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  • Rosenthal, Norman (American psychiatrist)

    seasonal affective disorder: …in 1984 by American psychiatrist Norman Rosenthal.

  • Rosenwald, Julius (American merchant and philanthropist)

    Julius Rosenwald, American merchant and unorthodox philanthropist who opposed the idea of perpetual endowments and frequently offered large philanthropic gifts on condition that they be matched by other donations. He was especially noted for his aid to the education of blacks. After moderate

  • Rosenzweig, Franz (German philosopher)

    Franz Rosenzweig, German-Jewish religious Existentialist who, through his fresh handling of traditional religious themes, became one of the most influential modern Jewish theologians. In 1913, although his conversion to Christianity had seemed imminent, a religious experience caused him to devote

  • roseola infantum (disease)

    Roseola infantum, infectious disease of early childhood marked by rapidly developing high fever (to 106° F) lasting about three days and then subsiding completely. A few hours after the temperature returns to normal, a mildly itchy rash develops suddenly on the trunk, neck, and behind the ears but

  • Roses and Buckshot (work by Flagg)

    James Montgomery Flagg: In his autobiography, Roses and Buckshot (1946), Flagg represented himself as a bohemian, unfettered by convention.

  • Roses Are Red (My Love) (recording by Vinton)

    Bobby Vinton: …decision paid off, as “Roses Are Red (My Love),” a country-tinged ode to young romance, reached number one on the Billboard singles chart in 1962. Vinton, whose clean-cut boyish appearance made him a favourite of teenagers, subsequently topped the chart with the straightforward emotional ballads “Blue Velvet” (1963), “There!…

  • roses, attar of (essential oil)

    Attar of roses, fragrant, colourless or pale-yellow liquid essential oil distilled from fresh petals of Rosa damascena and R. gallica and other species of the rose family Rosaceae. Rose oils are a valuable ingredient of fine perfumes and liqueurs. They are also used for flavouring lozenges and

  • Roses, Wars of the (English history)

    Wars of the Roses, (1455–85), in English history, the series of dynastic civil wars whose violence and civil strife preceded the strong government of the Tudors. Fought between the houses of Lancaster and York for the English throne, the wars were named many years afterward from the supposed badges

  • Roset, Michel (Swiss diplomat)

    Michel Roset, Swiss political figure who, with Theodore Beza, played the most important role in the affairs of Geneva after the death of John Calvin in 1564. A supporter of the theocracy and an opponent of the anti-Calvinist Libertine Party, Roset assisted Beza in maintaining the Calvinist legacy

  • Rosetta (river, Egypt)

    Nile River: Physiography: …through two main distributaries, the Rosetta and the Damietta (Dumyā?) branches.

  • Rosetta (film by Jean-Pierre and Luc Dardenne [1999])

    Dardenne brothers: …the Cannes film festival, for Rosetta. The movie is an unsentimental account of a young woman determined to find work in order to escape the grinding poverty of her life. It was followed in 2002 by Le Fils (The Son). In 2005, with L’Enfant (The Child), the brothers for the…

  • Rosetta (Egypt)

    Rosetta, town, northern Al-Bu?ayrah mu?āfa?ah (governorate), in the northwestern Nile River delta, Lower Egypt. It lies on the left bank of the Rosetta (ancient Bolbitinic) Branch of the Nile River, 8 miles (13 km) southeast of its entrance into the Mediterranean and 35 miles (56 km) northeast of

  • Rosetta (European Space Agency spacecraft)

    Rosetta, European Space Agency spacecraft that carried Philae, the first space probe to land on a comet. Rosetta was launched on March 2, 2004, by an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana, on a 10-year mission to Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The expectation was that, like the Rosetta

  • Rosetta Stone (ancient Egyptian inscribed stone)

    Rosetta Stone, ancient Egyptian stone bearing inscriptions in several languages and scripts; their decipherment led to the understanding of hieroglyphic writing. An irregularly shaped stone of black granite 3 feet 9 inches (114 cm) long and 2 feet 4.5 inches (72 cm) wide, and broken in antiquity,

  • Roseville (California, United States)

    Roseville, city, Placer county, central California, U.S. It lies in the Sacramento Valley, 16 miles (26 km) northeast of Sacramento. The region around Roseville was once home to the Maidu Indians. The city began in 1864 as Roseville Junction on the Central Pacific Railroad, but it did not develop

  • Rosewall, Ken (Australian tennis player)

    Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis player who was a major competitor for 25 years, winning 18 Grand Slam titles, 8 of which were in men’s singles. Although he was short and had a slight build, Rosewall remained a powerful force in tennis far longer than many stronger players and was never badly

  • Rosewall, Kenneth Ronald (Australian tennis player)

    Ken Rosewall, Australian tennis player who was a major competitor for 25 years, winning 18 Grand Slam titles, 8 of which were in men’s singles. Although he was short and had a slight build, Rosewall remained a powerful force in tennis far longer than many stronger players and was never badly

  • Rosewater (film by Stewart [2014])

    Jon Stewart: …made his directorial debut with Rosewater (2014), adapted from a memoir by journalist Maziar Bahari (played by Gael García Bernal in the film), who was detained in Iran in 2009 on suspicion of espionage while covering election protests there; Bahari had appeared in a Daily Show segment that satirized Iranian…

  • rosewood (tree and timber)

    Rosewood, any of several ornamental timbers, products of various tropical trees native to Brazil, Honduras, Jamaica, Africa, and India. The most important commercially are the Honduras rosewood, Dalbergia stevensoni, and the Brazilian rosewood, principally D. nigra, a leguminous tree up to 125

  • Rosewood (Florida, United States)

    Rosewood riot of 1923: …predominantly African American community of Rosewood, Florida. An unknown number of the town’s black residents were killed, and virtually every building was burned to the ground by white mobs.

  • Rosewood (film by Singleton [1997])

    John Singleton: …of three college freshmen (1993); Rosewood (1997), based on a true story of racial violence in Florida in the 1920s; a remake of the landmark blaxploitation film Shaft (2000); the action film 2 Fast 2 Furious (2003); and Four Brothers (2005), starring Mark Wahlberg and Tyrese Gibson.

  • Rosewood riot of 1923 (United States history)

    Rosewood riot of 1923, race riot that flared for several days in January 1923 in the predominantly African American community of Rosewood, Florida. An unknown number of the town’s black residents were killed, and virtually every building was burned to the ground by white mobs. On January 4, 1923,

  • Rosh (Spanish rabbi)

    Asher ben Jehiel, major codifier of the Talmud, the rabbinical compendium of law, lore, and commentary. His work was a source for the great codes of his son Jacob ben Asher (1269–1340) and of Joseph Karo (1488–1575). When the German authorities began to persecute the Jews, Asher fled to France a

  • Rosh Ha-shanah (Judaism)

    Rosh Hashana, (Hebrew: “Beginning of the Year”) a major Jewish observance now accepted as inaugurating the religious New Year on Tishri 1 (September or October). Because the New Year ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence, Rosh Hashana is also called the annual Day of Judgment;

  • Rosh Hashana (Judaism)

    Rosh Hashana, (Hebrew: “Beginning of the Year”) a major Jewish observance now accepted as inaugurating the religious New Year on Tishri 1 (September or October). Because the New Year ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence, Rosh Hashana is also called the annual Day of Judgment;

  • Rosh Hashanah (Judaism)

    Rosh Hashana, (Hebrew: “Beginning of the Year”) a major Jewish observance now accepted as inaugurating the religious New Year on Tishri 1 (September or October). Because the New Year ushers in a 10-day period of self-examination and penitence, Rosh Hashana is also called the annual Day of Judgment;

  • Rosh ?odesh (Jewish festival)

    New Moon, (Hebrew: “Head of the Month”), the start of the Hebrew month, a minor Jewish festival on which fasting and mourning are not allowed. The modern observance consists principally in preserving the ancient custom of reciting a blessing on the Sabbath preceding the New Moon and in singing or r

  • Roshan Akhtar (Mughal emperor)

    Mu?ammad Shah, ineffective, pleasure-seeking Mughal emperor of India from 1719 to 1748. Roshan Akhtar was the grandson of the emperor Bahādur Shah I (ruled 1707–12) and the son of Jahān Shah, Bahādur Shah’s youngest son. Jahān Shah was killed in 1712, early in the succession struggle following

  • Roshana (Buddha)

    Vairochana, (Sanskrit: “Illuminator”) the supreme Buddha, as regarded by many Mahayana Buddhists of East Asia and of Tibet, Nepal, and Java. Some Buddhists regard Vairochana, or Mahavairochana, as a being separate from the five “self-born” Dhyani-Buddhas, one of whom is known as Vairochana. Among

  • Rosheim (France)

    Josel Of Rosheim: Thus, when Rosheim’s Jewish community was threatened in 1525 by marauding peasants, Josel, by a combination of bribery and persuasion, elicited their promise to pillage Rosheim last of all the towns. When its time came, the peasants were too tired and sated to sack Rosheim. Soon after…

  • Rosher, Charles, Sr. (British-American cinematographer)
  • Rosi, Francesco (Italian director)

    Francesco Rosi, Italian filmmaker (born Nov. 15, 1922, Naples, Italy—died Jan. 10, 2015, Rome, Italy), explored power, crime, and corruption in politically engaged realistic films that won him critical acclaim and numerous awards. Rosi learned his craft in the late 1940s and early 1950s while

  • Rosicrucians (religion)

    Rosicrucian, member of a worldwide brotherhood claiming to possess esoteric wisdom handed down from ancient times. The name derives from the order’s symbol, a rose on a cross, which is similar to the family coat of arms of Martin Luther. Rosicrucian teachings are a combination of occultism and

  • Rosid (plant group)

    angiosperm: Annotated classification: Rosids A group that can be divided into two distinct lineages, which APG IV identifies as the fabids and the malvids. The order Vitales is unplaced within the group. Order Vitales Family: Vitaceae. Fabids The

  • Rosie O’Donnell Show, The (American television program)

    Rosie O'Donnell: …1996 O’Donnell’s celebrity-studded talk-variety program, The Rosie O’Donnell Show, debuted and immediately earned high ratings. She endeared herself to audiences with her frankness, neighbourly chatter, and unabashed love for popular culture, namely television theme songs, commercial jingles, and actor Tom Cruise. O’Donnell capped her show’s first season with an Emmy…

  • Rosie Show, The (American television show)

    Rosie O'Donnell: O’Donnell later hosted The Rosie Show (2011–12), a talk show that aired on the Oprah Winfrey Network (OWN). She returned to cohost The View for one season (2014–15). In 2016 she appeared in the TV movie Hairspray Live!, which was based on a Broadway musical. Four years later…

  • Rosie the Riveter (iconic figure)

    Rosie the Riveter, media icon associated with female defense workers during World War II. Since the 1940s Rosie the Riveter has stood as a symbol for women in the workforce and for women’s independence. Beginning in 1942, as an increasing number of American men were recruited for the war effort,

  • Rosie: Scenes from a Vanished Life (autobiography by Tremain)

    Rose Tremain: The autobiography Rosie: Scenes from a Vanished Life, which chronicles her childhood, was published in 2018. Tremain was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 2007.

  • rosiglitazone (drug)

    diabetes mellitus: Drugs used to control blood glucose levels: Thiazolidinediones, such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, act by reducing insulin resistance of muscle and adipose cells and by increasing glucose transport into these tissues. These agents can cause edema (fluid accumulation in tissues), liver toxicity, and adverse cardiovascular events in certain patients. Furthermore, oral hypoglycemic agents lower mean…

  • rosin (chemistry)

    Rosin, translucent, brittle, friable resin used for varnish and in manufacturing many products. It becomes sticky when warm and has a faint pinelike odour. Gum rosin consists of the residue obtained upon distillation of the oleoresin (a natural fluid) from pine trees (the volatile component is

  • Rosing, Boris (Russian scientist)

    television: Electronic systems: In 1907 Boris Rosing, a lecturer at the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, put together equipment consisting of a mechanical scanner and a cathode-ray-tube receiver. There is no record of Rosing actually demonstrating a working television, but he had an interested student named Vladimir Zworykin, who soon…

  • rosinweed (plant genus)

    Silphium, genus of tall perennial plants in the family Asteraceae, consisting of about 23 yellow-flowered species commonly called rosinweed, native to North America. Many species have rough leaves that may be opposite each other, alternate along the stem, or be grouped in whorls. The base of each

  • Rosita (film by Lubitsch [1923])

    Ernst Lubitsch: Arrival in Hollywood: …Hollywood to direct her in Rosita (1923), a grand-scale costume drama. He was the first important German director to emigrate to the United States, and his success attracted many others—especially later, as the rise of Adolf Hitler and Nazism drove many German (and especially Jewish German) artists into exile. During…

  • Roskilde (Denmark)

    Roskilde, city, eastern Zealand (Sj?lland), Denmark, at the head of Roskilde Fjord. It is named for its legendary founder, Hroar (Ro), and the sacred springs (kilde), several of which remain nearby. The former seat of Danish kings (c. 1020–1416) and capital of Denmark (until 1443), it has been a

  • Roskilde Cathedral (cathedral, Roskilde, Denmark)

    Roskilde: …city’s partly Romanesque, partly Gothic cathedral was begun by the bishop (later archbishop) Absalon about 1170 (consecrated 1464) on the site of two earlier churches. The cathedral is the royal mausoleum where 38 Danish kings and queens are buried, including 16 in an unbroken line from the Reformation to 1972.…

  • Roskilde Domkirke (cathedral, Roskilde, Denmark)

    Roskilde: …city’s partly Romanesque, partly Gothic cathedral was begun by the bishop (later archbishop) Absalon about 1170 (consecrated 1464) on the site of two earlier churches. The cathedral is the royal mausoleum where 38 Danish kings and queens are buried, including 16 in an unbroken line from the Reformation to 1972.…

  • Roskilde, Treaty of (Denmark, Norway, and Sweden [1658])

    Treaty of Copenhagen: Together with the Treaty of Roskilde, the Copenhagen treaty largely fixed the modern boundaries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

  • Roskosmos (Russian government organization)

    Roskosmos, Russian government organization founded in 1992 that is responsible for managing the Russian space program. Its headquarters are in Moscow. The head of Roskosmos is assisted by a board, a science and engineering council, and the heads of 11 departments. Roskomos is the descendant of the

  • Roslin Institute (research centre, Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Dolly: …Wilmut and colleagues of the Roslin Institute, near Edinburgh, Scotland. The announcement in February 1997 of Dolly’s birth marked a milestone in science, dispelling decades of presumption that adult mammals could not be cloned and igniting a debate concerning the many possible uses and misuses of mammalian cloning technology.

  • Rosling, Hans (Swedish physician and statistician)

    Hans Rosling, Swedish physician and statistician who collected statistics and used computer software, props, and his own showmanship to illuminate facts and trends revealed by the data in a series of presentations that made him a YouTube star. His best-known lecture, “The Best Stats You’ve Ever

  • Rosling, Hans G?sta (Swedish physician and statistician)

    Hans Rosling, Swedish physician and statistician who collected statistics and used computer software, props, and his own showmanship to illuminate facts and trends revealed by the data in a series of presentations that made him a YouTube star. His best-known lecture, “The Best Stats You’ve Ever

  • Rosmarinus officinalis (herb)

    Rosemary, (Rosmarinus officinalis), small evergreen plant of the mint family (Lamiaceae), the leaves of which are used to flavour foods. Native to the Mediterranean region, rosemary has naturalized throughout much of Europe and is widely grown in gardens in warm climates. The leaves have a pungent,

  • Rosmead of Rosmead and of Tafelberg, 1st Baron (British colonial governor)

    Sir Hercules Robinson, British colonial governor who was high commissioner in South Africa in 1880–89 and 1895–97. After a brief army career Robinson occupied certain civil service posts connected with the administration of Ireland. He was first posted overseas as president of Montserrat in the

  • Rosmersholm (drama by Ibsen)

    Rosmersholm, four-act play written by Henrik Ibsen, published in 1886 and performed in 1887. The play’s plot revolves around ex-parson Johannes Rosmer, a representative of high ethical standards, and his housekeeper, the adventuress Rebecca West. Both are haunted by the spirit of Rosmer’s late

  • Rosmini-Serbati, Antonio (Italian philosopher)

    Antonio Rosmini-Serbati, Italian religious philosopher and founder of the Institute of Charity, or Rosminians, a Roman Catholic religious organization for educational and charitable work. The child of a noble family, Rosmini studied philosophy at Padua before being ordained in 1821. In his writing

  • Rosminian (religious organization)

    Antonio Rosmini-Serbati: …philosopher and founder of the Institute of Charity, or Rosminians, a Roman Catholic religious organization for educational and charitable work.

  • Rosner, Barbara Ann (American activist and writer)

    Barbara Seaman, (Barbara Ann Rosner), American activist and writer (born Sept. 11, 1935, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died Feb. 27, 2008, New York, N.Y.), warned of the health dangers associated with the high levels of estrogen contained in early oral contraceptives and questioned the safety of

  • Rosny, J.-H. (French author)

    children's literature: The 20th century: …picture of prehistoric life by J.-H. Rosny (pseudonym of J.-H.-H. Boex) appeared in 1911 and has proved so durable that in 1967 an English translation, The Quest for Fire, appeared. Patapoufs et filifers, by André Maurois, a gentle satire on war, has lasted (Eng. trans. Pattypuffs and Thinifers, 1948; reissued…

  • Rosny, marquis de (French statesman)

    Maximilien de Béthune, duke de Sully, French statesman who, as the trusted minister of King Henry IV, substantially contributed to the rehabilitation of France after the Wars of Religion (1562–98). The son of Fran?ois de Béthune, Baron de Rosny, he was brought up as a Huguenot and was sent at an

  • Rosoideae (plant subfamily)

    Rosales: Evolution: In the subfamily Rosoideae, fruits of Potentilla and Rubus are known from the Pliocene Epoch (about 5.3 to 2.6 million years ago) and the Oligocene Epoch (33.9 to 23.1 million years ago) of western Europe, respectively. Leaves, thorns, branchlets, calyx fragments, and fruits of Rosa (rose genus) are…

  • Rospigliosi, Giulio (pope)

    Clement IX, pope from 1667 to 1669. Rospigliosi served as papal ambassador to Spain from 1644 to 1653 and cardinal and secretary of state under Pope Alexander VII. He was elected pope on June 20, 1667, and consecrated as Clement IX six days later. His reign was dominated by his efforts to resolve

  • Ross (North Dakota, United States)

    North Dakota: Population composition: …Lebanese immigrants in 1929 at Ross, in the northwestern corner of the state. (The mosque was torn down in the 1970s, and a new, though smaller, one was built in the same spot in 2005.)

  • Ross and Cromarty (former county, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Ross and Cromarty, historic region, northern Scotland, spanning the width of the country from the North Sea on the east to the Atlantic Ocean on the west. It includes Lewis (part of the island of Lewis and Harris) in the Outer Hebrides. Ross and Cromarty comprises the historic counties of

  • Ross Barnett Reservoir (reservoir, Mississippi, United States)

    Pearl River: The Ross Barnett Reservoir north of Jackson provides water, flood and pollution control, and recreation facilities. The lower course of the Pearl and the East Pearl form the boundary between Mississippi and Louisiana. Honey Island Swamp, lying in the mid-delta area southwest of Picayune, is noted…

  • Ross Ice Shelf (ice shelf, Antarctica)

    Ross Ice Shelf, world’s largest body of floating ice, lying at the head of Ross Sea, itself an enormous indentation in the continent of Antarctica. The ice shelf lies between about 155° W and 160° E longitude and about 78° S and 86° S latitude. The current estimate of its area is about 182,000

  • Ross Island (island, Antarctica)

    Ross Island, volcanic formation in Antarctica, located in the western Ross Sea, Ross Dependency (New Zealand), at the northern margin of the Ross Ice Shelf, just off the coast of Victoria Land. The island is 43 miles (69 km) long and 45 miles wide. On it are Mount Erebus (an active volcano 12,450

  • Ross Lake National Recreation Area (park, Washington, United States)

    North Cascades National Park: …the two park units is Ross Lake National Recreation Area, a roughly L-shaped region that encompasses Ross Lake (the impounded waters of the, at that point south-flowing, Skagit River) and adjacent lands that lie south of the Canadian border on the eastern side of the north unit and a further…

  • Ross Sea (sea, Pacific Ocean)

    Ross Sea, southern extension of the Pacific Ocean, which, along with the vast Ross Ice Shelf at its head, makes a deep indentation in the circular continental outline of Antarctica. The sea is a generally shallow marine region approximately 370,000 square miles (960,000 square km) in area, centred

  • Ross seal (mammal)

    Ross seal, (Ommatophoca rossi), Antarctic seal of the family Phocidae. It has a short face, very large eyes, and coarse fur that is greenish gray above with yellowish stripes on the sides and paler below. Length in both sexes is to about 2.3 metres (7.6 feet) and weight is about 150–215 kilograms

  • Ross’ Landing (Tennessee, United States)

    Chattanooga, city, seat (1819) of Hamilton county, southeastern Tennessee, U.S. The city lies along the Moccasin Bend of the Tennessee River, near the Georgia border, about 115 miles (185 km) north of Atlanta. Chattanooga is a headquarters for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) power system,

  • Ross’s gull (bird)

    gull: Ross’s gull (Rhodostethia rosea) is an attractive pinkish white bird that breeds in northern Siberia and wanders widely over the Arctic Ocean. Abounding in the Arctic, Sabine’s gull (Xema sabini) has a forked tail and a habit of running and picking up food like a…

  • Ross, Al (American cartoonist)

    Al Ross, (Abraham Roth), American cartoonist (born Oct. 19, 1911, Seletyn, Rom.—died March 22, 2012, Bronx, N.Y.), drew droll, sophisticated cartoons in an ever-evolving style for more than 60 years; most of his work appeared in The New Yorker magazine, beginning in 1937 and then regularly from

  • Ross, Alf (Danish legal scholar)

    philosophy of law: Alf Ross: For Ross, the latter, naturalistic assumption was explicit: influenced by logical-positivist theories of the 1920s and ’30s (which were unrelated to legal positivism), Ross accepted the view that the only things that really exist are those described by the various empirical sciences, from…

  • Ross, April (American beach volleyball player)

    Kerri Walsh Jennings: …Walsh Jennings then teamed with April Ross. At the Rio de Janeiro 2016 Olympic Games, Walsh Jennings and Ross lost in the beach volleyball semifinals (which was the first match that Walsh Jennings had ever lost in the Olympics) and finished with a bronze medal.

  • Ross, Araminta (American abolitionist)

    Harriet Tubman, American bondwoman who escaped from slavery in the South to become a leading abolitionist before the American Civil War. She led hundreds of bondmen to freedom in the North along the route of the Underground Railroad—an elaborate secret network of safe houses organized for that

  • Ross, Atticus (British musician)

    Nine Inch Nails: …in 2009) and British musician Atticus Ross. That band released the album Welcome Oblivion in 2013, and three years later Reznor announced that Ross was a member of Nine Inch Nails. In collaboration with Ross, Reznor also began to compose for motion pictures. Their music for The Social Network (2010)…

  • Ross, Barnaby (American author)

    Ellery Queen: …pair also used the pseudonym Barnaby Ross when writing about their second detective creation, Drury Lane, and they would hold debates posing as Queen and Ross, believed by all to be two distinct authors.

  • Ross, Barney (American boxer)

    Barney Ross, American professional boxer, world lightweight (135 pounds), junior welterweight (140 pounds), and welterweight (147 pounds) champion during the 1930s. Two years after Ross was born, his family moved to Chicago’s Maxwell Street ghetto, where they opened a small grocery. Misfortune soon

  • Ross, Bertram (American dancer and choreographer)

    Bertram Ross, American dancer and choreographer (born Nov. 13, 1920, Brooklyn, N.Y.—died April 20, 2003, New York, N.Y), for 20 years (1953–73) partnered Martha Graham and was a custodian of her art before beginning a successful career as a cabaret performer. After joining Graham’s company in 1

  • Ross, Betsy (American seamstress)

    Betsy Ross, seamstress who, according to family stories, fashioned and helped design the first flag of the United States. Elizabeth Griscom, the eighth of 17 children, was brought up as a member of the Society of Friends, educated in Quaker schools, and became an apprentice to a Philadelphia

  • Ross, Blake (American software developer)

    Firefox: …American developers Dave Hyatt and Blake Ross, sought to create a light, fast-loading browser that would appeal to users in its efficiency. In 2002 they released their first browser, Phoenix, which soon included features such as bookmarking (for saving Web site addresses) and the ability to add extensions to modify…

  • Ross, Bob (American painter and television personality)

    Bob Ross, painter and television personality whose popular PBS television show The Joy of Painting (1983–94) made him a household name as the painting teacher to the masses. Ross was raised in Orlando, Florida. After completing one year of high school and working for a time as a carpenter with his

  • Ross, Diana (American singer and actress)

    Diana Ross, American pop singer and actress who achieved international stardom, first as leader of the vocal group the Supremes and later as a solo artist. Ross’s professional career began in 1959, when she joined several neighbourhood friends to form the pop-soul vocal group the Primettes. The

  • Ross, Earl of (British lord)

    Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns. Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the

  • Ross, Edmund (United States senator)

    Andrew Johnson: Impeachment: One of them, Edmund Ross of Kansas, declared that, as he cast his ballot, “I almost literally looked into my open grave.” When a messenger brought Johnson the news that the Senate had failed to convict him, he wept, declaring that he would devote the remainder of his…

  • Ross, Edward A. (American sociologist)

    Edward A. Ross, a founder of sociology in the United States and one of the first sociologists to pursue a comprehensive sociological theory. Ross was also a prolific writer whose flair for popular presentation greatly stimulated interest in social science research. He was an advocate of melioristic

  • Ross, Edward Alsworth (American sociologist)

    Edward A. Ross, a founder of sociology in the United States and one of the first sociologists to pursue a comprehensive sociological theory. Ross was also a prolific writer whose flair for popular presentation greatly stimulated interest in social science research. He was an advocate of melioristic

  • Ross, Harold W. (American editor)

    Harold W. Ross, editor who founded and developed The New Yorker, a weekly magazine that from its birth in 1925 influenced American humour, fiction, and reportage. Ross was somewhat elliptical about his past. When asked by an editor of the Saturday Evening Post for a biography, he wrote a

  • Ross, Harold Wallace (American editor)

    Harold W. Ross, editor who founded and developed The New Yorker, a weekly magazine that from its birth in 1925 influenced American humour, fiction, and reportage. Ross was somewhat elliptical about his past. When asked by an editor of the Saturday Evening Post for a biography, he wrote a

  • Ross, Henry Stewart, Earl of (British lord)

    Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley, cousin and second husband of Mary, Queen of Scots, father of King James I of Great Britain and Ireland (James VI of Scotland), and direct ancestor of all subsequent British sovereigns. Darnley was the son of Matthew Stewart, 4th earl of Lennox, whose pretension to the

  • Ross, Herbert (American dancer and film director)

    Herbert Ross, American dancer and film director who made a significant contribution to the world of dance as a choreographer for ballet companies, the stage, and motion pictures before turning to directing motion pictures. Among his numerous and varied popular films were Neil Simon comedies,

  • Ross, Herbert David (American dancer and film director)

    Herbert Ross, American dancer and film director who made a significant contribution to the world of dance as a choreographer for ballet companies, the stage, and motion pictures before turning to directing motion pictures. Among his numerous and varied popular films were Neil Simon comedies,

  • Ross, J. K. L. (Canadian businessman)

    Sir Barton: Breeding and early years: …Saratoga race that August was J.K.L. Ross, a former commander in the Royal Canadian Navy and the scion of a distinguished family that had helped to found the Canadian Pacific Railway. With him was his trainer, H.G. Bedwell, a former cowboy who had a reputation for restoring broken-down horses to…

  • Ross, James Sinclair (Canadian writer)

    Sinclair Ross, Canadian writer of works that were exquisitely crafted and portrayed the bleakness found on the Canadian prairie; his most acclaimed book, As for Me and My House, poignantly described a desolate Depression-era existence in Horizon, Sask. (b. Jan. 22, 1908--d. Feb. 29,

  • Ross, Jerry (American astronaut)

    Jerry Ross, American astronaut, the first person to be launched into space seven times. Ross earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1970 at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. After receiving a master’s degree in mechanical engineering in 1972, he started active duty with the U.S. Air

  • Ross, Jerry Lynn (American astronaut)

    Jerry Ross, American astronaut, the first person to be launched into space seven times. Ross earned a B.S. in mechanical engineering in 1970 at Purdue University in West Lafayette, Indiana. After receiving a master’s degree in mechanical engineering in 1972, he started active duty with the U.S. Air

  • Ross, John (chief of Cherokee Nation)

    John Ross, Cherokee chief who, after devoting his life to resisting U.S. seizure of his people’s lands in Georgia, was forced to assume the painful task of shepherding the Cherokees in their removal to the Oklahoma Territory. Born of a Scottish father and a mother who was part Cherokee, the

  • Ross, Katharine (American actress)

    Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid: …love interest, Etta Place (Katharine Ross)—to flee to Bolivia. Life there initially proves to be lucrative, even though neither outlaw knows Spanish. However, they soon face the same obstacles and persistent pressure from law enforcement that they had to endure in the United States. Their brief stint as payroll…

  • Ross, Kyla (American gymnast)

    Gabby Douglas: Aly Raisman, McKayla Maroney, and Kyla Ross—captured the first U.S. women’s team gold medal since 1996. Douglas then competed in the all-around event, posting strong scores during each rotation to finish with the top overall score. Douglas also competed individually on the balance beam and the uneven bars but did…

  • Ross, Lancelot Patrick (American radio personality and singer)

    Lanny Ross, radio personality and singer who was known as the “idol of the airwaves.” Ross attended Yale University (B.A., 1928), where he sang with the Yale Glee Club. Thereafter, he sang on several National Broadcasting Co. (NBC) radio shows while earning a law degree from Columbia University,

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