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  • qurrā? (Qur?ānic reciter)

    Qurrā?, (Arabic: “reciters”, ) ?, professional class of reciters of the text of the Muslim sacred scripture, the Qur?ān. In the early Islāmic community, Mu?ammad’s divine revelations had often been memorized by his Companions (disciples), a practice derived from the pre-Islāmic tradition of

  • Qurtabah (Spain)

    Córdoba, city, capital of Córdoba provincia (province), in the north-central section of the comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) of Andalusia in southern Spain. It lies at the southern foot of the Morena Mountains and on the right (north) bank of the Guadalquivir River, about 80 miles (130 km)

  • Qur?ān (sacred text)

    Qur?ān, (Arabic: “Recitation”) the sacred scripture of Islam. According to conventional Islamic belief, the Qur?ān was revealed by the angel Gabriel to the Prophet Muhammad in the West Arabian towns Mecca and Medina beginning in 610 and ending with Muhammad’s death in 632 ce. The word qur?ān, which

  • Qur?ān Commentary (work by al-?abarī)

    al-?abarī: Major works: …life’s labour began with the Qur?ān Commentary and was followed by the History of Prophets and Kings. Al-?abarī’s History became so popular that the Sāmānid prince Man?ūr ibn Nū? had it translated into Persian (c. 963).

  • Qur?ānic school (history of education)

    education: Africa: … became an important religious requirement, Qur?ānic schools developed. These schools concentrated on the teaching and memorization of the Qur?ān; some were little more than gathering places beneath a tree where teachers held classes. Qur?ānic schools placed young Africans in contact with Arab civilizations, and boys selected as potential leaders could…

  • Qu?ayr ?Amra (palace, Jordan)

    astronomical map: Relationship of the bright stars and their constellations: …dome of a bathhouse at Qu?ayr ?Amra, an Arab palace built in Jordan about 715 ce. The surviving fragments of the fresco show parts of 37 constellations and about 400 stars.

  • Qu?ayy ibn Kilāb (Arab leader)

    history of Arabia: Quraysh: …generations before the Prophet Muhammad”) Qu?ayy ibn Kilāb, called al-Mujammi? (“The Unifier”), is credited with having brought together scattered groups of Bedouin and installed them in Mecca. They took over a role that had long before been played by Minaeans and Nabataeans, controlling the west coast trade routes; they sent…

  • Qushayrī (Muslim author)

    Islamic arts: Philosophy: Averro?s and Avicenna: and Persian areas (Sarrāj, Kalābādhī, Qushayrī, and, in Muslim India, al-Hujwīrī) are generally superior to those produced in western Muslim countries. Yet the greatest Islamic theosophist of all, Ibn al-?Arabī (died 1240), was Spanish in origin and was educated in the Spanish tradition. His writings, in both poetry and prose,…

  • qu??ā (Muslim storyteller)

    Islamic arts: Age of the caliphs: The qu??ās (storytellers), who interpreted verses from the Qur?ān, attracted large audiences and may be regarded as the inventors of a popular religious prose. Their interpretations were highly fanciful, however, and hardly squared with the theologian’s orthodoxy.

  • qu?ūr (village)

    Morocco: Traditional regions: …fortified adobe villages known as ksour (Arabic: qu?ūr, “castles”). Nomadic camel herding was once an important economic activity in the Saharan zone, but government policies, desert warfare, multiyear droughts, and other extenuating factors have caused this way of life to disappear almost completely.

  • Qutaybah ibn Muslim (Arab general)

    Qutaybah ibn Muslim, Arab general under the caliphs ?Abd al-Malik and ?Abd al-Walīd I whose conquests in Afghanistan and Central Asia helped bring the Umayyad caliphate to the height of its power. Qutaybah was granted the governorship of Khorāsān (now part of Iran) in 704 by ?Abd al-Malik and thus

  • Qutb Complex (historic site, Delhi, India)

    Delhi: Architecture: …Qutb Minar, which, with its surrounding monuments, has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site; the tomb of Iltutmish; and the Ala?i Gate. Later Pashtun styles are represented by the tombs of the Sayyid (1414–51) and Lodī kings (1451–1526); these tombs exhibit either a low octagonal shape or a higher…

  • Qu?b Mīnār (minaret, Delhi, India)

    Qu?b Mīnār, among the tallest minarets in Asia, built in Delhi beginning at the turn of the 13th century by Qu?b al-Dīn Aibak and completed by his successor, Iltutmish. As the mīnār (tower) to the Qūwat-ul-Islām mosque, the Qu?b Mīnār serves the traditional purpose of being the place from which the

  • Qutb Minar and its Monuments (historic site, Delhi, India)

    Delhi: Architecture: …Qutb Minar, which, with its surrounding monuments, has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage site; the tomb of Iltutmish; and the Ala?i Gate. Later Pashtun styles are represented by the tombs of the Sayyid (1414–51) and Lodī kings (1451–1526); these tombs exhibit either a low octagonal shape or a higher…

  • Qu?b Shāhī dynasty (Indian dynasty)

    Qu?b Shāhī dynasty, (1518–1687), Muslim rulers of the kingdom of Golconda in the southeastern Deccan of India, one of the five successor states of the Bahmanī kingdom. The founder was Qulī Qu?b Shah, a Turkish governor of the Bahmanī eastern region, which largely coincided with the preceding Hindu

  • Qu?b, Ibrāhīm ?usayn Shādhilī Sayyid (Egyptian writer)

    Sayyid Qu?b, Egyptian writer who was one of the foremost figures in modern Sunni Islamic revivalism. He was from a family of impoverished rural notables. For most of his early life he was a schoolteacher. Originally an ardent secularist, he came, over time, to adopt many Islamist views. Following a

  • Qu?b, Sayyid (Egyptian writer)

    Sayyid Qu?b, Egyptian writer who was one of the foremost figures in modern Sunni Islamic revivalism. He was from a family of impoverished rural notables. For most of his early life he was a schoolteacher. Originally an ardent secularist, he came, over time, to adopt many Islamist views. Following a

  • Qu?b-al-Dīn Aibak (Muslim ruler of India)

    Qu?b al-Dīn Aibak, a founder of Muslim rule in India and an able general of Mu?izz al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sām of Ghūr. In childhood Qu?b was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur. He came into the possession of Mu?izz al-Dīn, who put him in charge of the royal stables. Eventually he was appointed to

  • Qu?b-al-Dīn Aybak (Muslim ruler of India)

    Qu?b al-Dīn Aibak, a founder of Muslim rule in India and an able general of Mu?izz al-Dīn Mu?ammad ibn Sām of Ghūr. In childhood Qu?b was sold as a slave and raised at Nishapur. He came into the possession of Mu?izz al-Dīn, who put him in charge of the royal stables. Eventually he was appointed to

  • Qu?bzādeh, ?ādiq (Iranian politician)

    Sadegh Ghotbzadeh, Iranian politician who helped establish Iran as an Islamic republic and was foreign minister of the country from 1979 to 1980. Involved in anti-shah activities, Ghotbzadeh was imprisoned briefly and at age 24 left Iran. He lived in various countries, including France and the

  • Quthing (Lesotho)

    Quthing, town, southern Lesotho. The surrounding area, which borders South Africa (southeast and west) and the Orange River (north), is predominantly agricultural (with subsistence farming of wheat, corn [maize], and sorghum) and pastoral. Livestock (sheep, cattle, and goats) raised in the area

  • Qutlugh Inanj (Eldeguzid ruler)

    Eldegüzid dynasty: …Toghr?l III defeated and subjugated Qutlugh Inanj (reigned 1191–95), the fourth Eldegüzid ruler. Qutlugh had to retreat to Azerbaijan, where the Eldegüzids held their position until 1225, when the Khwārezm-Shāh, Jalāl ad-Dīn Mingburnu, took over the administration of their territories.

  • Qu?uz, al-Mu?affar Sayf al-Dīn (Mamlūk sultan)

    Baybars I: …Egypt by the third sultan, al-Mu?affar Sayf al-Dīn Qu?uz. He restored them to their place in the army and conferred a village upon Baybars.

  • Qūwat-ul-Islām mosque (mosque, Delhi, India)

    South Asian arts: Islāmic architecture in India: period of the Delhi and provincial sultanates: The Qūwat-ul-Islām mosque (completed 1196), consisting of cloisters around a courtyard with the sanctuary to the west, was built from the remains of demolished temples. In 1198 an arched facade (maq?ūrah) was built in front to give the building an Islāmic aspect, but its rich floral…

  • Quwatli, Shukri al- (president of Syria)

    Shukri al-Quwatli, statesman who led the anticolonialist movement in Syria and became the nation’s first president. Quwatli entered Syrian politics in the 1930s as a member of the National Bloc, an Arab group that led the opposition to French rule. Quwatli assumed leadership of the movement in

  • quwwas (Islamic official)

    dragoman: …an interpreter-courier known as a kavass (Turkish kavas; Arabic qawwās), used largely for ceremonial purposes.

  • Quxian (China)

    Quzhou, city, western Zhejiang sheng (province), China. Quzhou has been a natural transportation centre since ancient times, being situated on the upper stream of the Fuchun River—there known as the Changshan River—at its confluence with the Wuxi River. Natural routes lead westward into Jiangxi

  • quxiang (musical instrument)

    pipa: …the contemporary pipa is the quxiang (“curved-neck”) pipa, which traveled from Persia by way of the Silk Road and reached western China in the 4th century ad. It had a pear-shaped wooden body with two crescent-shaped sound holes, a curved neck, four strings, and four frets. In performance it was…

  • quxiang pipa (musical instrument)

    pipa: …the contemporary pipa is the quxiang (“curved-neck”) pipa, which traveled from Persia by way of the Silk Road and reached western China in the 4th century ad. It had a pear-shaped wooden body with two crescent-shaped sound holes, a curved neck, four strings, and four frets. In performance it was…

  • Quyunjik (acropolis, Iraq)

    Nineveh: …from the top of the Quyunjik (Acropolis), 90 feet (30 metres) above the level of the plain, down through strata of accumulated debris of earlier cultures to virgin soil. It was then proved that more than four-fifths of this great accumulation is prehistoric.

  • Quzhou (China)

    Quzhou, city, western Zhejiang sheng (province), China. Quzhou has been a natural transportation centre since ancient times, being situated on the upper stream of the Fuchun River—there known as the Changshan River—at its confluence with the Wuxi River. Natural routes lead westward into Jiangxi

  • Qu?aiti (people)

    Qu?aiti sultanate: …was founded when the powerful Qu?aiti tribe arose early in the 19th century, challenging the dominant Kathiri sultanate. The two fought for supremacy in the ?a?ramawt until British pressure forced them to make peace in 1918. Both sultanates became part of South Yemen in 1967 (and the unified Yemen in…

  • Qu?aiti sultanate (historical state, Yemen)

    Qu?aiti sultanate, former semi-independent state in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. It was one of the largest sultanates in the British-ruled Aden Protectorate, the forerunner of independent southern Yemen; its capital was the port of Al-Mukallā. Its territory encompassed a s

  • Qu?aiti sultanate of Shihr and Mukalla (historical state, Yemen)

    Qu?aiti sultanate, former semi-independent state in the southern Arabian Peninsula, in what is now Yemen. It was one of the largest sultanates in the British-ruled Aden Protectorate, the forerunner of independent southern Yemen; its capital was the port of Al-Mukallā. Its territory encompassed a s

  • Qu?ayq?ān, Mount (mountain, Saudi Arabia)

    Mecca: City site: …feet, to the east and Mount Qu?ayq?ān, which reaches 1,401 feet, to the west. Mount Hirā? rises to 2,080 feet on the northeast and contains a cave in which Muhammad sought isolation and visions before he became a prophet. It was also in this cave that he received the first…

  • QVC (television network)

    Barry Diller: …Diller left Fox and purchased QVC, a home-shopping cable network. Two years later he was defeated in his attempt to buy his old employer, which had been renamed Paramount Communications. In the same year, QVC and CBS announced a merger, but it was quickly squelched by QVC investors. Diller then…

  • Qwaqwa (region, South Africa)

    Qwaqwa, former nonindependent Bantustan, Orange Free State, South Africa, designated for the southern Sotho (often called Basuto) people. Located in a section of the Drakensberg, Qwaqwa was a glen among mountains at elevations from 5,500 feet to more than 10,000 feet (1,675 m to more than 3,050 m).

  • Qyrghyz Zhotasy (mountains, Asia)

    Kyrgyz Ala Range, mountain range in Central Asia. A western spur of the Tien Shan (“Heavenly Mountains”) system, the range extends westward for approximately 230 miles (370 km) from the Chu River to the Talas River, just east of the city of Taraz, Kazakh. It rises to a height of 15,994 feet (4,875

  • Qyzylorda (oblast, Kazakhstan)

    Kazakhstan: Health and welfare: …Aral Sea, and especially in Qyzylorda (Kzyl-Orda) and Aqt?be provinces, Kazakhs suffer from the pollution and salinization of the sea. Its waters are contaminated with pesticides, especially DDT, and with chemical fertilizer fed into it by various rivers. The contraction of the Aral Sea has left a toxic dust in…

  • Qyzylorda (Kazakhstan)

    Qyzylorda, city, south-central Kazakhstan, on the Syr Darya (ancient Jaxartes River). Originally founded in the early 19th century as the Kokand fort of Ak-Mechet, it was renamed Perovsk after its capture by the Russians in 1853. After the Russian Revolution of 1917 the name of Ak-Mechet was

  • Qyzylqum (desert, Central Asia)

    Kyzylkum Desert, desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. It has an area of about 115,000 square miles (about 300,000 square km) and lies between two rivers—the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya—southeast of the Aral Sea. It consists of a plain sloping down toward the northwest, with a number of isolated

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