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  • ROTC (military education program)

    Reserve Officers’ Training Corps (ROTC), elective military education program hosted by colleges and universities that prepares students to be commissioned as officers in the U.S. armed forces. ROTC programs are offered by the United States Army, Air Force, and Navy (including the Marine Corps).

  • rote (musical instrument)

    Rotta, medieval European stringed musical instrument. The name is frequently applied to the boxlike lyres with straight or waisted sides frequently pictured in medieval illustrations of musical instruments. Some surviving writings, however, indicate that contemporary writers may have applied the n

  • Rote Armee Fraktion (German radical leftist group)

    Red Army Faction (RAF), West German radical leftist group formed in 1968 and popularly named after two of its early leaders, Andreas Baader (1943–77) and Ulrike Meinhof (1934–76). The group had its origins among the radical elements of the German university protest movement of the 1960s, which

  • rote Blatt, Das (German journal)

    Joseph von G?rres: …and published a republican journal, Das rote Blatt (“The Red Page”; renamed Rübezahl), in 1799. After an unsuccessful visit to Paris in 1799 as a political negotiator for the Rhenish provinces, he became disillusioned and withdrew from active politics. He taught natural science in Koblenz and then lectured at Heidelberg…

  • rote Freiherr, der (German aviator)

    Manfred, baron von Richthofen, Germany’s top aviator and leading ace in World War I. Members of a prosperous family, Richthofen and his younger brother Lothar followed their father into military careers. In 1912 Richthofen became a lieutenant in the 1st Uhlan Cavalry Regiment of the Prussian Army.

  • rote Freiherr, der (German aviator)

    Manfred, baron von Richthofen, Germany’s top aviator and leading ace in World War I. Members of a prosperous family, Richthofen and his younger brother Lothar followed their father into military careers. In 1912 Richthofen became a lieutenant in the 1st Uhlan Cavalry Regiment of the Prussian Army.

  • rote Kampfflieger, der (German aviator)

    Manfred, baron von Richthofen, Germany’s top aviator and leading ace in World War I. Members of a prosperous family, Richthofen and his younger brother Lothar followed their father into military careers. In 1912 Richthofen became a lieutenant in the 1st Uhlan Cavalry Regiment of the Prussian Army.

  • rote learning (psychology)

    learning theory: Association: …Ebbinghaus (1850–1909) began to study rote learning of lists of nonsense verbal items (e.g., XOQ, ZUN, ZIB). He maintained that the association of each word with every succeeding word was the primary mechanism in learning these lists. Pavlov in Russia offered temporary associative connections in the nervous system as a…

  • Rote Rummel Revue (play)

    theatre: The influence of Piscator: In the Rote Rummel Revue (“Red Riot Review”; 1924), produced for the German Communist Party, Piscator began the action with a fight in the auditorium. The protagonists came out of the audience to argue their points of view and commented on the action of the various scenes.…

  • Rote Signale (collection of Communist poetry)

    Kurt Tucholsky: He contributed to Rote Signale (1931; “Red Signals”), a collection of communist poetry, and to Schaubühne, later Die Weltbühne, a journal published by the pacifist Carl von Ossietzky. In 1933 Tucholsky’s works were denounced by the Nazi government and banned, and he was stripped of his German citizenship.…

  • Rotea language

    Sedang language, North Bahnaric language of the Mon-Khmer family, which is itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Sedang is spoken by some 110,000 people living in south-central Vietnam. The Tadrah language, spoken south of Sedang in the same region, may be a dialect but is usually considered a

  • Roteang language

    Sedang language, North Bahnaric language of the Mon-Khmer family, which is itself a part of the Austroasiatic stock. Sedang is spoken by some 110,000 people living in south-central Vietnam. The Tadrah language, spoken south of Sedang in the same region, may be a dialect but is usually considered a

  • Rotella, Domenico (Italian artist)

    Mimmo Rotella, (Domenico Rotella), Italian artist (born Oct. 7, 1918, Catanzaro, Italy—died Jan. 8, 2006, Milan, Italy), was best known for his extravagant “double décollages,” which he crafted by ripping posters (particularly movie advertisements) off exterior walls, attaching the fragments to c

  • Rotella, Mimmo (Italian artist)

    Mimmo Rotella, (Domenico Rotella), Italian artist (born Oct. 7, 1918, Catanzaro, Italy—died Jan. 8, 2006, Milan, Italy), was best known for his extravagant “double décollages,” which he crafted by ripping posters (particularly movie advertisements) off exterior walls, attaching the fragments to c

  • r?teln (disease)

    Rubella, viral disease that runs a mild and benign course in most people. Although rubella is not usually a serious illness in children or adults, it can cause birth defects or the loss of a fetus if a mother in the early stages of pregnancy becomes infected. German physician Daniel Sennert first

  • rotenone (biochemistry)

    Asian carp: …a piscicide (fish poison) called rotenone. This effort was designed to assess the current range of the carp and to prevent further encroachment; one specimen of Asian carp was found in the treated area. Weeks later, amid protestations from shipping interests, the state of Michigan filed a lawsuit against Illinois…

  • Roter Sand Lighthouse (lighthouse, Germany)

    lighthouse: Construction: …to the building of the Roter Sand Lighthouse in the estuary of the Weser River in Germany and then to the Fourteen Foot Bank light in the Delaware Bay, U.S. With this method, a steel caisson or open-ended cylinder, perhaps 40 feet in diameter, is positioned on the seabed. By…

  • Rotermund-Uhse, Beate K?stlin (German entrepreneur)

    Beate Uhse, (Beate K?stlin Rotermund-Uhse), German entrepreneur (born Oct. 25, 1919, Wargenau, German East Prussia [now in Poland]—died July 16, 2001, Switzerland), revolutionized sexual attitudes in post-World War II Germany as the founder of Beate Uhse AG, Europe’s largest chain of shops s

  • roth cleas (sport)

    weight throw: The roth cleas, or wheel feat, reputedly was a major test of the ancient Tailteann Games in Ireland. The competition consisted of various methods of throwing: from shoulder or side, with one or two hands, and with or without a run. The implements used varied widely…

  • Roth v. United States (law case)

    obscenity: Developments in the 20th century: ” Two decades later, in Roth v. United States (1957), the U.S. Supreme Court held that the standard of obscenity should be “whether, to the average person, applying contemporary community standards, the dominant theme of the material taken as a whole appeals to prurient interest.” In subsequent years the court…

  • Roth, Abraham (American cartoonist)

    Al Ross, (Abraham Roth), American cartoonist (born Oct. 19, 1911, Seletyn, Rom.—died March 22, 2012, Bronx, N.Y.), drew droll, sophisticated cartoons in an ever-evolving style for more than 60 years; most of his work appeared in The New Yorker magazine, beginning in 1937 and then regularly from

  • Roth, Allan (American statistician)

    sabermetrics: Early analytic efforts: …Rickey also employed statistical analyst Allan Roth, who once said, “Baseball is a game of percentages. I try to find the actual percentage.” In 1954 Life magazine published an article attributed to Rickey, but masterminded by Roth, titled “Goodby to Some Old Baseball Ideas,” which was devoted to the proposition…

  • Roth, Alvin E. (American economist)

    Alvin E. Roth, American economist who was a pioneer of market design, a field that devises systems for matching supply with demand until a stable market has been established. With the American economist Lloyd Shapley, he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Economics. Roth grew up in Queens, New

  • Roth, Alvin Eliot (American economist)

    Alvin E. Roth, American economist who was a pioneer of market design, a field that devises systems for matching supply with demand until a stable market has been established. With the American economist Lloyd Shapley, he was awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize for Economics. Roth grew up in Queens, New

  • Roth, Anne (American feminist and author)

    Anne Roiphe, American feminist and author whose novels and nonfiction explore the conflicts between women’s traditional family roles and the desire for an independent identity. Anne Roth graduated from Sarah Lawrence College in 1957 and married Jack Richardson in 1958. The marriage ended in divorce

  • Roth, David Lee (American singer)

    Van Halen: ), and lead singer David Lee Roth (b. October 10, 1955, Bloomington, Indiana). Later members were Sammy Hagar (b. October 13, 1947, Monterey, California), Gary Cherone (b. July 26, 1961, Malden, Massachusetts), and Wolfgang Van Halen (b. March 16, 1991, Santa Monica, California).

  • Roth, Dieter (German artist)

    lithography: Commercial lithography: Joseph Beuys, Gerhard Richter, Dieter Roth, and Kara Walker, had used the offset process to noncommercial ends.

  • Roth, Eric (American screenwriter)
  • Roth, Henry (American author)

    Henry Roth, American teacher, farmer, machinist, and sporadic author whose novel Call It Sleep (1934) was one of the neglected masterpieces of American literature in the 1930s. The son of Jewish immigrants, Roth graduated from the College of the City of New York in 1928 and held a variety of jobs

  • Roth, Joseph (Austrian writer)

    Joseph Roth, journalist and regional novelist who, particularly in his later novels, mourned the passing of an age of stability he saw represented by the last pre-World War I years of the Habsburg empire of Austria-Hungary. Details about Roth’s early years, religious beliefs, and personal life are

  • Roth, Klaus Friedrich (British mathematician)

    Klaus Friedrich Roth, German-born British mathematician who was awarded the Fields Medal in 1958 for his work in number theory. Roth attended Peterhouse College, Cambridge, England (B.A., 1945), and the University of London (M.Sc., 1948; Ph.D., 1950). From 1948 to 1966 he held an appointment at

  • Roth, Philip (American author)

    Philip Roth, American novelist and short-story writer whose works were characterized by an acute ear for dialogue, a concern with Jewish middle-class life, and the painful entanglements of sexual and familial love. In Roth’s later years his works were informed by an increasingly naked preoccupation

  • Roth, Philip Milton (American author)

    Philip Roth, American novelist and short-story writer whose works were characterized by an acute ear for dialogue, a concern with Jewish middle-class life, and the painful entanglements of sexual and familial love. In Roth’s later years his works were informed by an increasingly naked preoccupation

  • Roth, Veronica (American author)

    Veronica Roth, American writer known for her Divergent trilogy of science-fiction novels for young adults, which unfolds as a coming-of-age story set in a postapocalyptic Chicago. Roth, who grew up in Barrington, Illinois, began writing at an early age and was an avid reader. She was a fan of the

  • Roth, William Victor, Jr. (United States senator)

    William Victor Roth, Jr., American politician (born July 22, 1921, Great Falls, Mont.—died Dec. 13, 2003, Washington, D.C.), served in the U.S. Congress for 34 years—in the House of Representatives from 1967 to 1970 and the Senate from 1971 to 2001—and was best known for his attention to f

  • Rothaar Hills (mountains, Germany)

    Rothaar Hills, southernmost mountain region of the Sauerland in the Middle Rhine Highlands of southeastern North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), west-central Germany. The round-topped hills reach their highest point at the heath-covered Kahler Asten (2,759 feet [841 m]). Heavily forested slopes

  • Rothaargebirge (mountains, Germany)

    Rothaar Hills, southernmost mountain region of the Sauerland in the Middle Rhine Highlands of southeastern North Rhine–Westphalia Land (state), west-central Germany. The round-topped hills reach their highest point at the heath-covered Kahler Asten (2,759 feet [841 m]). Heavily forested slopes

  • Rothad II (French bishop)

    Saint Nicholas I: …deposition in 862 of Bishop Rothad II of Soissons by Archbishop Hincmar of Reims, a classic example of the right of bishops to appeal to Rome against their metropolitans. Nicholas, a strict upholder of Rome’s primacy of jurisdiction, ordered an examination that led to Rothad’s restoration in 865 by using,…

  • Rothafel, Roxy (American showman)

    the Rockettes: …in New York City was Samuel (“Roxy”) Rothafel, owner of the new Roxy Theater. He acquired the troupe, doubled its size, and dubbed the dancers the Roxyettes. After opening the Radio City Music Hall—the world’s largest indoor theatre—he enlarged the troupe again in order to fill the hall’s Great Stage.…

  • Rothafel, Samuel (American showman)

    the Rockettes: …in New York City was Samuel (“Roxy”) Rothafel, owner of the new Roxy Theater. He acquired the troupe, doubled its size, and dubbed the dancers the Roxyettes. After opening the Radio City Music Hall—the world’s largest indoor theatre—he enlarged the troupe again in order to fill the hall’s Great Stage.…

  • Rothamsted Experimental Station (research station, Harpenden, England, United Kingdom)

    Sir Henry Gilbert: …research at the newly founded Rothamsted Experimental Station, Hertfordshire, the first organized agricultural experiment station in the world. Their collaboration lasted for more than half a century. In the 1840s they initiated the manufacture of superphosphate fertilizer, one of their inventions. From 1884 to 1890 Gilbert was Sibthorpian professor of…

  • Rothari (king of Lombards)

    Italy: The Lombard kingdom, 584–774: …says little, for example, about Rothari (636–652) except that he was militarily successful (it was he who conquered Liguria) and, most importantly, that he was the first king to set out Lombard custom, in his Edict of 643, a substantial law code that survives independently. It is evident, however, that…

  • Rothari, Edictum (law history)

    Germanic law: …had similar functions, while the Edictum Rothari (643) applied to Lombards only.

  • Rothchild, Paul (American record producer)

    Elektra Records: Village Folk to “Riders on the Storm”: …with Josh White), artists-and-repertoire man Paul Rothchild encouraged amplified versions of folk and blues. He pulled together the work of various artists in the Blues Project concept album (1964) and signed the Chicago-based Paul Butterfield Blues Band, featuring guitar prodigy Mike Bloomfield. Most prescient of all, he discovered and produced…

  • Rothe, Richard (German theologian)

    Richard Rothe, Lutheran theologian of the German idealist school, which held, in general, that reality is spiritual rather than material and is discerned by studying ideas rather than things. Rothe was educated at the University of Heidelberg, where he studied under the leading German idealist

  • Rothemund, Paul (American computer scientist)

    DNA computing: Biochemistry-based information technology: Winfree, together with his student Paul Rothemund, then showed how these tiles could be designed such that the process of self-assembly could implement a specific computation. Rothemund later extended this work with his study of “DNA origami,” in which a single strand of DNA is folded multiple times into a…

  • Rothenberger, Anneliese (German singer)

    Anneliese Rothenberger, German soprano (born June 19, 1924?, Mannheim, Ger.—died May 24, 2010, Münsterlingen, Switz.), delighted opera audiences with her charm and silvery lyric soprano voice. She was especially admired in light soubrette roles, most notably as the coquettish maid Adele in Johann

  • Rothenburg ob der Tauber (Germany)

    Rothenburg ob der Tauber, city, Bavaria Land (state), south-central Germany. The city lies above the deep valley of the Tauber River, on the scenic “romantic route” between Würzburg and the Bavarian Alps. First mentioned as Rotinbure in the 9th century, it developed around a Hohenstaufen fortress

  • Rothenburger, Christa (East German speed skater and cyclist)

    Christa Luding-Rothenburger, East German speed skater and cyclist who earned the distinction of being the first and only person to win Summer and Winter Olympic medals in the same year (1988). At the Winter Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, she won the gold medal in the 1,000-metre speed-skating

  • Rothenburger-Luding, Christa (East German speed skater and cyclist)

    Christa Luding-Rothenburger, East German speed skater and cyclist who earned the distinction of being the first and only person to win Summer and Winter Olympic medals in the same year (1988). At the Winter Games in Calgary, Alberta, Canada, she won the gold medal in the 1,000-metre speed-skating

  • Rothenstein, Sir William (British artist)

    Henry Moore: Background and education: …supporter in the director there, William Rothenstein, who was not unsympathetic to modern artistic tendencies, although he remained a conservative artist himself.

  • Rother (district, England, United Kingdom)

    Rother, district, administrative county of East Sussex, historic county of Sussex, England. Bexhill is the administrative seat. Rother is a mainly rural district in the easternmost part of Sussex surrounding (but not including) the borough of Hastings. It extends along the English Channel coast for

  • Rother, River (river, England, United Kingdom)

    Rother: …district is named for the River Rother, which rises in The Weald, flows east along part of the boundary between East Sussex and Kent, and enters the Channel at Rye. Area 197 square miles (510 square km). Pop. (2001) 85,428; (2011) 90,588.

  • Rotherham (England, United Kingdom)

    Rotherham, town and metropolitan borough, metropolitan county of South Yorkshire, historic county of Yorkshire, north-central England. It is located at the confluence of the Rivers Don and Rother just north of Sheffield. Besides the town of Rotherham, the metropolitan borough includes suburban

  • Rotherham plow (agriculture)
  • Rotherham, Alan (English rugby player)

    Alan Rotherham, English rugby player who was a member of the Oxford University team during their golden age, between 1882 and 1884, and who helped to revolutionize the half-back play. He was educated at Balliol College, Oxford, and became a barrister. He won 12 caps for England and played for

  • Rothermere of Hemsted, Harold Sydney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount, Baron Rothermere of Hemsted (British publisher)

    Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, British newspaper proprietor who, with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, built the most successful journalistic empire in British history and created popular journalism in that country. A shy individual, he let his brother

  • Rothermere of Hemsted, Vere Harold Esmond Harmsworth, 3rd Viscount (British newspaper publisher)

    Vere Harold Esmond Harmsworth, 3rd Viscount Rothermere of Hemsted, British media mogul (born Aug. 27, 1925, London, Eng.—died Sept. 1, 1998, London), was one of Great Britain’s last press barons; he orchestrated a series of bold moves that revived his family’s Associated Newspapers and made the c

  • Rothermere, Harold Sydney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount (British publisher)

    Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere, British newspaper proprietor who, with his brother Alfred Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Northcliffe, built the most successful journalistic empire in British history and created popular journalism in that country. A shy individual, he let his brother

  • Rothesay (Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Rothesay, royal burgh, coastal resort, and chief town of the island of Bute, Argyll and Bute council area, historic county of Buteshire, Scotland, lying on the island’s eastern coast near the entrance to the Firth of Clyde. In the centre of the town are the ruins of an 11th-century castle. Rothesay

  • Rothesay Castle (ancient monument, Bute, Scotland, United Kingdom)

    Buteshire: Rothesay Castle, on Bute, which goes back to Viking times and was used as a royal residence by Robert II and Robert III of Scotland, was burned down in 1685 and is now an ancient monument, as is Lochranza Castle on Arran. Brodick Castle, where…

  • Rothfuss, Rhod (artist)

    Concrete Invention: Carmelo Arden Quin, Gyula Kosice, Rhod Rothfuss, Tomás Maldonado, and others collectively produced the first and only issue of the illustrated magazine Arturo, with texts and reproductions of work by many artists, including Joaquín Torres García, Lidy Prati, Wassily Kandinsky, and Piet Mondrian. The appearance of Arturo, which expressed its…

  • Rothko, Mark (American artist)

    Mark Rothko, American painter whose works introduced contemplative introspection into the melodramatic post-World War II Abstract Expressionist school; his use of colour as the sole means of expression led to the development of Colour Field Painting. In 1913 Rothko’s family emigrated from Russia to

  • Rothman, James E. (American biochemist and cell biologist)

    James E. Rothman, American biochemist and cell biologist who discovered the molecular machinery involved in vesicle budding and membrane fusion in cells. Cellular vesicles, which are bubblelike structures, play a critical role in the storage and transport of molecules within cells, and errors in

  • Rothman, James Edward (American biochemist and cell biologist)

    James E. Rothman, American biochemist and cell biologist who discovered the molecular machinery involved in vesicle budding and membrane fusion in cells. Cellular vesicles, which are bubblelike structures, play a critical role in the storage and transport of molecules within cells, and errors in

  • ROTHR (radar technology)

    radar: Over-the-horizon radar: …OTH radars known as relocatable over-the-horizon radar (ROTHR), or AN/TPS-71, have been redirected for use in drug interdiction. Such radars, located in Virginia, Texas, and Puerto Rico, provide multiple coverage of drug-traffic regions in Central America and the northern part of South America. An ROTHR can cover a 64-degree…

  • Rothschild Egg (decorative egg [1902])

    Fabergé egg: The Rothschild (1902)—an engagement gift for Edouard de Rothschild’s fiancée, Germaine Halphen—was a pink egg that featured a clock face and an automaton bird. Also from 1902 was the Duchess of Marlborough, an egg based on the Blue Serpent Clock.

  • Rothschild family (European family)

    Rothschild family, the most famous of all European banking dynasties, which for some 200 years exerted great influence on the economic and, indirectly, the political history of Europe. The house was founded by Mayer Amschel Rothschild (b. February 23, 1744, Frankfurt am Main—d. September 19, 1812,

  • Rothschild of Tring, Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron (British zoologist)

    Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, British zoologist who became a great collector and founded the Rothschild Natural History Museum in London. The eldest son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, he received his titles on the death of his father in 1915. Rothschild studied

  • Rothschild, Alphonse (French banker)

    Rothschild family: The second generation: Alphonse, for example, as the head of the international banking syndicate that in 1871 and 1872 placed the two great French loans known as liberation loans after France’s defeat by Prussia, could boast without immodesty that his influence had maintained the chief of the French…

  • Rothschild, Baron Edmond de (French banker)

    Ekron: In 1883 Baron Edmond de Rothschild founded a Jewish settlement adjoining ?Aqir, which he named Mazkeret Batya (Hebrew: “Memorial [to] Batya”), in honour of his mother; the name Ekron (now officially Qiryat ?Eqron) was subsequently given to an adjoining new immigrants’ settlement, established in 1949. However, the…

  • Rothschild, Baron Elie Robert de (French winemaker)

    Baron Elie Robert de Rothschild, French winemaker (born May 29, 1917, Paris, France—died Aug. 6, 2007, near Scharnitz, Austria), took charge (1946) of the family wine estate Chateau Lafite Rothschild, which had been confiscated during the World War II Nazi occupation of France, and restored the

  • Rothschild, Baron Guy de (French banker)

    Baron Guy de Rothschild, (Baron Guy édouard Alphonse Paul de Rothschild), French banker (born May 21, 1908 , Paris, France—died June 12, 2007, Paris), as the scion of the French branch of the Rothschild international banking dynasty, restored his family’s fortunes after their holdings were

  • Rothschild, Baron Guy édouard Alphonse Paul de (French banker)

    Baron Guy de Rothschild, (Baron Guy édouard Alphonse Paul de Rothschild), French banker (born May 21, 1908 , Paris, France—died June 12, 2007, Paris), as the scion of the French branch of the Rothschild international banking dynasty, restored his family’s fortunes after their holdings were

  • Rothschild, Baron Philippe de (French race-car driver and winemaker)

    Rothschild family: The second generation: Baron Philippe de Rothschild (1902–88) became a premier winemaker, of the vineyard Mouton-Rothschild. In 2003–08 the British and French houses were merged, marking the reunification of the Rothschild family business for the first time in nearly two centuries.

  • Rothschild, Dorothy (American author)

    Dorothy Parker, American short-story writer, poet, screenwriter, and critic known for her witty—and often acerbic—remarks. She was one of the founders of the Algonquin Round Table, an informal literary group. Dorothy Rothschild was educated at Miss Dana’s School in Morristown, New Jersey, and the

  • Rothschild, Jakob (French banker)

    Rothschild family: Mayer’s five sons: Amschel, Nathan, Jakob, Salomon, and Karl—the founders of the Rothschild consortium—were themselves unequally endowed: Nathan and Jakob stood out among their brothers by the force of their personalities—particularly Nathan, who was hard, deliberately boorish, and sarcastic. Jakob, who was his brother’s equal in all these things, possessed…

  • Rothschild, James (French banker)

    Rothschild family: Mayer’s five sons: Amschel, Nathan, Jakob, Salomon, and Karl—the founders of the Rothschild consortium—were themselves unequally endowed: Nathan and Jakob stood out among their brothers by the force of their personalities—particularly Nathan, who was hard, deliberately boorish, and sarcastic. Jakob, who was his brother’s equal in all these things, possessed…

  • Rothschild, Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron (British zoologist)

    Lionel Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild, British zoologist who became a great collector and founded the Rothschild Natural History Museum in London. The eldest son of Nathan Mayer Rothschild, 1st Baron Rothschild, he received his titles on the death of his father in 1915. Rothschild studied

  • Rothschild, Louis-Georges (French politician)

    Georges Mandel, French political leader noted for his hostility toward Nazi Germany. A member of a prosperous Jewish family, though not related to the Rothschild banking dynasty, Mandel served on the personal staff of Premier Georges Clemenceau from 1906 to 1909 and again from 1917 to 1920. He also

  • Rothschild, Matthew (American editor)

    The Progressive: In 2002 editor Matthew Rothschild criticized the George W. Bush administration in a cover story entitled “The New McCarthyism,” and in subsequent regular updates Rothschild continued to point out infringements of civil liberties reminiscent of the McCarthy era.

  • Rothschild, Mayer Amschel (German banker)

    Rothschild family: The house was founded by Mayer Amschel Rothschild (b. February 23, 1744, Frankfurt am Main—d. September 19, 1812, Frankfurt) and his five sons, Amschel Mayer (b. June 12, 1773, Frankfurt—d. December 6, 1855, Frankfurt), Salomon Mayer (b. September 9, 1774—d. July 27, 1855, Vienna), Nathan Mayer (b. September 16, 1777—d.…

  • Rothschild, Nathan Mayer (French banker)

    Rothschild family: Mayer’s five sons: Amschel, Nathan, Jakob, Salomon, and Karl—the founders of the Rothschild consortium—were themselves unequally endowed: Nathan and Jakob stood out among their brothers by the force of their personalities—particularly Nathan, who was hard, deliberately boorish, and sarcastic. Jakob, who was his brother’s equal in all these things,…

  • Rothschild, Robert (French businessman)

    Alfried Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach: When financier Robert Rothschild refused to sign over his French holdings to Alfried, Rothschild was shipped to the Auschwitz concentration camp and gassed. It was incidents of this kind, together with his exploitation of slave labour, that put Alfried in the prisoners’ dock at the Nürnberg war-crimes…

  • Rothstein, Arnold (American criminal)

    Arnold Rothstein, American big-time gambler, bootlegger, and friend of high-placed politicians and businessmen, who dominated influence-peddling in the 1920s in New York City. He was the prototype for F. Scott Fitzgerald’s character Meyer Wolfsheim in The Great Gatsby, “the man who fixed the

  • Rothstein, Sumner Murray (American executive)

    Sumner Redstone, American media executive whose company, National Amusements, Inc. (NAI), acquired leading film, television, and entertainment properties, notably Viacom and CBS. Redstone’s father, Michael (Mickey), was a liquor wholesaler, nightclub owner, and drive-in movie operator. As a boy,

  • Roti Island (island, Indonesia)

    Roti Island, island about 10 miles (16 km) southwest of Timor across the narrow Roti Strait, Nusa Tenggara Timur provinsi (province), Indonesia. Roti lies between the Indian Ocean on the west and the Timor Sea on the east. It is 50 miles (80 km) long (southwest-northeast) and about 14 miles (23 km)

  • Roti language

    Austronesian languages: Central Malayo-Polynesian (CMP): …on the island of Flores; Roti, spoken on the island of the same name; Tetum, spoken on the island of Timor; and Buruese, spoken on the island of Buru in the central Moluccas.

  • rotifer (invertebrate)

    Rotifer, any of the approximately 2,000 species of microscopic, aquatic invertebrates that constitute the phylum Rotifera. Rotifers are so named because the circular arrangement of moving cilia (tiny hairlike structures) at the front end resembles a rotating wheel. Although common in freshwater on

  • Rotifera (invertebrate)

    Rotifer, any of the approximately 2,000 species of microscopic, aquatic invertebrates that constitute the phylum Rotifera. Rotifers are so named because the circular arrangement of moving cilia (tiny hairlike structures) at the front end resembles a rotating wheel. Although common in freshwater on

  • Rotimi, Emmanuel Gladstone Olawale (Nigerian scholar and dramatist)

    Ola Rotimi, Nigerian scholar, playwright, and director. Rotimi was born to an Ijaw mother and a Yoruba father, and cultural diversity was a frequent theme in his work. Educated in Nigeria in Port Harcourt and Lagos, he traveled to the United States in 1959 to study at Boston University. After

  • Rotimi, Ola (Nigerian scholar and dramatist)

    Ola Rotimi, Nigerian scholar, playwright, and director. Rotimi was born to an Ijaw mother and a Yoruba father, and cultural diversity was a frequent theme in his work. Educated in Nigeria in Port Harcourt and Lagos, he traveled to the United States in 1959 to study at Boston University. After

  • Rotinbure (Germany)

    Rothenburg ob der Tauber, city, Bavaria Land (state), south-central Germany. The city lies above the deep valley of the Tauber River, on the scenic “romantic route” between Würzburg and the Bavarian Alps. First mentioned as Rotinbure in the 9th century, it developed around a Hohenstaufen fortress

  • rotisserie baseball (game)

    baseball: Fantasy baseball: Rotisserie baseball was invented in 1980 by author Dan Okrent and a group of baseball-minded friends who regularly met at the Manhattan restaurant Le Rotisserie Francais. They formed the core of the first rotisserie league. Unlike APBA, which is based upon a prior season’s performance,…

  • rotisserie sport

    Fantasy sport, any of a number of games that permit a person to play either a virtual game or a virtual season of a sport. In fantasy sports, the fans pose as both general manager and field manager of their team, building a roster through a draft and trades and making lineups in pursuit of the

  • roto

    Fantasy sport, any of a number of games that permit a person to play either a virtual game or a virtual season of a sport. In fantasy sports, the fans pose as both general manager and field manager of their team, building a roster through a draft and trades and making lineups in pursuit of the

  • rotogravure printing (printing)

    Rotogravure printing, system of printing based on the transfer of fluid ink from depressions in a printing plate to the paper. It is an intaglio process, so-called because the design to be printed is etched or engraved below the surface of the printing plate. At the start of the gravure printing

  • Rotoialum (France)

    Rueil-Malmaison, town, western residential and industrial suburb of Paris, Hauts-de-Seine département, ?le-de-France région, north-central France. Originally called Rotoialum or Roialum, it was a resort of the Merovingian kings, a Frankish dynasty (6th–8th century). In 1346 Rueil was burned by the

  • rotoinversion axis (crystallography)

    mineral: Symmetry elements: A rotoinversion axis combines rotation about an axis of rotation with inversion. Rotoinversion axes are symbolized as 1, 2, 3, 4, and 6, where 1 is equivalent to a centre of symmetry (or inversion), 2 is equivalent to a mirror plane, and 3 is equivalent to…

  • Rotomagus (France)

    Rouen, port city and capital of Seine-Maritime département, Haute-Normandie région, northwestern France. It is located about 78 miles (125 km) northwest of Paris, on the Seine River. Known to the Romans as Rotomagus, the city first became important in the 3rd century ce, when Christianity was

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