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  • rosebay (plant)

    oleander: The best known is the common oleander (N. oleander), often called rosebay. A native of the Mediterranean region, this plant is characterized by its tall shrubby habit and its thick lance-shaped opposite leaves. The flowers are borne in terminal clusters and are of a rose colour, rarely white or yellow.…

  • Rosebery (Tasmania, Australia)

    Rosebery, town, western Tasmania, Australia. It lies at the foot of Mount Black (3,117 feet [950 metres]) on the Pieman River. Rosebery was founded about 1900 after the discovery in 1893 of gold in Rosebery Creek and lead ore at nearby Mount Read. The town took its name from the mining company of

  • Rosebery, Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th earl of (prime minister of United Kingdom)

    Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th earl of Rosebery, British prime minister from March 3, 1894, to June 21, 1895; faced with a divided Cabinet and a hostile House of Lords, his ministry achieved little of consequence. His father, Archibald Primrose, son of the 4th earl, died before Archibald was four;

  • Roseboro, John (American baseball player)

    Juan Antonio Marichal: …hit Los Angeles Dodgers catcher John Roseboro on the head with a bat. Indeed, the fact that a pitcher could amass the kind of statistics that Marichal did without ever winning the Cy Young Award (given annually to the outstanding pitcher in each league) shows how the altercation shadowed him.…

  • Rosebud Sioux Tribe (people)

    The Difference Between a Tribe and a Band: …such as the Sisseton (Dakota), Sicangu (Lakota), and Yankton (Nakota), came to be called bands.

  • Roseburg (Oregon, United States)

    Roseburg, city, seat (1854) of Douglas county, southwestern Oregon, U.S., on the South Umpqua River, between the Coast (west) and Cascade (east) ranges. Settled in 1851, it was known as Deer Creek but was renamed for Aaron Rose, who laid out the town site in 1854. The city’s economy was based for

  • Rosecrance, Richard (author)

    cultural globalization: Challenges to national sovereignty and identity: Similarly, Richard Rosecrance, in The Rise of the Virtual State (1999), wrote that military conflicts and territorial disputes would be superseded by the flow of information, capital, technology, and manpower between states. Many scholars disagreed, insisting that the state was unlikely to disappear and could continue…

  • Rosecrans, William S. (United States general)

    William S. Rosecrans, Union general and excellent strategist early in the American Civil War (1861–65); after his defeat in the Battle of Chickamauga (September 1863), he was relieved of his command. Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., in 1842, Rosecrans served 12 years as

  • Rosecrans, William Starke (United States general)

    William S. Rosecrans, Union general and excellent strategist early in the American Civil War (1861–65); after his defeat in the Battle of Chickamauga (September 1863), he was relieved of his command. Graduated from the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, N.Y., in 1842, Rosecrans served 12 years as

  • Rosedale (Ontario, Canada)

    Toronto: City layout: …northeast of Queen’s Park is Rosedale, one of the most attractive residential areas in Toronto. It is an older neighbourhood of dignified houses and winding tree-lined streets quite close to the downtown centre, which itself contains many attractive streets of modest well-designed houses. South of Rosedale and bounded on the…

  • Rosedale (Kansas, United States)

    Kansas City: Rosedale, also south of the river and the seat of the University of Kansas Medical Center, was annexed in 1922. Absorbed earlier was Quindaro, which had been founded by antislavery leaders as a free port on the Missouri. The entire metropolitan area is subject to…

  • rosefinch (bird)

    Rosefinch, any of the 21 or so species of the genus Carpodacus, of the songbird family Fringillidae. Rosefinches are about 15 cm (6 inches) long and mostly gray or brownish; males are red on the head, breast, and rump. The common, or scarlet, rosefinch (C. erythrinus) of Eurasia, sometimes called

  • rosefish (fish)

    Redfish, (Sebastes norvegicus), commercially important food fish of the scorpionfish family, Scorpaenidae (order Scorpaeniformes), found in the North Atlantic Ocean along European and North American coasts. Also known as ocean perch or rosefish in North America and as Norway haddock in Europe, the

  • Rosegger, Peter (Austrian writer)

    Peter Rosegger, Austrian writer known for his novels describing provincial life. The son of a farmer, Rosegger became a travelling tailor and then studied at a commercial school in Graz, Austria. His first published work (1869) was a collection of poems in dialect, but he soon began to write mildly

  • Roseingrave, Thomas (Irish writer)

    Domenico Scarlatti: Early life and vocal works: Italy: …have met a young Irishman, Thomas Roseingrave, who many years later described Domenico’s harpsichord playing to the English musicologist Charles Burney as sounding as if “ten hundred d…s had been at the instrument; he had never heard such passages of execution and effect before.” Scarlatti may have also formed a…

  • Roseires Dam, Er- (dam, Sudan)

    Sudan: Mechanized agriculture: …Atbara River and by Al-Ru?ayri? Dam, which provides irrigation water for the Rahad Scheme.

  • Roseland Theater (theater, New Glasgow, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    Viola Desmond: Roseland Theatre: On the evening of November 8, 1946, Desmond made an unplanned stop in the small community of New Glasgow after her car broke down en route to a business meeting in Sydney, Nova Scotia. Told that the repair would take a number of…

  • rosella (plant)

    Roselle, (Hibiscus sabdariffa), plant of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. Roselle is probably native to West Africa and includes H. sabdariffa variety altissima, grown for fibre, and H. sabdariffa variety sabdariffa, cultivated for the edible

  • rosella (bird)

    Rosella, any of several species of popular caged birds, particularly certain Australian species, classified as parakeets. See

  • Roselle (borough, New Jersey, United States)

    Roselle and Roselle Park, boroughs (towns) in Union county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., adjoining Elizabeth on the west. Originally part of Linden until 1894, Roselle was settled before the American Revolution; Abraham Clark, one of New Jersey’s signers of the Declaration of Independence, was a

  • roselle (plant)

    Roselle, (Hibiscus sabdariffa), plant of the hibiscus, or mallow, family (Malvaceae), and its fibre, one of the bast fibre group. Roselle is probably native to West Africa and includes H. sabdariffa variety altissima, grown for fibre, and H. sabdariffa variety sabdariffa, cultivated for the edible

  • Roselle Park (borough, New Jersey, United States)

    Roselle and Roselle Park: Roselle Park, boroughs (towns) in Union county, northeastern New Jersey, U.S., adjoining Elizabeth on the west. Originally part of Linden until 1894, Roselle was settled before the American Revolution; Abraham Clark, one of New Jersey’s signers of the Declaration of Independence, was a native son.…

  • Rosellini, Ippolito (Italian scholar)

    Egyptology: He and an Italian scholar, Ippolito Rosellini, led a combined expedition to Egypt in 1828 and published their research in Monuments de l’égypte et Nubie. Karl Richard Lepsius followed with a Prussian expedition (1842–45), and the Englishman Sir John Gardner Wilkinson spent 12 years (1821–33) copying and collecting material in…

  • rosemaling (Scandinavian art form)

    Norway: The arts: …Scandinavian decorative art form called rosemaling, widely practiced in Norway, involves painting objects such as furniture with floral designs; special schools called folkeh?gskoler offer classes in this and other crafts.

  • rosemary (herb)

    Rosemary, (Rosmarinus officinalis), small evergreen plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), the leaves of which are used to flavour foods. Native to the Mediterranean region, rosemary has naturalized throughout much of Europe and is widely grown in gardens in warm climates. The leaves have a pungent,

  • Rosemary’s Baby (novel by Levin)

    William Castle: King of the Gimmick: …the film rights to the novel Rosemary’s Baby (1967) by Ira Levin, but Paramount studio head Robert Evans refused to allow Castle to direct. Instead, Roman Polanski was handed the reins, and Castle served only as a producer. The horror film (1968) was a box-office smash and became a classic…

  • Rosemary’s Baby (film by Polanski [1968])

    Rosemary’s Baby, American horror film, released in 1968, that is considered a landmark within the horror genre for its focus on the occult as well as for a naturalistic mise-en-scène that emphasizes psychological tension over cartoonish thrills. The movie, an adaptation of Ira Levin’s best-selling

  • Rosemeyer, Bernd (German race–car driver)

    Bernd Rosemeyer, German automobile racing driver who established himself as one of the world’s great drivers in three seasons of racing (1935–37). Rosemeyer began racing as a member of the Auto Union motorcycle team but switched to racing cars in 1935. In 1935 he won his first major race, the

  • Rosen Motors (American company)

    Harold Rosen: …the computer manufacturer Compaq, founded Rosen Motors, which developed a hybrid automobile that was powered by a flywheel and a gasoline-driven turbine. However, the company failed to interest the automobile industry in the technology and closed in 1997. Rosen and engineer J.B. Straubel cofounded Volacom, Inc., which sought to develop…

  • Rosen, Charles (American pianist, musicologist, and writer)

    Charles Welles Rosen, American pianist, musicologist, and writer (born May 5, 1927, New York, N.Y.—died Dec. 9, 2012, New York City), gained renown for his erudite, lucid writing on music in several books—in particular The Classical Style (1971), which explicated the structure and texture of the

  • Rosen, Charles Welles (American pianist, musicologist, and writer)

    Charles Welles Rosen, American pianist, musicologist, and writer (born May 5, 1927, New York, N.Y.—died Dec. 9, 2012, New York City), gained renown for his erudite, lucid writing on music in several books—in particular The Classical Style (1971), which explicated the structure and texture of the

  • Rosen, Harold (American engineer)

    Harold Rosen, American engineer who designed Syncom 2, the first geosynchronous communications satellite. Rosen received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1947. Beginning in 1948, he worked at Raytheon Manufacturing Company (now Raytheon

  • Rosen, Harold (American poet)

    Harold Norse, (Harold Rosen), American Beat poet (born July 6, 1916, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died June 8, 2009, San Francisco, Calif.), broke ground with his lyrical and confessional poems on gay identity and eroticism at a time when there were few works dealing with homosexual themes. He became a leading

  • Rosen, Harold Allen (American engineer)

    Harold Rosen, American engineer who designed Syncom 2, the first geosynchronous communications satellite. Rosen received a bachelor’s degree in electrical engineering from Tulane University in New Orleans in 1947. Beginning in 1948, he worked at Raytheon Manufacturing Company (now Raytheon

  • Rosen, Kay (American artist)

    Gaylen Gerber: …performance art), American text-based conceptualist Kay Rosen (who explores the verbal and visual structures of words), and Swiss text-based conceptualist Rémy Zaugg (who also explored words and their context and presentation). Gerber’s gray paintings, associated with institutional neutrality, integrated cohesively with the other diverse works. By becoming part of the…

  • Rosen, Martin Meyer (American religious leader)

    Moishe Rosen, (Martin Meyer Rosen), American religious leader (born April 12, 1932, Kansas City, Mo.—died May 19, 2010, San Francisco, Calif.), founded (1973) the evangelical Christian organization Jews for Jesus, which he led until his retirement as executive director in 1996. Rosen was born to

  • Rosen, Moishe (American religious leader)

    Moishe Rosen, (Martin Meyer Rosen), American religious leader (born April 12, 1932, Kansas City, Mo.—died May 19, 2010, San Francisco, Calif.), founded (1973) the evangelical Christian organization Jews for Jesus, which he led until his retirement as executive director in 1996. Rosen was born to

  • Rosen, Nathan (Israeli physicist)

    Nathan Rosen, U.S.-born Israeli theoretical physicist who in 1935 collaborated with Albert Einstein and Boris Podolsky on a much-debated refutation of the theory of quantum mechanics; he later came to accept the theory (b. March 22, 1909--d. Dec. 18,

  • Rosena (California, United States)

    Fontana, city, San Bernardino county, southwestern California, U.S. Lying just west of the city of San Bernardino, the site was once part of the Rancho San Bernardino land grant (1813). The community, then known as Rosena, was developed in 1903 after it was bought by Fontana Development Company. It

  • Rosenbach Company (American company)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach: …brother Philip in launching the Rosenbach Company, A.S.W. handling books and Philip the antiques. The firm was soon able to buy entire libraries, expanding their business into what may have been the most lucrative book concern in the world. Among his clients were Henry E. Huntington, founder of the library…

  • Rosenbach Fellowship in Bibliography (American organization)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach: In 1930 he established the Rosenbach Fellowship in Bibliography at the University of Pennsylvania and willed his estate to the Rosenbach Foundation, established in 1950 to foster interest in books, paintings, and art works. His other works include Books and Bidders (1927), The Unpublished Memoirs (1917), and A Book Hunter’s…

  • Rosenbach Foundation (American organization)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach: …willed his estate to the Rosenbach Foundation, established in 1950 to foster interest in books, paintings, and art works. His other works include Books and Bidders (1927), The Unpublished Memoirs (1917), and A Book Hunter’s Holiday (1936).

  • Rosenbach, A. S. W. (American book collector)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach, U.S. book and manuscript collector and dealer who combined solid scholarship and exceptional business acumen. Rosenbach attended the University of Pennsylvania (B.S. 1898; Ph.D. 1901), where as a freshman he bought for $3.60 a first edition of Dr. Johnson’s prologue at the

  • Rosenbach, Abraham Simon Wolf (American book collector)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach, U.S. book and manuscript collector and dealer who combined solid scholarship and exceptional business acumen. Rosenbach attended the University of Pennsylvania (B.S. 1898; Ph.D. 1901), where as a freshman he bought for $3.60 a first edition of Dr. Johnson’s prologue at the

  • Rosenbach, Philip (American collector)

    A. S. W. Rosenbach: …1903 he joined his brother Philip in launching the Rosenbach Company, A.S.W. handling books and Philip the antiques. The firm was soon able to buy entire libraries, expanding their business into what may have been the most lucrative book concern in the world. Among his clients were Henry E. Huntington,…

  • Rosenbaum, Alissa Zinovievna (American author)

    Ayn Rand, Russian-born American writer whose commercially successful novels promoting individualism and laissez-faire capitalism were influential among conservatives and libertarians and popular among generations of young people in the United States from the mid-20th century. Her father, Zinovy

  • Rosenbaum, B?rge (American comedian and musician)

    Victor Borge, Danish-born American pianist and comedian who was known worldwide for his irrepressible humour, which combined deadpan delivery, clever wordplay, satire, irreverence, and physical comedy as well as music. Borge’s mother began teaching him to play the piano when he was three, and it

  • Rosenbaum, David E. (American journalist)

    David E. Rosenbaum, American journalist (born March 1, 1942, Miami, Fla.—died Jan. 8, 2006, Washington, D.C.), demystified complex political and economic issues, along with ambiguous government policies, in commentary that could be easily understood by the average reader. As a correspondent in t

  • Rosenberg, Alfred (German Nazi leader)

    Alfred Rosenberg, German ideologist of Nazism. Born the son of a cobbler in what was at the time a part of Russia, Rosenberg studied architecture in Moscow until the Revolution of 1917. In 1919 he went to Munich, where he joined Adolf Hitler, Ernst R?hm, and Rudolf Hess in the nascent Nazi Party.

  • Rosenberg, Ethel (American spy)

    Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Rosenberg: Ethel Greenglass worked as a clerk for some years after her graduation from high school in 1931. When she married Julius Rosenberg in 1939, the year he earned a degree in electrical engineering, the two were already active members of the Communist Party of the…

  • Rosenberg, Harold (American art critic)

    Harold Rosenberg, American art critic known for championing the work of such painters as Jackson Pollock. He coined the term Action painting to describe the work of American Abstract Expressionists. Rosenberg studied at the City College of New York (1923–24) and at Brooklyn Law School (1927). In

  • Rosenberg, Isaac (British poet and painter)

    Isaac Rosenberg, British poet and painter killed in World War I. Rosenberg first trained to be a painter, winning several prizes at the Slade School of Art, London. He enlisted in the British Army in 1915 and is best known for his “trench poems,” written between 1916 and 1918, which showed great

  • Rosenberg, Janet (president of Guyana)

    Janet Jagan, American-born Guyanese politician who was the first white president of Guyana (1997–99) and the first elected female president in South America. She was born into a middle-class Jewish family. In 1942, while working as a student nurse in Chicago, she met Cheddi Jagan, a dentistry

  • Rosenberg, Julius (American engineer and spy)

    Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Rosenberg: When she married Julius Rosenberg in 1939, the year he earned a degree in electrical engineering, the two were already active members of the Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA). In the following year Julius obtained a job as a civilian engineer with the U.S.…

  • Rosenberg, Julius; and Rosenberg, Ethel (American spies)

    Julius Rosenberg and Ethel Rosenberg, the first American civilians to be executed for conspiracy to commit espionage and the first to suffer that penalty during peacetime. Ethel Greenglass worked as a clerk for some years after her graduation from high school in 1931. When she married Julius

  • Rosenberg, Leon (American psychologist)

    intelligence test: …Hopkins Perceptual Test, developed by Leon Rosenberg in the early 1960s to measure the intelligence of preschool children, has a child try to match random forms (ordinary geometric forms, such as circles, squares, and triangles, are avoided because some children may be more familiar with the forms than are others).…

  • Rosenberg, Leonard (American actor)

    Tony Randall, (Leonard Rosenberg), American actor (born Feb. 26, 1920, Tulsa, Okla.—died May 17, 2004, New York, N.Y.), was most closely identified with the character Felix Unger, the fastidious fussbudget he portrayed opposite Jack Klugman’s sloppy Oscar Madison on the TV series The Odd Couple (

  • Rosenberg, Lev Samoylovich (Russian artist)

    Léon Bakst, Jewish Russian artist who revolutionized theatrical design both in scenery and in costume. His designs for the Ballets Russes, especially during its heyday (1909–14), were opulent, innovative, and extraordinary, and his influence on fashion and interior design was widespread. The

  • Rosenberg, Philip (American production designer and art director)
  • Rosenberg, Stuart (American director)

    Stuart Rosenberg, American television and film director who was best known for the 1967 classic Cool Hand Luke. Rosenberg studied Irish literature at New York University before working in television as an editor. In 1957 he helmed episodes of Decoy, and he subsequently became a sought-after TV

  • Rosenberg, Tom (American producer)
  • Rosenberg, William (American businessman)

    William Rosenberg, American entrepreneur (born June 10, 1916, Boston, Mass.—died Sept. 20, 2002, Mashpee, Mass.), founded the iconic Dunkin’ Donuts chain, the largest coffee and pastry chain in the world. He started out providing business lunches, delivering sandwiches and snacks to offices in B

  • Rosenberg, William Samuel (American composer)

    Billy Rose, American theatrical impresario and composer of more than 50 song hits. Rose became an expert at taking shorthand dictation and during World War I was the chief stenographer for the financier Bernard Baruch, head of the War Industries Board. In the 1920s he began to write songs and

  • Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia (law case)

    Rosenberger v. Rector and Visitors of the University of Virginia, legal case in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled (5–4) on June 29, 1995, that the University of Virginia’s denial of funding to a Christian student magazine constituted viewpoint discrimination in violation of the free speech clause

  • Rosenblatt, Frank (American computer scientist)

    perceptrons: …artificial neural network investigated by Frank Rosenblatt, beginning in 1957, at the Cornell Aeronautical Laboratory at Cornell University in Ithaca, New York. Rosenblatt made major contributions to the emerging field of artificial intelligence (AI), both through experimental investigations of the properties of neural networks (using computer simulations) and through detailed…

  • Rosenblatt, Susan (American writer)

    Susan Sontag, American intellectual and writer best known for her essays on modern culture. Sontag (who adopted her stepfather’s name) was reared in Tucson, Arizona, and in Los Angeles. She attended the University of California at Berkeley for one year and then transferred to the University of

  • Rosenblum, Robert (American art historian)

    United States: The visual arts and postmodernism: …scrutiny; and the art historian Robert Rosenblum has persuasively argued that many of the elements of Abstract Expressionism, for all their apparent hermetic distance from common experience, are inspired by the scale and light of the American landscape and American 19th-century landscape painting—by elements that run deep and centrally in…

  • Rosenblum, Sigmund (Russian spy)

    Sidney Reilly, spy who obtained Persian oil concessions and German naval secrets for Britain. Many of the romanticized stories about him may have been inventions of his own. Born the illegitimate son of a Jewish doctor in Odessa, he studied chemistry in Vienna (1890–93) before going to Brazil.

  • Rosenbluth, M. N. (American physicist)

    M.N. Rosenbluth, American physicist (born Feb. 5, 1927, Albany, N.Y.—died Sept. 28, 2003, San Diego, Calif.), played an important role in the development of the hydrogen bomb in the early 1950s and later attempted to find peaceful uses for nuclear fusion. A leader in the field of plasma physics, h

  • Rosenbluth, Marshall Nicholas (American physicist)

    M.N. Rosenbluth, American physicist (born Feb. 5, 1927, Albany, N.Y.—died Sept. 28, 2003, San Diego, Calif.), played an important role in the development of the hydrogen bomb in the early 1950s and later attempted to find peaceful uses for nuclear fusion. A leader in the field of plasma physics, h

  • Rosenbusch, Harry (German geologist)

    Karl Heinrich Ferdinand Rosenbusch, German geologist who laid the foundations of the science of microscopic petrography (the study of rocks in thin section, based on the optical properties of constituent mineral grains). He was appointed professor (extraordinary) of petrography at Strasbourg in

  • Rosenbusch, Karl Heinrich Ferdinand (German geologist)

    Karl Heinrich Ferdinand Rosenbusch, German geologist who laid the foundations of the science of microscopic petrography (the study of rocks in thin section, based on the optical properties of constituent mineral grains). He was appointed professor (extraordinary) of petrography at Strasbourg in

  • Rosencrantz (fictional character)

    Hamlet: …by hiring Hamlet’s onetime friends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to spy on him. Hamlet quickly sees through the scheme and begins to act the part of a madman in front of them. To the pompous old courtier Polonius, it appears that Hamlet is lovesick over Polonius’s daughter Ophelia. Despite Ophelia’s loyalty…

  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern (fictional characters)

    Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, former schoolmates of the title character in Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Unaware of the true reason they have been summoned, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are commissioned to spy on Hamlet. Minor figures in Shakespeare, the pair are the central characters in Tom Stoppard’s

  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (play by Stoppard)

    Rosencrantz and Guildenstern: …characters in Tom Stoppard’s play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (produced 1966; film 1990). Stoppard’s characters play games, tell jokes, and have philosophical discussions in the intervals of time between the scenes in which they figure in Shakespeare’s play. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead addresses such issues as free will,…

  • Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (film by Stoppard [1990])

    Gary Oldman: …film adaptation of Tom Stoppard’s Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1990). His work in several American films led to roles as assassin Lee Harvey Oswald in JFK (1991) and as the title character in Bram Stoker’s Dracula (1992). Oldman’s cameo as a patois-spouting, dreadlocked drug dealer in the Tony Scott…

  • Roseneath terrier (breed of dog)

    West Highland white terrier, a short-legged dog standing 10 to 11 inches (25 to 28 cm) tall and weighing 13 to 19 pounds (6 to 8.5 kg). Its coat is pure white and consists of a soft furry undercoat overlaid by a straight, hard outer coat. It is thought that this breed of terrier is descended from

  • Rosenfeld, Bella (wife of Chagall)

    Marc Chagall: Maturity: In 1915 he married Bella Rosenfeld, the daughter of a wealthy Vitebsk merchant; among the many paintings in which she appears from this date onward are the depiction of flying lovers entitled Birthday (1915–23) and the high-spirited, acrobatic Double Portrait with a Glass of Wine (1917).

  • Rosenfeld, Irene (American executive)

    Irene Rosenfeld, American business executive, who was CEO (2006–17) of processed-foods giant Kraft Foods Inc. and, after the company’s restructuring in 2012, of Mondelēz International. Under her leadership, Kraft, already the largest food-products company in the United States, expanded its holdings

  • Rosenfeld, Lev Borisovich (Soviet government official)

    Lev Kamenev, Old Bolshevik and prominent member of the Communist Party and Soviet government during the decade after the October Revolution in Russia (1917). He became an opponent of Joseph Stalin and was executed during the Great Purge. Born to middle-class parents who themselves had been involved

  • Rosenfeld, Morris (American poet)

    Yiddish literature: Writers in New York: Another, Morris Rosenfeld, wrote numerous poems describing the harsh conditions experienced by Jewish immigrants, who often worked in the textile industry. One famous poem, “Mayn yingele” (1887; “My Little Boy”), for example, expresses a worker’s estrangement from his family—resulting from endless hours spent in a sweatshop.…

  • Rosenfeld, Otto (Austrian psychologist)

    Otto Rank, Austrian psychologist who extended psychoanalytic theory to the study of legend, myth, art, and creativity and who suggested that the basis of anxiety neurosis is a psychological trauma occurring during the birth of the individual. Rank came from a poor family and attended trade school,

  • Rosenius, Karl Olof (Swedish religious leader)

    Protestantism: Revivalism in the 19th century: Karl Olof Rosenius (1816–68), influenced by Methodist preaching, introduced revivalism into Swedish Lutheranism. Although Rosenius was also influenced by Zinzendorf and Pietism, his new movement was quite unlike the little groups of Pietism. The Pietists wanted to bring men to salvation from the world, whereas…

  • Rosenkavalier, Der (opera by Strauss)

    Der Rosenkavalier, (German: The Knight of the Rose) comic opera in three acts by German composer Richard Strauss (German libretto by Austrian dramatist Hugo von Hofmannsthal) that premiered at the Dresden Royal Opera House on January 26, 1911. Hofmannsthal had written the play upon which Strauss

  • Rosenkreuz, Christian (legendary traveler)

    Rosicrucian: … (1616) recount the travels of Christian Rosenkreuz, the putative founder of the group, who is now generally regarded as a fictional character rather than a real person. According to the books, Rosenkreuz was born in 1378 and lived for 106 years. After visiting the Middle East and North Africa in…

  • Rosenman, Leonard (American composer)

    East of Eden: Production notes and credits:

  • Rosenmontag (work by Hartleben)

    Otto Erich Hartleben: …was the tragedy Rosenmontag (1900; Love’s Carnival, 1904), which portrays the tragedy of a Prussian officer in love with a working class girl. Social criticism in his works gave way to humorous anecdote, satire, and eroticism reminiscent of Guy de Maupassant, as seen in the tales Vom gastfreien Pastor (1895;…

  • Rosenmüller, Johann (German composer)

    chamber music: Sources and instruments: In the same year Johann Rosenmüller, a German composer working in Venice, published a set of Sonate da camera cioè Sinfonie . . . (Chamber Sonatas, that is, Symphonies . . .), each consisting of four to six dance movements with an introductory movement (sinfonia) not in dance style.…

  • Rosenplüt, Hans (German dramatist)

    Fastnachtsspiel: Hans Rosenplüt of Nürnberg and his younger contemporary, the barber Hans Folz of Worms, who also settled in Nürnberg, were the most notable Fastnachtsspiele playwrights in the mid-15th century. Their plays were formless, uninhibited comedy, usually featuring the traditional character of the Narr, or fool,…

  • Rosenquist, James (American artist)

    James Rosenquist, one of the seminal figures of the Pop art movement, who took as his inspiration the subject and style of modern commercial culture. Through a complex layering of such motifs as Coca-Cola bottles, kitchen appliances, packaged foods, and women’s lipsticked mouths and manicured

  • Rosenstein, Rod (American attorney)

    Robert Mueller: Later work and Russia investigation: …he and Deputy Attorney General Rod Rosenstein had decided that there was insufficient evidence to prove that Trump had obstructed justice.

  • Rosenstock, Samuel (French author)

    Tristan Tzara, Romanian-born French poet and essayist known mainly as the founder of Dada, a nihilistic revolutionary movement in the arts, the purpose of which was the demolition of all the values of modern civilization. The Dadaist movement originated in Zürich during World War I, with the

  • Rosenstock-Huessy, Eugen (German historian and jurist)

    Franz Rosenzweig: …(especially the jurist and historian Eugen Rosenstock-Huessy), who were equally critical of the academic philosophy of the day, had found the solution to the problem of man in religious faith (specifically, conversion to Christianity) and in a dialogical relationship between man and God. After an intense inner struggle Rosenzweig decided…

  • Rosenthal’s canal (anatomy)

    human ear: Organ of Corti: …osseous spiral lamina, called the canal of Rosenthal. The bipolar cell bodies of these neurons constitute the spiral ganglion. Beyond the ganglion their distal processes extend radially outward in the bony lamina beneath the limbus to pass through an array of small pores directly under the inner hair cells, called…

  • Rosenthal, A. M. (American editor)

    A.M. Rosenthal, American editor (born May 2, 1922, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.—died May 10, 2006, New York, N.Y.), as the trailblazing managing editor (1969–77) and executive editor (1977–86) of the New York Times, was instrumental in elevating its stature to a world-class newspaper. In addition to d

  • Rosenthal, Abraham Michael (American editor)

    A.M. Rosenthal, American editor (born May 2, 1922, Sault Ste. Marie, Ont.—died May 10, 2006, New York, N.Y.), as the trailblazing managing editor (1969–77) and executive editor (1977–86) of the New York Times, was instrumental in elevating its stature to a world-class newspaper. In addition to d

  • Rosenthal, canal of (anatomy)

    human ear: Organ of Corti: …osseous spiral lamina, called the canal of Rosenthal. The bipolar cell bodies of these neurons constitute the spiral ganglion. Beyond the ganglion their distal processes extend radially outward in the bony lamina beneath the limbus to pass through an array of small pores directly under the inner hair cells, called…

  • Rosenthal, Joe (American photographer)

    Joe Rosenthal, (Joseph John Rosenthal), American photographer (born Oct. 9, 1911, Washington, D.C.—died Aug. 20, 2006, Novato, Calif.), captured the iconic image of five Marines and a navy corpsman hoisting a large American flag on Mt. Suribachi on the island of Iwo Jima on Feb. 23, 1945, near t

  • Rosenthal, Lyova Haskell (American actress and director)
  • Rosenthal, Manuel (French musician)

    Manuel Rosenthal, French composer and conductor (born June 18, 1904, Paris, France—died June 5, 2003, Paris), championed modern composers, notably Jacques Offenbach, Igor Stravinsky, Olivier Messiaen, and Maurice Ravel, who took Rosenthal on as his third and last composition student in 1926 and w

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