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  • qiyas (Islamic law)

    Qiyas, in Islamic law, analogical reasoning as applied to the deduction of juridical principles from the Qur?ān and the Sunnah (the normative practice of the community). With the Qur?ān, the Sunnah, and ijmā? (scholarly consensus), it constitutes the four sources of Islamic jurisprudence (u?ūl

  • qiyās (Islamic law)

    Qiyas, in Islamic law, analogical reasoning as applied to the deduction of juridical principles from the Qur?ān and the Sunnah (the normative practice of the community). With the Qur?ān, the Sunnah, and ijmā? (scholarly consensus), it constitutes the four sources of Islamic jurisprudence (u?ūl

  • Qiying (Chinese official)

    Qiying, Chinese official who negotiated the Treaty of Nanjing, which ended the first Opium War (1839–42), fought by the British in China to gain trade concessions there. A member of the imperial family of the Qing dynasty (1644–1911/12), Qiying served in various high governmental positions before

  • Qiyue (Chinese literary journal)

    Hu Feng: …he published the literary journal Qiyue (“July”), with which he fostered a number of writers. Gradually, a school of literature formed around the journal, which was banned after a few years. It was succeeded by Xiwang (“Hope”), also edited by Hu Feng.

  • qiyun shengdong (Chinese aesthetics)

    Chinese painting: Three Kingdoms (220–280) and Six Dynasties (220–589): These are qiyun shengdong (“spirit resonance, life-motion”), an enigmatic and much debated phrase that means that the painter should endow his work with life and movement through harmony with the spirit of nature; gufa yongbi (“structural method in use of the brush”), referring to the structural power…

  • Qīzān (Saudi Arabia)

    Jīzān, town and port, southwestern Saudi Arabia, on the Red Sea opposite the Farasān Islands. Defined by the 1934 Treaty of Al-?ā?if as belonging to Saudi Arabia, the town has been claimed by Yemen since the 1960s. Jīzān is the principal town of the Tihāmah coastal plain and the exporting and

  • Q?z?l Qum (desert, Central Asia)

    Kyzylkum Desert, desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. It has an area of about 115,000 square miles (about 300,000 square km) and lies between two rivers—the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya—southeast of the Aral Sea. It consists of a plain sloping down toward the northwest, with a number of isolated

  • Qizilqum (desert, Central Asia)

    Kyzylkum Desert, desert in Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. It has an area of about 115,000 square miles (about 300,000 square km) and lies between two rivers—the Syr Darya and the Amu Darya—southeast of the Aral Sea. It consists of a plain sloping down toward the northwest, with a number of isolated

  • QLP (political party, Canada)

    Jean Charest: …assume the leadership of the Quebec Liberal Party (QLP). His move into provincial politics was made in an effort to wrest political control of Quebec from the separatist Parti Québécois (PQ), headed by Lucien Bouchard, prior to a referendum on Quebec independence. Although Charest’s popularity in Quebec had been expected…

  • Qo Xiong (people)

    Miao: … people of southeast Guizhou, the Qo Xiong people of west Hunan, the A-Hmao people of Yunnan, and the Hmong people of Guizhou, Sichuan, Guangxi, and Yunnan (see China: People). There are some nine million Miao in China, of whom the Hmong constitute probably one-third, according to the French scholar Jacques…

  • Qobād I (king of Persia)

    Kavadh I, king of the Sāsānian empire of Persia (reigned 488–496 and 498/499–531). He was a son of Fīrūz and succeeded Fīrūz’ brother Balāsh as ruler. Time spent in youth as a hostage in the hands of the Hephthalites after their first defeat of his father gave Kavadh valuable military experience a

  • Qobād II (king of Persia)

    ancient Iran: Conflicts with the Turks and Byzantium: …and slain by his son Kavadh (Qobād) II (628). When Kavadh died a few months later, anarchy resulted. After a succession of short-time rulers, Yazdegerd III, grandson of Khosrow II, came to the throne in 632.

  • Qoboza, Percy (South African journalist)

    Percy Qoboza, South African journalist who was an outspoken critic of apartheid and one of South Africa’s most influential black newspaper editors. After studying theology in Basutoland (now Lesotho) and at Pax Training College in Pietersburg (now Polokwane), Qoboza turned to journalism and joined

  • Qodashim (Judaism)

    Qodashim, (Hebrew: “Holy Things”), the fifth of the six major divisions, or orders (sedarim), of the Mishna (codification of Jewish oral laws), which was given its final form early in the 3rd century ad by Judah ha-Nasi. Qodashim deals primarily with rites and sacrifices that took place in the

  • Qodesh ha-Qadashim (Judaism)

    Holy of Holies, the innermost and most sacred area of the ancient Temple of Jerusalem, accessible only to the Israelite high priest. Once a year, on Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, he was permitted to enter the square, windowless enclosure to burn incense and sprinkle sacrificial animal blood. B

  • Qods Force (Iranian organization)

    Quds Force, elite clandestine wing of Iran’s Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC), responsible primarily for its foreign operations. Organized shortly after the Iranian Revolution (1978–79), its activities have centred on organizing, supporting, and at times leading local forces abroad in ways

  • Qogir Feng (mountain, Asia)

    K2, the world’s second highest peak (28,251 feet [8,611 metres]), second only to Mount Everest. K2 is located in the Karakoram Range and lies partly in a Chinese-administered enclave of the Kashmir region within the Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China, and partly in the Gilgit-Baltistan

  • Qohelet (Old Testament)

    Ecclesiastes, (Preacher), an Old Testament book of wisdom literature that belongs to the third section of the biblical canon, known as the Ketuvim (Writings). In the Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes stands between the Song of Solomon and Lamentations and with them belongs to the Megillot, five scrolls

  • Qoltag Mountains (mountains, China)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: …the south by the low-rising Qoltag Mountains. West of the Turfan Depression is one of the greatest mountain knots of the eastern Tien Shan: the Eren Habirga Mountains, which reach elevations of 18,200 feet (5,550 metres). The ridge has considerable glacial development, as well as numerous forms of relief that…

  • Qom (Iran)

    Qom, city, capital of Qom province, north-central Iran. The city lies on both banks of the Rūd-e Qom and beside a salt desert, the Dasht-e Kavīr, 92 miles (147 km) south of Tehrān. In the 8th century Qom was one of the centres of Shi?i Islam. In 816 Fā?imah, the sister of the eighth imam of the

  • Qomolangma Feng (mountain, Asia)

    Mount Everest, mountain on the crest of the Great Himalayas of southern Asia that lies on the border between Nepal and the Tibet Autonomous Region of China, at 27°59′ N 86°56′ E. Reaching an elevation of 29,035 feet (8,850 metres), Mount Everest is the highest mountain in the world. Like other high

  • Qomul (China)

    Hami, city and oasis, eastern Uygur Autonomous Region of Xinjiang, China. An important stage on the roads from Gansu province into Central Asia and to the west, Hami was known to the Chinese in early times as Yiwu, the name Hami being the Chinese rendering of the Mongolian version (Khamil) of the

  • Qomul Basin (basin, Asia)

    Tien Shan: Physiography: …the Turfan Depression is the Hami (Qomul) Basin; both basins are bounded to the north by the Bogda Mountains, with elevations of up to 17,864 feet (5,445 metres), and by the eastern extremity of the Tien Shan, the Karlik Mountains, which reach a maximum elevation of 16,158 feet (4,925 metres).

  • Qondūz River (river, Asia)

    Afghanistan: Drainage: …tributaries, the Kowkcheh and the Qondūz, rise in the mountains of Badakhshān and Kondoz provinces. The Amu Darya becomes navigable from its confluence with the Kowkcheh, 60 miles (100 km) west of the city of Fey?ābād.

  • Qonya (Turkey)

    Konya, city, central Turkey. The city lies at an elevation of about 3,370 feet (1,027 metres) on the southwest edge of the central Anatolian Plateau and is surrounded by a narrow fertile plain. It is backed by Bozk?r Mountain on the west and enclosed by the interior edges of the central ranges of

  • Qoraqalpoghistan (republic, Uzbekistan)

    Karakalpakstan, autonomous republic in Uzbekistan, situated southeast and southwest of the Aral Sea. On the east Karakalpakstan occupies the western half of the Kyzylkum Desert, a vast plain covered with shifting sands. The central part consists of the valley and delta of the Amu Darya (river), a

  • Qoraqalpoghiston (republic, Uzbekistan)

    Karakalpakstan, autonomous republic in Uzbekistan, situated southeast and southwest of the Aral Sea. On the east Karakalpakstan occupies the western half of the Kyzylkum Desert, a vast plain covered with shifting sands. The central part consists of the valley and delta of the Amu Darya (river), a

  • Qosqo (Peru)

    Cuzco, city and Inca región, south-central Peru. It is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the Western Hemisphere. Formerly the capital of the extensive Inca empire, it retains much of its highly crafted early stone architecture, which is typically preserved in the foundations and

  • Qostanay (Kazakhstan)

    Qostanay, city, northern Kazakhstan, on the Tobyl River. Founded by Russian settlers from the Volga region in 1879, it became a centre of trade in the steppe, particularly in grain, a role that was enhanced by the construction of a branch railway in 1913. Qostanay was made an administrative centre

  • Qo?b od-Dīn Shāh Ma?mūd (Mo?affarid ruler)

    Mo?affarid Dynasty: …deposed by his two sons, Qo?b od-Dīn Shāh Ma?mūd (reigned 1358–75) and Jalāl od-Dīn Shāh Shojā? (reigned 1358–84), who divided the Mo?affarid territories between them.

  • Qoz (region, Sudan)

    Sudan: Relief: …of the Sahara; the western Qawz, an area of undulating sand dunes that merges northward into the rock desert; and a central-southern clay plain.

  • QR Code (barcode)

    QR Code, a type of bar code that consists of a printed square pattern of small black and white squares that encode data which can be scanned into a computer system. The black and white squares can represent numbers from 0 to 9, letters from A to Z, or characters in non-Latin scripts such as

  • QSL process (metallurgy)

    metallurgy: Reduction smelting: …lead sulfide concentrate are the QSL (Queneau-Schuhmann-Lurgi) and the KIVCET (a Russian acronym for “flash-cyclone-oxygen-electric smelting”). In the QSL reactor a submerged injection of shielded oxygen oxidizes lead sulfide to lead metal, while the KIVCET is a type of flash-smelting furnace in which fine, dried lead sulfide concentrate combines with…

  • QSO (astronomy)

    Quasar, an astronomical object of very high luminosity found in the centres of some galaxies and powered by gas spiraling at high velocity into an extremely large black hole. The brightest quasars can outshine all of the stars in the galaxies in which they reside, which makes them visible even at

  • Qsymia (drug)

    obesity: Treatment of obesity: …are Belviq (lorcaserin hydrochloride) and Qsymia (phentermine and topiramate). Belviq decreases obese individuals’ cravings for carbohydrate-rich foods by stimulating the release of serotonin, which normally is triggered by carbohydrate intake. Qsymia leverages the weight-loss side effects of topiramate, an antiepileptic drug, and the stimulant properties of phentermine, an existing

  • qt (measurement)

    Quart, unit of capacity in the British Imperial and U.S. Customary systems of measurement. For both liquid and dry measure, the British system uses one standard quart, which is equal to two imperial pints, or one-fourth imperial gallon (69.36 cubic inches, or 1,136.52 cubic cm). The U.S. system has

  • q? (unit of measurement)

    Qa, ancient Babylonian liquid measure equal to the volume of a cube whose dimensions are each one handbreadth (3.9 to 4 inches, or 9.9 to 10.2 cm) in length. The cube held one great mina (about 2 pounds, or 1 kg) of water by weight. Five qa made up a ?iqlu, 100 qa equaled an imēru (donkey load),

  • qu (Chinese opera)

    China: Literature: …age for operatic arias, or qu (a word that is also used for a full opera, with arias and chanted recitatives). The collection Yuanquxuan (“Selection from Yuan Operas”), with 100 opera librettos, and the storyteller “prompt books” for dramatized historical romances such as Sanguo (“Three Kingdoms”) give ample evidence for…

  • qu di (musical instrument)

    di: …major types of di: the qu di, so named because it is used to accompany kunqu, a form of southern Chinese opera, and bang di, so named because it is used to accompany bangzixi, a form of northern opera. The qu di is about 2 feet (about 60 cm) long,…

  • Qu Maomiao (Chinese leader)

    Qu Qiubai, prominent leader and, on occasions in the 1920s and early 1930s, head of the Chinese Communist Party. In addition to being a political activist, he is considered one of the most important literary figures of 20th-century China. In the People’s Republic of China today, Qu, who was an

  • Qu Qiubai (Chinese leader)

    Qu Qiubai, prominent leader and, on occasions in the 1920s and early 1930s, head of the Chinese Communist Party. In addition to being a political activist, he is considered one of the most important literary figures of 20th-century China. In the People’s Republic of China today, Qu, who was an

  • Qu Shuang (Chinese leader)

    Qu Qiubai, prominent leader and, on occasions in the 1920s and early 1930s, head of the Chinese Communist Party. In addition to being a political activist, he is considered one of the most important literary figures of 20th-century China. In the People’s Republic of China today, Qu, who was an

  • Qu Yinhua (Chinese explorer and mountaineer)

    Mount Everest: The north approach: …account—which included the claim that Qu Yinhua had scaled the notorious vertical cliff of the Second Step barefoot and which also made constant references to party solidarity and the inspiration of Chairman Mao—was deemed so improbable. Not for the last time, Everest was used as a vehicle for propaganda.

  • Qu Yuan (Chinese poet)

    Qu Yuan, one of the greatest poets of ancient China and the earliest known by name. His highly original and imaginative verse had an enormous influence over early Chinese poetry. Qu Yuan was born a member of the ruling house of Chu, a large state in the central valley of the Yangtze River (Chang

  • Qu’Appelle River (river, Canada)

    Qu’Appelle River, tributary of the Assiniboine River, in southern Saskatchewan and southwestern Manitoba, Canada. From its source near The Elbow (a bend in the South Saskatchewan River) and Lake Diefenbaker, northwest of Moose Jaw, Sask., the river flows eastward for 270 miles (430 km) through

  • Qu’est-ce que la propriété? (work by Proudhon)

    Pierre-Joseph Proudhon: Early life and education: …Qu’est-ce que la propriété? (1840; What Is Property?, 1876). This created a sensation, for Proudhon not only declared, “I am an anarchist”; he also stated, “Property is theft!”

  • Qu’est-ce que le tiers état? (pamphlet by Sieyès)

    Emmanuel-Joseph Sieyès: …General, Sieyès issued his pamphlet Qu’est-ce que le tiers état? (January 1789; “What Is the Third Estate?”), in which he identified the unprivileged Third Estate with the French nation and asserted that it alone had the right to draft a new constitution.

  • Quabbin Reservoir (reservoir, Massachusetts)

    Massachusetts: Drainage: …gets its drinking water from Quabbin Reservoir in the western part of the state. The world’s largest man-made domestic water supply, it was built between 1933 and 1939 and required the displacement of 2,500 people and four towns (Dana, Enfield, Greenwich, and Prescott) to provide water for dozens of towns…

  • quack grass (plant)

    Quack grass, (Elymus repens), rapidly spreading grass of the family Poaceae. Quack grass is native to Europe and has been introduced to other north temperate areas for forage or erosion control. In cultivated lands, it is often considered a weed because of its persistence. The plant has been used

  • quackery (fraud)

    Quackery, the characteristic practice of quacks or charlatans, who pretend to knowledge and skill that they do not possess, particularly in medicine. The quack makes exaggerated claims about his or her ability to heal disease, generally for financial gain. The conditions usually treated by quacks

  • quad (measurement)

    Quad, unit of energy equal to 1 quadrillion (1015) British thermal units (BTUs). The quad is a convenient unit for describing national and world energy resources. One quad is also equal to 293 billion kilowatt-hours or, for fuels of average heating values, the energy of 183 million barrels of

  • quad (architecture)

    Quadrangle, in architecture, rectangular open space completely or partially enclosed by buildings of an academic or civic character. The grounds of a quadrangle are often grassy or landscaped. Such a quadrangular area, intended as an environment for contemplation, study, or relaxation, was a

  • Quad Cities (industrial area, Illinois-Iowa, United States)

    Quad Cities, complex of cities at the Iowa-Illinois border, on the Mississippi River, U.S. Despite its name, the region includes five main cities: Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline, Illinois, and Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa. There are also several smaller contiguous

  • Quad Cities (Illinois, United States)

    Moline, city, Rock Island county, northwestern Illinois, U.S. It lies on the Mississippi River (there bridged to Iowa). With East Moline and Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, it forms a complex known as the Quad Cities. Sauk and Fox Indians inhabited the area at the time of

  • Quad Cities (Illinois, United States)

    Rock Island, city, seat (1833) of Rock Island county, northwestern Illinois, U.S. It lies on the Mississippi River (bridged to Iowa) at the mouth of the Rock River and opposite the island for which it was named. With Moline and East Moline, Illinois, and Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, Rock Island

  • Quad Cities (city, Iowa, United States)

    Davenport, city, seat (1838) of Scott county, eastern Iowa, U.S. It lies on the north bank of the Mississippi River and is the largest of the Quad Cities, an urban complex that includes neighbouring Bettendorf to the east and Moline and Rock Island across the river in Illinois. Credit Island, now a

  • Quad Cities (Illinois, United States)

    East Moline, city, Rock Island county, northwestern Illinois, U.S. It lies on the Mississippi River, some 160 miles (260 km) west of Chicago. With Moline and Rock Island, Illinois, and Davenport and Bettendorf, Iowa, it forms a complex known as the Quad Cities. The area was long inhabited by Sauk

  • quad unit

    video tape recorder: …of video tape units: the transverse, or quad, and the helical.

  • Quaderni del carcere (work by Gramsci)

    Antonio Gramsci: …complete Quaderni del carcere (Prison Notebooks) appeared in 1975. Many of his propositions became a fundamental part of Western Marxist thought and influenced the post-World War II strategies of communist parties in the West. His reflections on the cultural and political concept of hegemony (notably in southern Italy), on…

  • Quaderno musicale di Annalibera (work by Dallapiccola)

    Luigi Dallapiccola: …Quaderno musicale di Annalibera (1952; Musical Notebook of Annalibera), a piano book written for his daughter, serve as the basis for much of his Canti di liberazione (1955; Songs of Liberation), a triptych for chorus and orchestra, celebrating the liberation of Italy from Fascist control. An opera, Volo di notte…

  • Quadi (people)

    Czechoslovak history: Moravia: …15–10 bce by the Germanic Quadi. The Germanic peoples were pushed back from the middle Danube by the coming of the Avars in 567 ce. The exact date of the arrival of the Slavs in Moravia, as in Bohemia, is uncertain; but by the late 8th century Moravia was settled…

  • Quadracci Pavilion (building, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, United States)

    museum: New museums and collections: The Quadracci Pavilion, Santiago Calatrava’s addition for the Milwaukee Art Museum, includes an exhibition space, but it primarily houses an entrance hall, auditorium, gift shop, and two cafes. The Switch House, Herzog & de Meuron’s addition (2016) for Tate Modern, designates only 40 percent

  • quadrangle (architecture)

    Quadrangle, in architecture, rectangular open space completely or partially enclosed by buildings of an academic or civic character. The grounds of a quadrangle are often grassy or landscaped. Such a quadrangular area, intended as an environment for contemplation, study, or relaxation, was a

  • Quadrangle Complex (building complex, Washington, District of Columbia, United States)

    National Museum of African Art: …moved in 1987 to the Quadrangle Complex on the National Mall. The Quadrangle Complex—including the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery and the S. Dillon Ripley Center—was designed by Jean-Paul Carlhian of Boston. It has almost 22,000 square feet (2,045 square metres) of exhibition space and is located almost entirely underground, beneath…

  • Quadrant (Australian publication)

    James Phillip McAuley: …of Pacific Administration, editor of Quadrant, a literary journal, and professor of English at the University of Tasmania.

  • quadrant (nautical instrument)

    John Hadley: …of Philadelphia, Hadley invented a quadrant (actually a double-reflecting octant) for measuring the altitude of the Sun or a star above the horizon to find geographic position at sea. His double-reflecting principle made accurate determinations of location much easier. Hadley also fixed a spirit level to the instrument so that…

  • Quadrapartite Cartel (European cartel)

    Novartis AG: …chemical firms to form the Quadrapartite Cartel, which lasted until the outbreak of World War II in 1939. Though each participant in the cartel retained its legal autonomy, the companies, by signed agreement, entered into a division of markets and some joint manufacturing. Basel IG survived the war, but it…

  • Quadraspidiotus perniciosus (insect)

    San Jose scale, (Quadraspidiotus perniciosus), a species of insect in the armoured scale family, Diaspididae (order Homoptera), that was first discovered in North America in San Jose, California, in 1880 but probably is native to China. The yellow-coloured females are covered with a gray circular

  • quadrata (Latin alphabet)

    paleography: Styles of writing: …Latin alphabet of capitals (quadrata) is found in numberless inscriptions in stone and marble all over the Roman world. How far this alphabet was used for writing books is uncertain, because, though excellently adapted for incision, it is difficult to write. Some specimens of handwriting in quadrata do exist,…

  • quadrate bone (zoology)

    sound reception: Snakes: …thin plate of bone (the quadrate bone) that was once a part of the skull but that has become largely detached and is held loosely in place by ligaments. It lies beneath the surface of the face, covered by skin and muscle, and acts as a receiving surface for sound…

  • quadratic equation (mathematics)

    Quadratic equation, in mathematics, an algebraic equation of the second degree (having one or more variables raised to the second power). Old Babylonian cuneiform texts, dating from the time of Hammurabi, show a knowledge of how to solve quadratic equations, but it appears that ancient Egyptian

  • quadratic mean (mathematics)

    mean: The number 4 is the quadratic mean (or root mean square) of the numbers 1, 1, 2, 5, and 7 and differs from their arithmetic mean, which is 3 15. In general, the quadratic mean of n numbers x1, x2, …, xn is the square root of the arithmetic mean…

  • quadratic programming problem

    optimization: Theory: Another special case is quadratic programming, in which the constraints are linear but the objective function is quadratic; that is, it contains terms that are multiples of the product of two components of x. (For instance, the function 3(x1)2 + 1.4x1x2 + 2(x2)2 is a quadratic function of x1…

  • quadratic reciprocity law

    number theory: Disquisitiones Arithmeticae: …proof of the law of quadratic reciprocity, a deep result previously glimpsed by Euler. To expedite his work, Gauss introduced the idea of congruence among numbers—i.e., he defined a and b to be congruent modulo m (written a ≡ b mod m) if m divides evenly into the difference a…

  • quadratrix of Hippias (geometry)

    geometry: Trisecting the angle: …the ancient geometers called a quadratrix. Invented by a geometer known as Hippias of Elis (flourished 5th century bce), the quadratrix is a curve traced by the point of intersection between two moving lines, one rotating uniformly through a right angle, the other gliding uniformly parallel to itself. (See Sidebar:…

  • quadratura (painting technique)

    Baldassarre Peruzzi: …attempt illusionist architectural painting (quadratura), the extension of real architecture into imaginary space.

  • quadrature (astronomy)

    Quadrature, in astronomy, that aspect of a heavenly body in which its direction as seen from the Earth makes a right angle with the direction of the Sun. The Moon at First or Last Quarter is said to be at east or west quadrature, respectively. A superior planet (outside the Earth’s orbit) is at

  • quadrature (mathematics)

    Quadrature, in mathematics, the process of determining the area of a plane geometric figure by dividing it into a collection of shapes of known area (usually rectangles) and then finding the limit (as the divisions become ever finer) of the sum of these areas. When this process is performed with

  • quadrature amplitude modulation (electronics)

    telecommunication: Advanced methods: …latter form of modulation is quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). QAM signals actually transmit two amplitude-modulated signals in phase quadrature (i.e., 90° apart), so that four or more bits are represented by each shift of the combined signal. Communications systems that employ QAM include digital cellular systems in the United States…

  • quadrature of the circle (geometry)

    Quadrature of the Lune: …that someone had accomplished the squaring of the circle. Whether the unknown genius used lunes or some other method is not known, since for lack of space Boethius did not give the demonstration. He thus transmitted the challenge of the quadrature of the circle together with fragments of geometry apparently…

  • Quadrature of the Lune

    Hippocrates of Chios (fl. c. 460 bc) demonstrated that the moon-shaped areas between circular arcs, known as lunes, could be expressed exactly as a rectilinear area, or quadrature. In the following simple case, two lunes developed around the sides of a right triangle have a combined area equal to

  • quadrature of the lune (geometry)

    Quadrature of the Lune: Hippocrates of Chios (fl. c. 460 bc) demonstrated that the moon-shaped areas between circular arcs, known as lunes, could be expressed exactly as a rectilinear area, or quadrature. In the following simple case, two lunes developed around the sides of a right triangle have a…

  • Quadrature of the Parabola (work by Archimedes)

    Archimedes: His works: Quadrature of the Parabola demonstrates, first by “mechanical” means (as in Method, discussed below) and then by conventional geometric methods, that the area of any segment of a parabola is 43 of the area of the triangle having the same base and height as that…

  • Quadratus, Saint (Christian saint)

    St. Quadratus, ; feast day May 26), the earliest known apologist for Christianity. With only a fragment of his Apology for Christianity still extant, preserved in the Ecclesiastical History of the 4th-century scholar Eusebius of Caesarea, Quadratus has not been clearly identified. Addressed from

  • quadric surface (mathematics)

    quadratic equation: …known as the quadrics, or quadric surfaces.

  • quadriceps femoris muscle (anatomy)

    Quadriceps femoris muscle, large fleshy muscle group covering the front and sides of the thigh. It has four parts: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius. They originate at the ilium (upper part of the pelvis, or hipbone) and femur (thighbone), come together in a

  • quadrifoil (aircraft)

    kite: Modern kite sports: Quadrifoils—soft, sparless, controllable kites—were used to haul personnel and sleds on self-supported treks in a 1995 Arctic expedition across Greenland and in a 1999 expedition to the South Pole.

  • Quadriga (work by Agar)

    Eileen Agar: One of her best-known paintings, Quadriga (1935), was among those selected for exhibition. Inspired by a photograph of a horse’s head from the Parthenon, Agar repeated and transformed the image four times on a canvas, provoking a connection with the four horses associated with the Apocalypse. Another of her significant…

  • quadrigati (coin)

    coin: The beginnings: …chariot) from which their name, quadrigati, derived; they were imitated in electrum by the Carthaginians in Capua. The quadrigati were of the weight of the lighter Romano-Campanian didrachms and reflected the rising cost of silver at a time of stress; concurrently the cast bronze coinage of Rome dropped steadily in…

  • quadrigatus (coin)

    coin: The beginnings: …chariot) from which their name, quadrigati, derived; they were imitated in electrum by the Carthaginians in Capua. The quadrigati were of the weight of the lighter Romano-Campanian didrachms and reflected the rising cost of silver at a time of stress; concurrently the cast bronze coinage of Rome dropped steadily in…

  • Quadrilateral (Christianity)

    Christianity: 19th-century efforts: …who proposed the historic “Quadrilateral” of the Scriptures, the creeds, the sacraments of baptism and the Lord’s Supper, and episcopacy as the keystone of unity. Thomas Campbell and his son, Alexander, and Barton Warren Stone, members of the church of the Disciples of Christ, taught that “the

  • Quadrilateral (Italian fortresses)

    Quadrilateral, famous combination of four fortresses mutually supporting one another, during the Austrian rule of northern Italy. The four fortified towns were Mantua, Peschiera, Verona, and Legnago, lying between Lombardy and Venetia; the former two were on the Mincio and the latter two on the

  • Quadrilateral Trotting Combination (horse racing)

    Grand Circuit, oldest continuing harness horse-racing series in the United States. It was begun in 1871 by Colonel Billy Edwards, a businessman from Cleveland, Ohio. The circuit, then known as the Quadrilateral Trotting Combination, held its first meetings in 1873 in Cleveland, in Utica and

  • quadrilhas (dance)

    Quadrille, fashionable late 18th- and 19th-century dance for four couples in square formation. Imported by English aristocrats in 1815 from elite Parisian ballrooms, it consisted of four, or sometimes five, contredanses; like the contredanse (q.v.), the quadrille depended more on the cooperative

  • quadrille (dance)

    Quadrille, fashionable late 18th- and 19th-century dance for four couples in square formation. Imported by English aristocrats in 1815 from elite Parisian ballrooms, it consisted of four, or sometimes five, contredanses; like the contredanse (q.v.), the quadrille depended more on the cooperative

  • quadrille (card game)

    ombre: …French developed a four-hand version, quadrille. Quadrille in turn adopted the standard 52-card deck associated with whist and gave rise to Boston whist, from which derives solo whist. Other lines of descent and hybridization produced twenty-five, preference, and skat.

  • quadrille flageolet (musical instrument)

    flageolet: …added it became the popular quadrille flageolet of the mid-19th century, made famous by the virtuoso Collinet. The English flageolet is a late 18th-century adaptation of the French form, with six front finger holes and, sometimes, keywork. Flageolets were often built as double pipes (the English also as triple pipes),…

  • Quadrilogue invectif (work by Chartier)

    Alain Chartier: …is used in the prose Quadrilogue invectif, written in 1422, the dialogue being between France and the three estates of the realm (clergy, nobility, and commoners). This work exposes the sufferings of the peasantry, the misdeeds of the church, and the abuses of the feudal army but maintains that France…

  • quadriplegia (pathology)

    paraplegia: Quadriplegia involves paralysis of both arms and both legs. Respiration may also be affected if the upper cervical region of the spinal cord is damaged.

  • quadrivium (education)

    mathematics: European mathematics during the Middle Ages and Renaissance: …the monastic education called the quadrivium: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, and music theory. Together with the trivium (grammar, logic, rhetoric), these subjects formed the seven liberal arts, which were taught in the monasteries, cathedral schools, and, from the 12th century on, universities and which constituted the principal university instruction until modern…

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