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  • Ronay, Egon (British restaurant critic)

    Egon Ronay, British restaurant critic (born July 24, 1915?, Budapest, Austria-Hungary—died June 12, 2010, Berkshire, Eng.), raised the standards of British cooking through his restaurant reviews and eponymous guidebooks. Ronay came from a long line of restaurateurs and was expected to go into the

  • Roncador Mountains (mountain range, Brazil)

    Roncador Mountains, mountain range in central Brazil. It has an average elevation of about 1,800 feet (550 metres) above sea level. It extends north-south for about 500 miles (800 km), roughly paralleling the Araguaia National Park to the east. From its western slopes flow the headwaters of the

  • Roncador, Serra do (mountain range, Brazil)

    Roncador Mountains, mountain range in central Brazil. It has an average elevation of about 1,800 feet (550 metres) above sea level. It extends north-south for about 500 miles (800 km), roughly paralleling the Araguaia National Park to the east. From its western slopes flow the headwaters of the

  • Roncaglia, Decrees of (Italian history)

    Germany: Hohenstaufen policy in Italy: …and the publication of the Roncaglia decrees, which defined royal rights and attempted to establish Frederick’s authority in Italy.

  • Roncaglia, Diet of (Italian history)

    Frederick I: Attempt to regain imperial rights.: …oppose him, Frederick opened the Diet of Roncaglia. The goal of this Diet was to define and guarantee the rights of the emperor, which would bring the empire an estimated 30,000 pounds of silver per year. Frederick attempted, beginning in 1158 and especially after 1162, not only to achieve the…

  • Roncalli, Angelo Giuseppe (pope)

    Saint John XXIII, ; canonized April 27, 2014; feast day October 11), one of the most popular popes of all time (reigned 1958–63), who inaugurated a new era in the history of the Roman Catholic Church by his openness to change (aggiornamento), shown especially in his convoking of the Second Vatican

  • Roncesvalles (Spain)

    Roncesvalles, village, Navarra provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northern Spain. It lies 3,220 feet (981 metres) above sea level in the Pyrenees, northeast of Pamplona and near the French frontier. It is known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de

  • Roncesvalles Pass (mountain pass, Spain)

    Roncesvalles: …known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de Iba?eta, which lies above it at an elevation of 3,862 feet (1,177 metres). This pass is the traditional site of the Battle of Roncesvalles (August 15, 778), in which the Basques ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard…

  • Roncesvalles, Battle of (Spanish history)

    Roncesvalles: …the traditional site of the Battle of Roncesvalles (August 15, 778), in which the Basques ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard of the Frankish army as it was returning across the mountains to Aquitaine after Charlemagne, campaigning against the Muslims in Spain, ravaged several towns south of the…

  • Roncesvalles, Col de (mountain pass, Spain)

    Roncesvalles: …known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de Iba?eta, which lies above it at an elevation of 3,862 feet (1,177 metres). This pass is the traditional site of the Battle of Roncesvalles (August 15, 778), in which the Basques ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard…

  • Roncesvalles, Pass of (mountain pass, Spain)

    Roncesvalles: …known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de Iba?eta, which lies above it at an elevation of 3,862 feet (1,177 metres). This pass is the traditional site of the Battle of Roncesvalles (August 15, 778), in which the Basques ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard…

  • Roncevaux (Spain)

    Roncesvalles, village, Navarra provincia (province) and comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), northern Spain. It lies 3,220 feet (981 metres) above sea level in the Pyrenees, northeast of Pamplona and near the French frontier. It is known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de

  • Roncevaux Pass (mountain pass, Spain)

    Roncesvalles: …known in relation to the Pass of Roncesvalles, or Puerto de Iba?eta, which lies above it at an elevation of 3,862 feet (1,177 metres). This pass is the traditional site of the Battle of Roncesvalles (August 15, 778), in which the Basques ambushed and totally wiped out the rear guard…

  • Ronchi, Vasco (Italian physicist)

    optics: Historical background: In 1957 the Italian physicist Vasco Ronchi went the other way and defined an image as any recognizable nonuniformity in the light distribution over a surface such as a screen or film; the sharper the image, the greater the degree of nonuniformity. Today, the concept of an image often departs…

  • Ronda (Spain)

    Ronda, town, Málaga provincia (province), in the Andalusia comunidad autónoma (autonomous community), southern Spain. It lies in the Ronda Mountains west of Málaga city. The town is situated on two hills divided by a deep ravine (El Tajo de Ronda) containing the Grande River, which is an affluent

  • ronda, La (Italian periodical)

    Riccardo Bacchelli: …on the Roman literary periodical La Ronda, he attempted to discredit contemporary avant-garde writers by holding up as models the Renaissance masters and such fine 19th-century writers as Giacomo Leopardi and Alessandro Manzoni. Somewhat later he was drama critic for the Milanese review La fiera letteraria.

  • Rondane (mountain range, Norway)

    Rondane, mountain range in Oppland and Hedmark fylker (counties), south-central Norway. For the most part dry, the range has several small glaciers around its highest peaks, which average 7,000 feet (2,100 m); Rondeslottet, at 7,146 feet (2,178 m), is the highest point. Most of the area is part of

  • Rondane Nasjonalpark (national park, Norway)

    Rondane National Park, park in south-central Norway established as a nature preserve in December 1962 by royal decree; by a law of 1970 the area became a national park. The park covers an area of 221 square miles (572 square km), with a range of elevation of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet (900 to 2,100

  • Rondane National Park (national park, Norway)

    Rondane National Park, park in south-central Norway established as a nature preserve in December 1962 by royal decree; by a law of 1970 the area became a national park. The park covers an area of 221 square miles (572 square km), with a range of elevation of from 3,000 to 7,000 feet (900 to 2,100

  • Rondanini Pietà (work by Michelangelo)

    Western sculpture: Michelangelo and the High Renaissance: His final work, the “Rondanini Pietà” (1552–64), now in the Castello Sforzesco, Milan, is certainly his most personal and most deeply felt expression in sculpture. The artist had almost completely carved the piece when he changed his mind, returned to the block, and drastically reduced the breadth of the…

  • rondavel (African dwelling)

    African architecture: Savanna kraals and compounds: … tend toward a consistent form—the rondavel, or cylindrical, single-cell house with a conical thatched roof. This type is prevalent throughout Southern Africa. Variants in the region include a low plinth or curb supporting a domed roof (some Swazi and Zulu), flattened domes or low-pitched cones on head-height cylinders, and high,…

  • Ronde à la clochette (work by Paganini)

    La campanella, (Italian: “The Little Bell”) final movement of the Violin Concerto No. 2 in B Minor, Op. 7, by Italian composer and violinist Niccolò Paganini, renowned for its intricate and technically demanding solo passages and for the bell-like effects featured in both the solo and orchestral

  • rondeau (poetry and music)

    Rondeau, one of several formes fixes (“fixed forms”) in French lyric poetry and song of the 14th and 15th centuries. The full form of a rondeau consists of four stanzas. The first and last are identical; the second half of the second stanza is a short refrain, which has as its text the first half

  • rondel (poetry)

    Rondel, a fixed poetic form that runs on two rhymes. It is a variant of the rondeau. The rondel often consists of 14 lines of 8 or 10 syllables divided into three stanzas (two quatrains and a sextet), with the first two lines of the first stanza serving as the refrain of the second and third

  • Rondelet, Guillaume (French naturalist)

    Guillaume Rondelet, French naturalist and physician who contributed substantially to zoology by his descriptions of marine animals, primarily of the Mediterranean Sea. Rondelet’s book, Libri de Piscibus Marinis (1554–55; “Book of Marine Fish”), contains detailed descriptions of nearly 250 kinds of

  • rondelle (poetry)

    Rondel, a fixed poetic form that runs on two rhymes. It is a variant of the rondeau. The rondel often consists of 14 lines of 8 or 10 syllables divided into three stanzas (two quatrains and a sextet), with the first two lines of the first stanza serving as the refrain of the second and third

  • Rondine, La (opera by Puccini)

    Giacomo Puccini: Mature work and fame: …Monte-Carlo in Monaco, Puccini’s opera La rondine was first performed and then was quickly forgotten.

  • rondo (music)

    Rondo, in music, an instrumental form characterized by the initial statement and subsequent restatement of a particular melody or section, the various statements of which are separated by contrasting material. Although any piece built upon this basic plan of alternation or digression and return may

  • Rondo bush baby (primate)

    bush baby: Even smaller is the Rondo bush baby (G. rondoensis), first described in 1997, which weighs just 60 grams and is restricted to a few coastal forests in southeastern Tanzania.

  • Rondon, Candido (Brazilian explorer)

    Candido Rondon, Brazilian explorer and protector of Indians. As a young soldier, he was assigned to extend telegraph lines into the Brazilian backlands. In 1913–14 he and U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt headed an expedition that explored a tributary of the Madeira River. In both these undertakings,

  • Rondon, Candido Mariano da Silva (Brazilian explorer)

    Candido Rondon, Brazilian explorer and protector of Indians. As a young soldier, he was assigned to extend telegraph lines into the Brazilian backlands. In 1913–14 he and U.S. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt headed an expedition that explored a tributary of the Madeira River. In both these undertakings,

  • Rond?nia (state, Brazil)

    Rond?nia, estado (state), west-central Brazil, bordering Bolivia to the south and west, Amazonas state to the north, and Mato Grosso state on the east. Formerly a part of Amazonas, it was established in 1943 as Guaporé territory, which was renamed in 1956 after Marshal Candido Mariano da Silva

  • Ronettes, the (American music group)

    The Ronettes, American girl group formed in 1959 by sisters Ronnie Bennett (byname of Veronica Bennett, later Ronnie Spector; b. August 10, 1943, New York, New York, U.S.) and Estelle Bennett (b. July 22, 1941, New York, New York—d. February 11, 2009, Englewood, New Jersey) with their cousin Nedra

  • Ronfard, Jean-Pierre (Canadian actor and playwright)

    Canadian literature: Contemporary trends: Jean-Pierre Ronfard, one of the founders of the Nouveau Théatre Expérimental, created a defining moment in Quebec theatre with La Vie et mort du roi boiteux (1981; “The Life and Death of the Lame King”), a six-play cycle whose performance in 1982 lasted more than…

  • Rong (people)

    Lepchā, people of eastern Nepal, western Bhutan, Sikkim state, and the Darjeeling district of West Bengal in India. They number about 46,000 (11,000 in India; 25,000 in Sikkim; and 10,000 in Bhutan). They are thought to be the earliest inhabitants of Sikkim, but have adopted many elements of the

  • Rong River (river, Tibet, China)

    Mount Everest: Drainage and climate: In Tibet the Rong River originates from the Pumori and Rongbuk glaciers and the Kama River from the Kangshung Glacier: both flow into the Arun River, which cuts through the Himalayas into Nepal. The Rong, Dudh Kosi, and Kama river valleys form, respectively, the northern, southern, and eastern…

  • Rong Yiren (Chinese official)

    Rong Yiren, Chinese businessman and politician. He was the founder (in 1979) and president of China International Trust and Investment Corporation (CITIC), China’s largest investment company at the time, and later (1993–98) was vice president of China. Rong was educated at a British-run

  • Rong’an (president of China)

    Yuan Shikai, Chinese army leader and reformist minister in the twilight of the Qing dynasty (until 1911) and then first president of the Republic of China (1912–16). Yuan was from a landed military family of Xiangcheng in Henan province. In his youth he showed a propensity for pleasure-seeking and

  • R?ngao language

    Rengao language, language of the North Bahnaric subbranch of Bahnaric, a branch of the Mon-Khmer family (itself a part of the Austroasiatic languages. Rengao is spoken by some 15,000 individuals in south-central V

  • Ronge, Lac la (lake, Canada)

    Lac la Ronge, lake, central Saskatchewan, Canada; it drains northeastward through the Rapid River into the Churchill River. Island-studded, it is 36 miles (58 km) long, has an area of 546 square miles (1,414 square km), and is noted for its trout, northern pike, and pickerel (walleye). It has been

  • Ronglu (Chinese official)

    Ronglu, official and general during the last years of the Qing dynasty who organized and led one of the first brigades of Chinese troops that used Western firearms and drill. He achieved high office as a favourite of the powerful empress dowager Cixi, and he ensured that the army remained loyal to

  • rongo-rongo (hieroglyphics)

    Easter Island: Traditional culture: …covered with incised signs (called rongo-rongo) placed in boustrophedon (a method of writing in which the lines run alternately from right to left and from left to right) were copied from earlier specimens merely for ritual purposes; their proper reading was forgotten, and—despite many claims—modern attempts at deciphering them have…

  • Ronia, the Robber′s Daughter (book by Lindgren)

    Astrid Lindgren: …and in Ronja R?vardotter (1981; Ronia, the Robber’s Daughter), she let the undaunted Ronja and her friend Birk experience both the dangers and hardship and the beauty and mystique of an animated forest. Once again, the author created a source of relief and mutual empowerment for her young characters and…

  • Ronin (film by Frankenheimer [1998])

    John Frankenheimer: Later work: Ronin (1998), Frankenheimer’s next theatrical release, however, was an assured thriller, with Robert De Niro giving one of his most intense latter-day performances as a former CIA agent hired to steal a briefcase. The film was a modest hit, but less effective was Reindeer Games…

  • rōnin (Japanese warrior)

    Rōnin, any of the masterless samurai warrior aristocrats of the late Muromachi (1138–1573) and Tokugawa (1603–1867) periods who were often vagrant and disruptive and sometimes actively rebellious. By the 12th century the term rōnin began to be used for samurai who, as a result of either losses in

  • Ronis, Willy (French photographer)

    Willy Ronis, French photographer (born Aug. 14, 1910, Paris, France—died Sept. 12, 2009, Paris), crafted powerful black-and-white images in which he captured the rich texture of everyday working-class life in post-World War II Paris. Ronis, the son of Eastern European Jewish refugees, studied law

  • Ronja R?vardotter (book by Lindgren)

    Astrid Lindgren: …and in Ronja R?vardotter (1981; Ronia, the Robber’s Daughter), she let the undaunted Ronja and her friend Birk experience both the dangers and hardship and the beauty and mystique of an animated forest. Once again, the author created a source of relief and mutual empowerment for her young characters and…

  • Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (United States project)

    Antarctica: National rivalries and claims: Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (RARE) in 1947–48 to the old U.S. Antarctic Service East Base camp on Marguerite Bay, the peninsula protagonists—British, Argentine, and Chilean—became concerned that the United States might restore its claims.

  • Ronne Ice Shelf (ice shelf, Antarctica)

    Ronne Ice Shelf, large body of floating ice, lying at the head of the Weddell Sea, which is itself an indentation in the Atlantic coastline of Antarctica. More than 500 feet (150 metres) thick and extending inland for more than 520 miles (840 km), it lies immediately west of Filchner Ice Shelf,

  • Ronne, Edith (American explorer)

    Finn Ronne: Edith Ronne and a scientist, Jenny Darlington, traveled with the Ronne Expedition, becoming the first women researchers to take part in a polar exploration. Ronne won many honours, among them three Congressional Gold Medals. His books include Antarctic Conquest (1949) and Antarctica, My Destiny (1979).

  • Ronne, Finn (American explorer)

    Finn Ronne, Norwegian-born American explorer and writer who visited Antarctica nine times, discovering and charting vast areas of the 4,000,000-square-mile (10,400,000-square-kilometre) continent. On his expeditions Ronne traveled an estimated 3,600 miles (5,800 km) by ski and dogsled. He

  • Ronnie and the Relatives (American music group)

    The Ronettes, American girl group formed in 1959 by sisters Ronnie Bennett (byname of Veronica Bennett, later Ronnie Spector; b. August 10, 1943, New York, New York, U.S.) and Estelle Bennett (b. July 22, 1941, New York, New York—d. February 11, 2009, Englewood, New Jersey) with their cousin Nedra

  • R?nnlund, Toini Gustafsson (Swedish skier)

    Toini Gustafsson, Swedish skiing champion who competed in two Olympics, winning two gold and two silver medals in Nordic competition. Small in stature, Gustafsson compensated for her short stride length with unusually powerful strokes that provided her more stamina at the end of races. A housewife

  • Rono, Henry (Kenyan athlete)

    athletics: Long-distance running: Henry Rono (Kenya), one of the most successful at the steeplechase, also held world records at 3,000, 5,000, and 10,000 metres.

  • Ronquières (Belgium)

    canals and inland waterways: Inclined planes: …been constructed in Europe, at Ronquières, Belg., for 1,350-ton vessels; at Saint-Louis-Arzviller, Fr., for 300-ton vessels; and at Krasnoyarsk, Russia, for 1,500-ton vessels. At Ronquières and Krasnoyarsk, vessels are carried longitudinally up relatively gentle inclines with gradients of 1 in 21 and 1 in 12, respectively, while at Arzviller the…

  • ronquil (fish)

    perciform: Annotated classification: Family Bathymasteridae (ronquils) Resemble Opistognathidae, but jaws not so large; no spines in dorsal or anal fins; pelvic fins slightly ahead of pectorals; about 7 species; bottom-dwelling; coasts of North Pacific Ocean. Family Cryptacanthodidae (wrymouths) Pelvic fins absent, mouth oblique. Marine, northern Atlantic and Pacific. 1 genus…

  • Ronsard, Pierre de (French poet)

    Pierre de Ronsard, poet, chief among the French Renaissance group of poets known as La Pléiade. Ronsard was a younger son of a noble family of the county of Vend?me. He entered the service of the royal family as a page in 1536 and accompanied Princess Madeleine to Edinburgh after her marriage to

  • Ronson, Mark (British disc jockey and music producer)

    Bruno Mars: …a collaboration with British producer Mark Ronson that recalled 1980s funk and R&B. The song, which appeared on Ronson’s album Uptown Special (2015), became a major worldwide hit and won the Grammy for record of the year.

  • Ronson, Peter (Swedish actor)

    Journey to the Center of the Earth: Cast: Assorted ReferencesBoone

  • Ronstadt, Linda (American singer)

    Linda Ronstadt, American singer, with a pure, expressive soprano voice and eclectic artistic tastes, whose performances called attention to a number of new songwriters and helped establish country rock music. After winning attention with a folk-oriented trio, the Stone Poneys, in California in the

  • Ronstadt, Linda Marie (American singer)

    Linda Ronstadt, American singer, with a pure, expressive soprano voice and eclectic artistic tastes, whose performances called attention to a number of new songwriters and helped establish country rock music. After winning attention with a folk-oriented trio, the Stone Poneys, in California in the

  • R?ntgen radiation (radiation beam)

    X-ray, electromagnetic radiation of extremely short wavelength and high frequency, with wavelengths ranging from about 10?8 to 10?12 metre and corresponding frequencies from about 1016 to 1020 hertz (Hz). X-rays are commonly produced by accelerating (or decelerating) charged particles; examples

  • R?ntgen, Wilhelm Conrad (German physicist)

    Wilhelm Conrad R?ntgen, physicist who was a recipient of the first Nobel Prize for Physics, in 1901, for his discovery of X-rays, which heralded the age of modern physics and revolutionized diagnostic medicine. R?ntgen studied at the Polytechnic in Zürich and then was professor of physics at the

  • R?ntgensatellit (satellite)

    ROSAT, X-ray astronomy satellite launched on June 1, 1990, as part of a cooperative program involving Germany, the United States, and the United Kingdom. ROSAT had two parallel grazing-incidence telescopes. One of them, the X-ray telescope, bore many similarities to the equipment of the earlier

  • rood (Dutch unit of measurement)

    rod: …also akin to the Dutch rood which referred to a land area of 40 square rods, equal to one-quarter acre, or 10,890 square feet (1,012 square metres). It also denoted just one square rod, or 272.25 square feet (25.29 square metres). The rood also was a British linear unit, containing…

  • rood (British unit of measurement)

    rod: The rood also was a British linear unit, containing 660 feet (201.2 metres).

  • rood beam (architecture)

    rood screen: …chancel and known as the rood beam. Later a rood screen was added, rising from the floor to this beam; the rood loft, above the screen, was also added. Upon this loft, or gallery, were displayed the rood and the two statues (of the Virgin Mary and St. John) that…

  • rood loft (architecture)

    loft: In churches the rood loft is a display gallery above the rood screen, and a choir or organ loft is a gallery reserved for church singers and musicians. In theatres a loft is the area above and behind the proscenium.

  • rood screen (architecture)

    Rood screen, in Western architecture, element of a Christian church of the Middle Ages or early Renaissance that separated the choir or chancel (the area around the altar) from the nave (the area set apart for the laity). The rood screen was erected in association with the rood, which in Old

  • rood stair (architecture)

    rood screen: The rood stairs, either built into the stone wall of the chancel or housed in a freestanding turret, rose from the church floor to the loft.

  • Roodepoort (South Africa)

    Roodepoort, city, Gauteng province, South Africa. It lies immediately west of Johannesburg in the Witwatersrand. The first discovery of gold in the Witwatersrand in 1884, which soon thereafter proved unprofitable, occurred within the present city boundaries. Two years later, the Roodepoort

  • Roof (work by Goldsworthy)

    Andy Goldsworthy: …created a major installation called Roof (2004–05) for the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C., which he made with the help of a team of dry stone masons from England. The installation consists of nine hollow domes (27 feet [8.3 metres] in diameter), each with a hole at the…

  • roof (architecture)

    Roof, covering of the top of a building, serving to protect against rain, snow, sunlight, wind, and extremes of temperature. Roofs have been constructed in a wide variety of forms—flat, pitched, vaulted, domed, or in combinations—as dictated by technical, economic, or aesthetic considerations. The

  • roof bolt (mining)

    Rock bolt, in tunneling and underground mining, steel rod inserted in a hole drilled into the roof or walls of a rock formation to provide support to the roof or sides of the cavity. Rock bolt reinforcement can be used in any excavation geometry, is simple and quick to apply, and is relatively

  • roof cladding

    construction: Primitive building: the Stone Age: The usual roofing material was thatch: dried grasses or reeds tied together in small bundles, which in turn were tied in an overlapping pattern to the light wooden poles that spanned between the rafters. Horizontal thatched roofs leak rain badly, but, if they are placed at the…

  • roof covering

    construction: Primitive building: the Stone Age: The usual roofing material was thatch: dried grasses or reeds tied together in small bundles, which in turn were tied in an overlapping pattern to the light wooden poles that spanned between the rafters. Horizontal thatched roofs leak rain badly, but, if they are placed at the…

  • roof garden (horticulture)

    gardening: Roof gardens: The modern tendency in architecture for flat roofs has made possible the development of attractive roof gardens in urban areas above private houses and commercial buildings. These gardens follow the same principles as others except that the depth of soil is less, to…

  • roof pendant (geology)

    Roof pendant, downward extension of the surrounding rock that protrudes into the upper surface of an igneous intrusive body. The intrusions that most commonly contain roof pendants are relatively shallow stocks or batholiths; the roof pendants occur as isolated pieces of the surrounding rock

  • roof plate (anatomy)

    human nervous system: Midbrain: The roof plate of the midbrain is formed by two paired rounded swellings, the superior and inferior colliculi. The superior colliculus receives input from the retina and the visual cortex and participates in a variety of visual reflexes, particularly the tracking of objects in the contralateral…

  • roof rat (rodent)

    rat: …the Norway rat), and the house rat, R. rattus (also called the black rat, ship rat, or roof rat), live virtually everywhere that human populations have settled; the house rat is predominant in warmer climates, and the brown rat dominates in temperate regions, especially urban areas. Most likely originating in…

  • Roof Tile of Tempyō, The (work by Inoue)

    Inoue Yasushi: …notably Tempyō no iraka (1957; The Roof Tile of Tempyō), which depicts the drama of 8th-century Japanese monks traveling to China and bringing back Buddhist texts and other artifacts to Japan.

  • roofie (drug)

    date rape: …incapacitating “date-rape drugs” such as Rohypnol, GHB (gamma hydroxybutyrate), and ketamine. Such substances can be slipped into alcoholic or other drinks when a victim is not looking. The drugs are usually odourless and colourless, although Rohypnol, after it became notorious as a date-rape drug, has been altered chemically to change…

  • roofing tile (construction)

    tile: Roof tiles of some Greek temples were made of marble; in ancient Rome, of bronze. Stone slabs used for roofing in parts of England are called tiles. Many rough forms of terra-cotta are called tiles when used structurally. The steel forms for casting certain types…

  • rook (chess)

    chess: Rook: Each player has two rooks (formerly also known as castles), which begin the game on the corner squares a1 and h1 for White, a8 and h8 for Black. A rook can move vertically or horizontally to any unobstructed square along the file or rank…

  • rook (bird)

    Rook, (Corvus frugilegus), the most abundant Eurasian bird of the crow family Corvidae (q.v.). It resembles the carrion crow in size (45 cm [18 inches]) and in black coloration, but the adult rook usually has shaggy thigh feathers and has bare white skin at the base of its sharp bill. The species

  • Rooke, Sir George (British military officer)

    Gibraltar: History: …War of the Spanish Succession, Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar for the British, and Spain formally ceded it to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The Spanish nevertheless made several attempts to retake Gibraltar from Britain, most notably in a protracted but unsuccessful military siege…

  • Rookery Building (building, Chicago, Illinois, United States)

    Daniel Burnham: Burnham & Root: …notable early works are the Rookery (completed 1886), the second Rand McNally Building (completed 1890, demolished 1911), the Monadnock Building (completed 1891), and the Masonic Temple (completed 1892). Finished a year after William Le Baron Jenney’s Home Insurance Building (completed 1885), which was the first building to use structural steel…

  • Rookie of the Year (sports award)

    baseball: Awards: Begun in 1947, the Rookie of the Year award is given to the best new player in each league. A rookie is defined as a player who meets at least one of the following three criteria: fewer than 130 at bats, fewer than 50 innings pitched, or fewer than…

  • Rooks Have Returned, The (painting by Savrasov)

    Aleksey Kondratyevich Savrasov: …such popular Russian paintings as The Rooks Have Returned (1871).

  • Rookwood (work by Ainsworth)

    Dick Turpin: Harrison Ainsworth, in his romance Rookwood (1834), gave a spirited account of a ride by Dick Turpin on his mare, Black Bess, from London to York, but the incident is pure fiction.

  • Rookwood Pottery (American company)

    pottery: The United States: …a result of its work, Rookwood Pottery was established in 1880 by Maria Longworth Storer. Rookwood wares show a distinct Japanese influence and have excellent red and yellowish brown glazes.

  • Room (novel by Donoghue)

    Brie Larson: …was based on a 2010 novel by Emma Donoghue.

  • room (mining)

    mining: Underground mining: …of extracting ore are called stopes or rooms. There are two steps involved in stoping. The first is development—that is, preparing the ore blocks for mining—and the second is production, or stoping, itself. Ore development is generally much more expensive on a per-ton basis than stoping, so that every effort…

  • Room (film by Abrahamson [2015])

    Brie Larson: … (2015) before her breakthrough in Room. In addition to an Oscar, Larson also won a Golden Globe Award and a BAFTA Award for her work in the film, which was based on a 2010 novel by Emma Donoghue.

  • Room 222 (American television series)

    James L. Brooks: …of the groundbreaking TV comedy Room 222 (1969–74), which centred on the travails of an African American high-school teacher. Brooks then cocreated and produced the hit sitcom The Mary Tyler Moore Show (1970–77) and its spin-offs Rhoda (1974–78) and Lou Grant (1977–82). Brooks’s next success as writer and producer, the…

  • Room at the Top (novel by Braine)

    John Braine: …so-called Angry Young Men, whose Room at the Top (1957; film 1959) typifies the concerns of a generation of post-World War II British writers.

  • Room at the Top (film by Clayton [1959])

    Simone Signoret: …a jilted older woman in Room at the Top (1958), which won her numerous awards, including the British and American Academy Awards. After that success she appeared in a few Hollywood films but preferred working in France. In her later films, such as Le Chat (1971; The Cat) and La…

  • Room for One Colour (art installation by Eliasson)

    Olafur Eliasson: In Room for One Colour (1997), he flooded a room with saturated yellow light, causing all other colours to be perceived as black. Conversely, in 360° Room for All Colours (2002), a circular space changed colours almost imperceptibly.

  • Room for One More (film by Taurog [1952])

    Norman Taurog: Martin and Lewis films: …the pleasant Warner Brothers comedy Room for One More (1952), with Cary Grant and Betsy Drake (who were married in real life) as the adoptive parents of several underprivileged orphans. Taurog then returned to Paramount for a second stint. First up was a pair of the studio’s enormously popular Dean…

  • Room for Squares (album by Mayer)

    John Mayer: …which released the full-length album Room for Squares (2001). Columbia Records repackaged the album with additional material for a much higher-profile national release later in 2001. The songs “No Such Thing” and “Your Body Is a Wonderland” both became hits, and the latter earned Mayer a Grammy Award for best…

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