …traditionalists are at cross-purposes in Z.S. Qangule’s Izagweba (1972; “Weapons”). In K.S. Bongela’s Alitshoni lingenandaba (1971; “The Sun Does Not Set Without News”), the reader is led to a revelation of the corruption that results when traditional ties are broken. Christianity and urban corruption are at the centre of Witness…

  • Qantarah, Al- (bridge, Alcántara, Spain)

    construction: Masonry construction: …in France, or the fine bridge over the Tagus River at Alcántara in Spain, with a span of almost 30 metres (100 feet), built about 110 ce. Oddly enough, such long spans in stone were never applied to buildings. The surviving Roman buildings with stone arches or vaults have typical…

  • Qantas (Australian company)

    Qantas, Australian airline, the oldest in the English-speaking world, founded in 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd. (from which the name Qantas was derived). Its first operations were taxi services and pleasure flights. By the early 21st century, however, its scheduled

  • Qantas Airways Limited (Australian company)

    Qantas, Australian airline, the oldest in the English-speaking world, founded in 1920 as Queensland and Northern Territory Aerial Services Ltd. (from which the name Qantas was derived). Its first operations were taxi services and pleasure flights. By the early 21st century, however, its scheduled

  • Qantas Empire Airways Limited (British-Australian airline)

    Qantas: …Imperial Airways (later BOAC) formed Qantas Empire Airways Limited to operate the Brisbane-Singapore leg of service from Australia to England. In 1947 the Australian Commonwealth government purchased Qantas and designated the company Australia’s flag carrier. In the same year, Qantas began regular through service to London on the “Kangaroo Route.”…

  • Qantīr (ancient city, Egypt)

    Per Ramessu, ancient Egyptian capital in the 15th (c. 1630–c. 1523 bce), 19th (1292–1190 bce), and 20th (1190–1075 bce) dynasties. Situated in the northeastern delta about 62 miles (100 km) northeast of Cairo, the city lay in ancient times on the Bubastite branch of the Nile River. In the early

  • qānūn (Ottoman law code)

    Kanun, (kanun from Greek kanōn, “rule”), the tabulation of administrative regulations in the Ottoman Empire that supplemented the Sharī?ah (Islamic law) and the discretionary authority of the sultan. In Islamic judicial theory there was no law other than the Sharī?ah. In the early Islamic states,

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